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Rebels And Redcoats -

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(generated from captions) do not shoot this man." and said "Whatever you do today, And Steve got up there around each other and we put our arms and said "Let's go do it."

was hold his nerve Now, all Alex had to do made their way up the mountains. as he and Michael Wallace

and nervous - Well, he's very agitated and so forth. concerned about us being followed everywhere. So he's looking around yourself Did you have any thoughts exhume a body, a murder victim? about what you were about to do - Well I felt sick, you know, up the road here I knew what was lying how to handle it. and I really didn't know The closer they got to Zoe Zou, became. the more nervous Michael Wallace to sweat at this point. And he was really starting and all these townships, Looking up driveways just looking at the vehicles, "What do you think of that vehicle? and, you know, asking me, anything with tinted windows, "What does that look like?" - anything like that. Commodores, Falcons, to be suspicious. As it turns out, he was right undercover police. Many of the cars they passed were About 35km east of Lithgow, to park the ute. Wallace told Alex put on gloves, He put on a tracksuit, started getting his tools ready - wiped himself down with ammonia and a hacksaw, a small rake. out the back of the ute. He took a doona cover the cliff here where the body was. He then scurried down the edge of Alex's cover was nearly blown again. of the cliff here, he was saying, When he came up the edge

I can hear that helicopter." "I can hear that bloody helicopter. Stay there 'til it goes away." And I said, "Stay there. are gonna remove the helicopter - I'm assuming they can hear me and which did happen. He then came up, on the back of the ute. I lifted the tarp back into the back of the ute. He threw the remains we got in the car, We closed the tarp, and he said to me,

"You're not gonna believe it. "The animals have done a good job. "There's only a bloody skull left." of living in fear, After almost five months

to the vital piece of evidence Alex had finally led police Michael Wallace - they needed to convict Zoe Zou's bush grave. Within hours, crawling over the grave site. police forensics teams would be But Alex's job was not yet done - was not yet in custody. Michael Wallace They headed back down the mountain in the back of the ute. with Zoe Zou's remains 10 minutes later, of Kurrajong Heights, they neared the small town a police tactical response team. followed discretely by

that I'm about to stop. And I'm giving them hand signals "I'm nervous. I sight the pub and I said to Mick, or something to take with us." "I need to stop and grab a six pack pull in here to this hotel." He said, "No problem, in this position. I pulled in and stopped As soon as I stopped, pulled up alongside. two of the 4-wheel drives laid across the bonnet Tactical response teams jumped out, telling us to get out of the car. pointing guns into the window Finally, it was over. had caught his man. Detective Steve Leach taken to a police forensics lab The ute its gruesome cargo were set about confirming where technicians the remains were those of Zoe Zou. The fact is, never have been caught red-handed without Alex, Mick Wallace would here at the Kurrajong Heights Hotel with Zoe Zou's remains and without Alex's evidence, gone down for manslaughter Mick Wallace probably would have and not murder. unmitigated success for the police. It should have been an After the arrest, leading the investigation, Alex celebrated with the detective Steve Leach, to protect himself. the officer who'd given him a gun Six months later, at NSW police headquarters - Leach committed suicide

of broken promises of a promotion. a victim, Alex says, right to the top of the Force. His death sent shockwaves These are very tragic circumstances and his family, not only for the officer concerned for his colleagues. but equally as important, broken their word to him as well. Now, Alex says, the police have

leading the investigation The officers for the highest reward. recommended him did not agree. But the police's reward committee he says he was promised, Of the $200,000 reward money Alex has received only $40,000 - $15,000 from police the father of baby Yasmine. and $25,000 from Tim Titheradge, He also had to leave his job.

Then, there was the falling out witness protection program. with the police The whole homicide squad on witness protection had doubts about placing me witness protection. because they had doubts about it was very well run They didn't think and as it turns out, it wasn't. is a secretive organisation. The police's reward committee made public The make-up of the panel is not aren't published and the reasons for its decisions to those who receive rewards. or even made known Incredibly, on other police investigations, Alex agreed to work undercover crime squad's most valuable assets. becoming one of the major a string of broken promises, But now after he's breaking his silence. out there in my situation And I'm sure there are many people to speak out. that are too frightened in houses and units They're hidden away all over the city, and little boxes to speak out and they're too frightened will dump them because the police will come and get them - and they think the baddies

hold over you all the time. this is the threat the police and that was their mistake, Well, they've dumped me because now I have no option. to the top. And he's appealing directly to the Minister of Police And I still give full credit and to the Premier of this State because I don't believe they know about this situation. But that credit does have a time limit. I do want some action taken on this matter.

My finances are running out rapidly. I need some action.

I would like them to speak to me. They have told me I should send a letter to the Minister. Well, I have that letter with me now. And Minister, I am asking you meet me, take that letter on board, investigate what I am telling you and you will find that it is all true. NSW police have refused to comment directly on Alex's case, telling Lateline in a statement: Late today,

a spokesman for NSW Police Minister Carl Scully told Lateline the Minister would not comment on operational matters, and advised Alex to take his matter to the Ombudsman. A legal representative for Alex says he's preparing to take his case to the Supreme Court. Tom Iggulden, Lateline. A CSIRO report

has painted a grim picture of the future cost of water if governments don't act now to stop prices from sky rocketing.

The study describes a number of worst case scenarios and warns that the cost of water could increase ten-fold in the next 25 years in some cities. The report also presents several possible solutions, including water trading between rural areas and cities. That's something many farmers are reluctant to embrace, as Rachel Carbonell reports. Australians are facing a future with more people and less water. A CSIRO-Monash University report says if governments do nothing,

then the cost of water will increase dramatically. Perth would be worst affected, followed by Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne and then, Adelaide. The report says one way of dealing with the problem is for cities to buy water from country areas. It's a very cheap option according to the economic calculations we've done. It's challenging because it means going out into the rural areas and buying water. That means building the necessary infrastructure and paying for water to be pumped. Melbourne and Perth would be obvious candidates for water trading. I think it would be interesting to investigate the position

for South-East Queensland, but, I think, it would be a bit more problematic in terms of pumping. It's not obvious to me how Sydney would benefit from urban-rural trading. The idea is less popular with farmers.

Some of these communities will die. I mean, a lot of these rural communities on water systems are there because of the productivity achieved by those farmers using water.

Farmers say other solutions should be considered first. Every time you flush a toilet, it doesn't create a lot of productivity, yet every time you put water on land, it does. The report does canvas other possibilities. Increasing recycling and constructing desalination plants and storm water capture and accessing water that way. But water trading remains a popular option. Doing it in a fair way and getting the price right and organising an appropriate deal that satisfies all parties is a challenge.

What we've done is costed out the economics of doing it and it sends a very clear message that this is an option. The amount of additional water needed by cities is very small in relation to the quantities of water used in irrigation,

so, you know, the notion that irrigators are going to lose all their water to cities is just unrealistic. Some water trading already happens in Victoria and Western Australia and the states and territories are working on other ways of meeting future water demand. We believe that the price can be kept at a reasonable level provided we keep conserving water. The only way that the cost of water to ordinary West Australians is going to go up by 10 times the the cost is if we end up bringing it down from the Kimberley. We've released our water plan, which secures - which tells us that Sydney's water is secure until at least 2015

and desalination is the last line of defence at 30% of dam levels. Malcolm Turnbull says the states have themselves to blame for future water supply problems. The state governments, right around Australia, have used water utilities as cash cows and pulled cash out rather than invest in the way we need to do so in order to deliver the additional water we need. Mr Turnbull says the report's findings don't come as a surprise and there needs to be a greater focus on solutions like water recycling. Rachel Carbonell, Lateline. It has been reported today that the Bush Administration has deliberately doctored climate change reports in an attemp to play down global warming. Some American scientists claim the results of their research have been edited and censored to mislead the public. The claims come as an Alaskan town is being abandoned because warming temperatures are melting the permafrost it is built on. The BBC's Hilary Andersson reports.

4,000 miles from Washington on the remote tip of Alaska, an island called Shishmaref is disappearing from this Earth. The melting ice can no longer hold the houses upright. Whole chunks of coastline are being ripped off by vicious storms. For the people here, this dramatic ice melt is a real emergency. It's too dangerous to live here. They know they will have to move. When they do, they will become some of the first refugees of global warming. The BBC has tracked the fate of a report produced by America's government called 'Our Changing Planet'. It was severely edited inside the White House. The man who compiled the original report and others resigned, appalled at what he had witnessed. There were hundreds of edits in these documents. They would come back, altered in such a way as to systematically play down the global warming problem. In New Orleans, just four weeks before Hurricane Katrina's violent winds hit the city, alarming new scientific research came out. It showed that global warming could be fuelling far more intense hurricanes. When a government-employed scientist was asked to comment publicly on the research, he was told he couldn't. The White House said no. REPORTER: The White House? The White House said no. More Category 5 hurricanes struck in 2005 than in any year previously recorded. But even with this and scientists' warnings, officials told the American public

global warming definitely wasn't connected. The Bush Administration also denied gagging scientists. I do find pretty shocking these allegations of censorship, given the very public availability and access and engagement of our scientific community on these issues, and it is the US leading the way on this. For thousands of years, Alaskan islanders have lived in Shishmaref. As their part of the Earth slips away the Bush Administration stands accused of trying to silence nature's compelling warnings. To the markets now, which ended the day higher. The All Ords strengthened nearly 43 points

thanks to rising oil prices and gains in base metal prices.

Woodside Petroleum led the way, adding $1.60, while oil rival Santos was also ahead. Mining giant BHP Billiton reported gains along with Rio Tinto. And the banking sector was mostly up. In the region, the Hang Seng has firmed while the Nikkei is behind. In London, the FTSE is weaker in early trading. On the commodities markets, both gold and oil were stronger. And the Australian dollar is currently buying just over US$0.75. Now, to a quick look at the weather.

Further showers for Sydney. Some showers developing tomorrow night in Perth. It should be fine in the other capital cities. And that's all for this evening. If you'd like to look back at tonight's interview or review any of Lateline's stories or transcripts, you can visit our website at I'll be back tomorrow night, so please join me then. Goodnight. Closed Captions produced by Captioning and Subtitling International Pty Ltd This program is not subtitled The 19th of April 1775. American militiamen raced through New England woods to intercept a column of British Redcoats.

This was to be the day when some Americans yearning for independence finally exploded into outright war. These downtrodden Yankee farmers were doing no more than defending their homes

and their freedom against the tyranny of King George and his ruthless Redcoats. Or so the myth goes. But in truth, this was no spontaneous uprising. It was a deliberate declaration of war against the mother country. In this series, I'll be exploding some of the myths

about the struggle that forged the American nation.

It was a war that trumpeted high ideals, then saw them trampled underfoot. It promised liberty... but only for some.

It was fought in the name of unity, but in reality it divided families, setting brother against brother. The American Revolution was, in fact, a bloody civil war. 12 years before, American militia and British Redcoats both fought the French in the Seven Years War. But the triumph soon soured. The British barred American settlers

from exploiting the wilderness to the west of the colonies, to avoid conflict with native Americans. It was 168 years since America had been settled by the British. But the colonists now felt hemmed in behind what was known as the "proclamation line". By 1770, resentment burnt fiercely in the very heart of the colonies. Boston, capital of Massachusetts, is the crucible of the American Revolution. In 1770, Massachusetts was the most radical of the 13 British colonies in North America. But strangely, Boston was one of the richest cities in the land, heavily dependent on its trade with the mother country. The standard of living here was far higher than in Britain.

The American colonies had never had it so good. Boston was booming, partly because the whole city was virtually one great tax-free haven. People living here paid about a 50th of the tax levied on their British fellows. The city was full of people on the make - craftsmen and traders, hungry for fresh opportunities. But some of them felt that their freedom to make money and get rich was being restricted. The expanding British Empire demanded that the American colonies trade only with her, not foreign powers.

The choke-hold on trade didn't hurt the established Tory elite who'd already made their fortunes. But it frustrated the rising generation of entrepreneurs, hungry for new business opportunities.

To Boston's more radical citizens, Britain was no longer a benevolent mother country, guiding her children across the globe. She'd become an old tyrant. And in the taverns of Boston's back streets, disgruntled citizens were ready to turn that anger into action. With agitation and propaganda, they hoped to provoke a heavy-handed reaction from the authorities. They were to revolution what yeast is to beer. And the most influential of them all, the man who has been described as the Marx, Lenin and Danton of the American Revolution rolled into one, was this man - Sam Adams, the brewer.

Like many radicals, he was motivated partly by a sense of personal grievance. His father had lost a fortune in a banking collapse. Adams had a flair for plotting. Since his days as a student firebrand at Harvard, he'd played with the idea of a revolutionary break with Britain.

The citizens who came to the New World came as free men, and they had unlimited authority. They could have established an independent country had they wished. Working behind the scenes, Adams was the revolution's political and intellectual driving force.

George III referred to him as the most dangerous man in America. At his side were John Hancock - merchant, smuggler and richest man in New England - and Paul Revere. By night, Revere was an arch propagandist for the Boston revolutionaries. By day, he was a silversmith and engraver,

and would use these skills with devastating effect.

For all their plotting, these militants had little real chance of mobilising popular support.

Then, one incident gave them the opportunity they needed and provided Paul Revere with the ideal chance to show off his propagandist talents. In 1770, Adams began to exploit tensions between Boston's citizens and the British troops billeted in the town. He called on Bostonians to demonstrate against the Redcoats, known dismissively as Lobsters. On the 5th of March 1770, a crowd, assembled here outside the Boston Statehouse, attacked a British sentry.

An officer led up a relief party, which was immediately taunted by the angry mob. Someone shouted, "Fire!" The hard-pressed soldiers did indeed fire. Three citizens were killed, and two more mortally wounded. This was certainly a tragedy, but it wasn't a deliberate massacre. Paul Revere saw an opportunity to rewrite history. A messy riot with a tragic end became a calculated massacre

which highlighted British tyranny. This is Revere's propaganda masterpiece, maybe one of the most influential images in world history. It does take occasional liberties with the truth. The Redcoats, like barbarians grinning over prey, approve the carnage and enjoy the day. Their firing squad looses off a devastating volley into the crowd and a cowardly British assassin shoots from a window. But perhaps worse, it's whitened out one of the victims - Crispus Attucks was Native American and African-American but he's shown as white for more propaganda value. One of the most remarkable things about the print is the speed at which it was produced. It was being sold within three weeks of the event, before the news even reached London.

The revolution had its first martyrs. What it now needed was a cause to unite people behind it. Adams and his allies stepped up their agitation against taxes levied by the British on various products. They even persuaded some Americans to boycott British tea. In November 1773, the ship Dartmouth slipped into Boston harbour carrying 114 cases of tea. The tea in her hold must have been very appealing to many Bostonians because even with the tax paid, it was cheaper than the smuggled tea that most of them were drinking. Bad news for smugglers, then, and bad news for radicals too. If people bought the tea and paid the tax, their revolutionary cause would be under threat. This is the Old South Meeting House, home to freedom of speech in America. On the 16th of December 1773, perhaps 5,000 people - a third of Boston's population - met here to listen to the arguments about what to do about the tea. And today, Bostonians are still re-enacting the event.

Taxation without representation is tyranny. Yes. Men like Mr Revere and Mr Adams are out in the streets destroying men's businesses and families. That is shameful. Soldiers cannot be posted among us, and yet they are. Yes! ALL SHOUT AT ONCE On that day in 1773, Sam Adams gave one of the most important speeches of his life. If prevailed upon to implicitly acknowledge a right to tax us, we may be very sure that soon, very soon, every article being exported from Great Britain will be taxed as well... Adams played skilfully on fears of future taxation, even though the British didn't actually plan any. Anyway, the taxation issue was never just about making money for Britain. The colonies paid little to the growing cost of their own defence. Now, brethren, we are reduced to this dilemma... to sit down quiet under this and any other burden that our enemies would impose upon us good-natured slaves. Or... RISE!! And resist this tyranny! He had fanned a storm in a teacup into a revolutionary hurricane. This was only the beginning of what was to become known as the Boston Tea Party. 50 men dressed as Mohawk Indians, Paul Revere amongst them, went down to the wharf, boarded the Dartmouth - one of the tea ships - and threw the tea into the harbour. It was the most effective piece of non-violent protest in the whole of the 18th century.

A brilliant two fingers or, if you were a rebel, a single finger, to the Crown. And it had precisely the desired effect. The British retaliated with sanctions known as the Coercive Acts. They seized control of local government and closed the port of Boston. The man charged to manage this British crisis was General Thomas Gage. Already head of the British Army in America, he was now made Governor of Massachusetts. He was a political moderate who believed the gathering crisis could be solved without bloody conflict. His American wife Margaret was beautiful, intelligent and well-connected. But by 1774, her husband's love affair with the rest of America was waning. America is a mere bully from one end to another.

And the Bostonians by far the greatest bullies. Boston! this cursed place was burned! How I wish him about liberty and justice. Even his wife was now lecturing closer to home than he imagined. the coming conflict would come much For the powerful Thomas Gage, much sooner than Gage had expected. And it was all going to happen as a whole was loyal to the Crown, of the population of the colonies Although perhaps a third as a reaction to the Coercive Acts, more militant. So much so, that Massachusetts was much under the noses of the British. control of local government from the Radicals had actually taken

bloodless revolution in the colony. American history - there had been a This is a forgotten aspect of into resigning their posts, had been intimidated Loyalists, Tories to their enemies,

and many sought refuge in Boston. often by tarring and feathering, to take on the British, of Massachusetts trained As the citizen militias his counter-revolution. Gage was forced to plan can be done but by forcible means. and moderation is now over. Nothing The time for conciliating, reason wasn't inevitable. He still felt bloodshed It was to be muscular policing. by themselves, which may happen. at all costs, until forced into it I mean to avoid a bloody crisis in the bowels of the country Their numerous slaves will always keep them quiet. and the Indians at their backs into violence and anarchy. to avoid the downward spiral Gage had one last plan the Massachusetts militias. he'd disarm By taking away their gunpowder, his intelligence network. His trump card was to be inner circle. the Boston revolutionaries' He already had a spy inside the main weapons dumps. would help him find And his spies in the countryside We must have secrecy... 20 miles north-west of Boston - on Concord - a large arms store He now planned a major raid to disarm the militias. of Lexington. through the small town His troops would march there,

precisely when and where, about to act. If they found out The Rebels knew the British were respond in overwhelming strength. then armed militiamen could Gage's plan depended on secrecy. didn't easily go unnoticed. But Thomas Lobster He marched in scarlet columns, was not his strong point. and stealth the Redcoats were about to march. Paul Revere was warned that On the 18th of April, spymaster within the British camp. by his own highly placed source The intelligence was confirmed waiting to alert the militias. the chain of up to 60 horse riders, It was time to call out would be made from this steeple. that the prearranged signal Paul Revere ordered to cross the Charles River. that the Redcoats were about Two lanterns meant arranged to leave Boston by water. Revere was one of the riders and to muffle the sound of his oars. He needed something It was still warm to the touch. a woman offered her underwear. From an upstairs window, that his plan had been leaked. Thomas Gage discovered As the British column set out, with the pre-emptive strike. But he decided to carry on It was the 19th of April 1775. of Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith under the command By dawn, 900 British troops the outskirts of Lexington. were reaching of the advanced guard could see, Lieutenant Sutherland In the grey light, towards Lexington." with their arms going over the hill "A vast number of militia of the 10th Foot His comrade Jeremy Lister brightly on the surrounding hills. could see beacon fires burning of the sight of the warning beacons Imagine the effect on the Redcoats church bells and musket shots. and the sound of the alarm

few of them were battle hardened. were tough, regular soldiers, Although these men British officers and then released, captured by an advance party of Paul Revere had already been he'd done his work well. but, again, He'd told them what to expect was beginning to take hold. along the column. Paranoia and rumour was passing back On this green, militia, had mustered his men. elected commander of the Lexington Captain John Parker, the numbers, Captain Parker ordered, Seeing the approaching superior "Let the troops pass by. being first. Stand your ground. "Don't molest them, without they "Don't fire unless fired upon. let it begin here!' "But if they want a war, to march straight at the militia the British advance guard decided The lieutenant leading Pitcairn, riding up from the rear, the road. His commander, Major John rather than bypass them along by this confrontational tactic. was dismayed and warn off the Rebels. He tried to stop the troops Stand where you are! Rebels! Disperse and throw down your arms! Halt the column. ..Halt! to disperse Captain Parker ordered his men

and they began to retreat. and not to fire, fired the first shot. No-one knows who actually the black powder, was decisive. steel and the spark flashed into That moment, when flint struck There could be no going back. as he tried to reload. Jonas Parker, was bayoneted One kneeling militiaman, his doorstep in front of his wife. in the back and died just there on Jonathan Harrington was shot put an end to the bloodletting. and the rearguard Only the arrival of Colonel Smith Eight militiamen were dead. BELL TOLLS and was still in earshot. had only just left Lexington Sam Adams, with John Hancock, GUNSHOTS what he had been working for. This bloodshed was exactly "shot heard round the world"? Who actually fired this any case, it does not really matter It's impossible to be sure and, in

conflict was inevitable. because, by now, of the American Revolution. This was not the first blow across the whole of Massachusetts. the takeover of civil authorities That had already been struck with of the civil war. This was the first shot had feared had now begun. That bloodletting that Thomas Gage of the size and determination intended target, still unaware The British pressed on for their against them. of the irregular force assembled Paul Revere and his chain of riders From up to 50 miles around, spoiling for this sort of fight. thousands of militiamen had mobilised at Concord, he found that most When Colonel Smith arrived of the arms had already been moved. A small detachment was sent north over this, the town's north bridge, to secure the weapons from Barratt's farm. About 100 soldiers were left to guard the bridge itself. The hundreds of militia on the far side took no action until they saw flames coming from the town.

The thought of their homes being torched by the Redcoats enraged the militiamen and the cry went up, "Would you let them burn the town?"

Then something remarkable happened. This supposed rabble formed into rough lines and opened a well-aimed fire, killing three soldiers. Many of these Rebels had served with the British against the French in the war just 12 years before. About 200 militia charged over the bridge and headed for the town, following the retreating Redcoats. Shortly afterwards, the British force reappeared, that had been sent to Barratt's farm. As IT crossed the bridge, it found a dying British soldier. According to Redcoat accounts,

he had been scalped and had his ears and brain removed. It was the first atrocity story of the war. This is a war between brothers, between cousins. That gives events their strange and terrible edge. These are battles between people who could so easily have been friends, and often WERE friends. It was still only midday when the isolated British force began its withdrawal.

But the swarm of 7,000 militia were in no mood to let it pass unmolested. The Redcoats would have to run the terrifying gauntlet all the way back to Boston. At this bend in the road, still called Bloody Curve, perhaps 30 Redcoats were killed by Rebels waiting in ambush. The British, confined to the road, were sitting targets. The Rebels, firing from the cover of trees and walls, picked off the faltering column. They adopted the simple tactic of gathering wherever there was cover. They knew the British had to come along this route. With Lexington in sight and the column almost back to square one, British discipline crumbled at last. Some men sank to the ground exhausted, others ran, and others fought hand to hand with militia in a desperate attempt to find water to drink. It seemed as if the end had come. But it had not. Thomas Gage, warned of the gathering militia storm, had sent out a relief column under his second-in-command, Lord Percy.

It was already 3.15 in the afternoon. This was like the Hollywood cavalry arriving in the nick of time. With new heart, the column set off back for Boston, with better discipline, moving more slowly, and with more effective use of flankers to keep the Rebels at arms' length. The flankers are coming! The flankers' job was to push the enemy away from the flanks of the main column. Here, they would probably have held the edge of that wood. This was a dangerous and gruelling job. The Rebels began to exploit a tactic of their own. This was a rolling burst of fire - Percy's exposed column. constantly raking or run to the next vantage point. pot shots, they were able to ride Once they had taken their began to take their revenge. Here at Arlington, some Redcoats were in no mood to take prisoners. from the houses, and the troops Snipers were flushed having refused to leave his house, One old Yankee fought to the death is his castle." declaring, "An Englishman's home and it certainly wasn't one-sided. had arrived, All the brutality of a civil war "That day was full of horror. One rebel veteran later commented, and beside themselves." "The Patriots seemed maddened this point on the Charles River, As the weary column reached or swinging left to Charlestown. of going straight on to Boston Percy had the choice a considerable force of Rebels. the Charlestown road, away from At the last moment, he chose of him. They had made it back. he scattered the Rebels in front With his last cannon shot,

7 o'clock, almost nightfall. And they were just in time. It was the rest of the American continent. Rebels sealed Boston off from Hot on their heels, up to 30,000 by a narrow neck of land. The city was joined to the mainland

the Redcoats, and the siege began. It was easy to isolate had been killed or wounded - 95 Americans and 273 British evidence, if evidence was needed, by the Americans. that this was planned aggression 18th century's superpower that day? so effective in defeating the But why were the Americans I asked George Neumann, At a local gun club, and a historian of the Revolution. an expert on military memorabilia who carried a gun like this? the sort of man George, what do you think motivated through their fingers and say, get off the boat, sift the land The English settlers would My family can own land!" my own farm! I can have my own home! "This is virgin soil! I can have the British didn't fully understand. of the human spirit here that There was an explosion WE did the suffering. WE cleared it, WE did the fighting, "This is OUR land. WE settled it, children. I won't let that happen." OUR town, endangering MY wife, MY "Now they're bringing troops into it was a vitality of the New World. And that's what turned them on. And fought at Lexington and Concord. strengths here in the men that I think there are enormous primal in American society. do represent an enduring thread Strengths which I think between liberty and authority, We can see this tension the War of Independence. and that runs throughout

a New England farmer is in some way While it would be wrong to say that warriors, very similar qualities. there are, in all of those three a prototype Vietcong or Mujaheddin, in the enormity of the situation. In Boston, Thomas Gage was taking He was besieged by 30,000 Rebels. that they were all too serious. the Seven Years War and recognised He'd fought alongside these men in have supposed them to be despicable rabble too many people The Rebels are not the amongst them a few years past, to a military spirit encouraged and I find it owing that they are otherwise. of zeal and enthusiasm, joined with an uncommon degree the French, they never showed In all their wars against and perseverance as they do now. such conduct, attention All his fears had come true. might even have shared his bed. that the spy in his headquarters Perhaps his worst fear of all was My confidence has been betrayed... to one person only! ..for I had communicated my design the identity of the spy Gage never revealed out of harm's way. he banished his wife to Britain, but, immediately after Concord, They were never reconciled again.

brutal and divisive civil war. personal betrayals in this It was perhaps the first of many In May 1775, having lost a wife, and 3 generals - Gage gained 5,000 troops to bolster the British cause. Howe, Clinton and Burgoyne - a man o' war called Cerberus, The new generals arrived aboard that guards the Underworld. named after the mythical dog education by composing a poem. Some wag showed his classical the Atlantic plough Behold the Cerberus, Burgoyne, Clinton, Howe Her precious cargo - Bow, wow, wow! of British involvement in the war. the paradox Howe would come to represent whose party and whose constituents He was a Whig member of Parliament

about the struggle. had deep reservations the first British offensive. Yet, as a general, he would lead to press home their advantage. the Rebels wanted With Boston isolated, was about to begin. The first pitched battle of the war of battles is named. after which this most famous This is Bunker Hill, to take place here on Breed's Hill. But the fighting was actually the Rebels occupied Breed's Hill, At night, on Friday 16th June 1775,

north towards the shoreline. a defensive earthwork stretching building a small fort and In THEIR minds, The British were taken by surprise. to construct proper fortifications. for these simple militiamen it was still impossible in a very weak position indeed. their lines, the British would be If the Americans were to reinforce began to bombard the redoubt. British warships immediately causing a panic. took the head off a militiaman, One of their first cannonballs in this agglomeration of militias, one of the senior officers up here Colonel William Prescott, loyalties that characterise the war It's typical of the divided was splashed with blood and brains. with Gage. was across the river in Boston that his loyalist brother-in-law

commanding figure on the redoubt. He identified Prescott as the the Rebels would fight, he replied, When Gage asked him whether to the gates of hell." but Prescott will fight you "I can't answer for his men, one of the three new generals, a council of war. Henry Clinton, Thomas Gage convened

Gage decided on a frontal assault. at the rear. But he was overruled. suggested cutting off the enemy of the retreat from Concord, After the humiliation needed to be taught a lesson. these stubborn farmers an 18th-century amphibious assault. It was time for On the morning of the 17th, across the Charles River led a force of 1,550 men Major General William Howe the eastern end of the peninsula. and landed on a beach at to call for 700 reinforcements. His immediate reaction was entrenchments were packed with men. He could see that the Rebels' casualties from the cover of the American snipers were now causing abandoned houses of Charlestown. Howe ordered a bombardment, setting the town ablaze. He then launched a three-pronged attack - one column going along the beach and two straight up the hill in broad daylight. Howe's 6-pounder cannon had been furnished with 12-pound shot, but he was heard to say, with true British courage, "They must do as well as they could with muskets."

There would be no hanging about for the correct cannonballs. As the blood-red line of Redcoats marched uphill, a rebel commander is alleged to have uttered the legendary order, "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes!" At 30 yards' range, the Americans fired, with devastating effect. The British were repulsed with severe losses. 96 men lay dead from the beach assault alone. Things were not going well. Unsportingly, the Americans were picking off British officers, easily identifiable by scarlet, rather than faded-red, uniforms. Howe seemed the only commander left on his feet, his white gaiters spattered with other men's blood. Thomas Lobster had many vices, but disciplined courage was one of his virtues.

Twice, he had come up this hill, without any cover, against a strongly defended position. Twice, those tearing volleys had forced him back. But he was not an easy man to stop. Howe, as usual, led the third assault. A rebel commented, "They looked too handsome to be fired at, but we had to do it.

"As fast as the first man was shot down, the next stepped forward in his place. "But our men dropped them so fast, they were a long time coming up. "They would step over dead bodies as if they were logs of wood." The Americans were running dangerously low on ammunition and, finally, the British stormed the fortifications. The bloody murder of hand-to-hand fighting had begun. One American said, "After they entered, they mangled our wounded in the most horrible manner, "running their bayonets through them and beating their heads to pieces with their guns." One regular said, "They fought more like devils than men." The smoke up here was so thick that, when the Americans retreated, they had to feel their way out.

Prescott said that with just one more round of ammunition apiece, he might have beaten the British back. It was that close. Bunker Hill is sometimes presented as an American moral victory, but it was really a British tactical victory at huge cost. The British lost over 1,000 men, almost half their attacking force, twice as many as the Americans. Gage had paid the full price of a frontal assault. This was the British Hamburger Hill. In a Vietnam War battle, the Americans launched repeated attacks on heavily fortified Vietcong positions to win what was, ultimately, a Pyrrhic victory. For both superpowers 200 years apart, launching assaults on heavily fortified hilltops didn't ultimately win the war. It's often true that the first battles of any war establish the shape of what's to come. That was certainly true here at Bunker Hill. The British actually won most of the war's battles, often by the combination of dogged, bloody-minded courage we saw here.

But they didn't join the battles up into some sort of strategic plan. Somehow there was no killer punch. The British, secure in Boston and supplied by sea, settled down for a winter of waiting. The siege had begun in earnest. The conflict was already shifting into another gear. Away from Boston, American Rebels attacked Canada, to strike at Britain's weakest point, hoping the large French population would rise up against the British. The war was already spreading. In Philadelphia, the Rebels met under the banner of the Second Continental Congress to discuss strategy and determine policy. The task facing the radicals, especially those from New England who had done most of the fighting, was how to persuade the more cautious states to support the armed struggle. How to achieve a compromise between 13 disparate states - radical northerners and more conservative southerners? The solution was the creation of a new professional army with contingents from all 13 states, but controlled by Congress. The Continental Army was born. The job of forging this army fell to its new commander. A slave plantation owner, George Washington, seems an unlikely figurehead in the cause of liberty. A colonial officer who'd had his application for a regular commission refused by the British, he didn't inspire confidence in many of his peers. Fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson said that his mind,

"Was not of the first order, being little aided by imagination or invention, but sure in conclusion." To some, he seemed almost like an American General Gage. Although the militias had ignited the Massachusetts revolution,

Washington knew they would not be able to prosecute a war. He was exasperated by their indiscipline and the disorganised state of their camps. The abuses in this army, I fear, are considerable, and the new modelling of it in the face of an enemy, from whom we every hour expect attack, is exceedingly difficult and dangerous.

He set to work selecting able officers and mobilising sympathisers. The Americans' greatest fear was a British breakout from Boston. So they wanted to strike first. Washington even proposed a daring attack across the iced-over Charles River, but his plan was vetoed. But whatever the Americans did,

it was going to have to be really innovative if it was going to shift the well-dug-in British. The Americans knew that if they could get heavy guns onto a hill overlooking Boston, they could make the town untenable. But where would a ragged rebel army like this get heavy artillery from? In the winter of 1775, Washington sent General Henry Knox, a former Boston book seller, to Fort Ticonderoga in the northern wilderness up on the Canadian border to retrieve a captured arsenal of 44 cannon, 14 mortars and a howitzer. Getting to Ticonderoga was one thing... ..but bringing the cannons some 300 miles across a frozen landscape, a lake and the Hudson River was something else. With an effort that Hannibal might have been proud of, Knox brought back all but one of the guns. The next problem was how to get them here to the chosen spot on Dorchester Heights, above Boston, and then to protect them from the fire of the experienced British artillery. With the ground frozen, there could be no repeat of the entrenchment of Breed's Hill where fortifications had been thrown up practically overnight. A different solution was called for. Model-maker Jim Cook is an expert on how the course of history was about to be changed by prefabs. These are bundles of sticks. Ideally, they were anywhere from 8-20ft long. 4ft thick is probably pistol proof, 8ft thick is grape and musket proof. You can go up to 20ft thick if you need it. It must have been extraordinarily labour intensive making all these. 10,000 bundles. 10,000 bundles. And we don't know exactly how many frames, but quite a bit. And all put up here in one night. All assembled in one night. It took 360 team of oxen two or three trips, and it took 2,000 labourers with a break in shifts and another 2,000 labourers to relieve them. How strong was it by first light? By dawn, it was pistol proof. By noon it was cannon proof. A tremendous feat! It was like the Great Pyramid appeared overnight. Some British engineer officers said it would take 15 to 20,000 men to build this fort overnight. It took fewer men, but they had been packing it away in the countryside for months. It was a total surprise. If General Howe was ever thinking of leaving, this just, like, made up his mind for him. I can see why. The guns were in such a strong and elevated position on Dorchester Heights, that the Rebels now had the artillery supremacy they'd looked for. The next morning, Thomas Lobster would be in for a surprise. The British were stunned by the fortification of the Dorchester Heights. General Howe commented, "The Rebels have done more in one night than my army could have done in months." On 17th March 1776, the British garrison of Boston was evacuated by sea to Halifax, Nova Scotia, taking more than 1,000 loyal Bostonians with it. And what of the lead characters in this opening chapter of the American Revolution? Thomas Gage, that man of reason and moderation, was recalled to Britain late in 1775. Paul Revere and Sam Adams were to become icons of the revolution, but never again did they take centre stage. Already, the more conservative forces, represented by George Washington, who cared more about winning the war than social revolution, were taking over. Over a year after the war began, the Americans had still not declared their independence. But by the summer of 1776, they were ready to make the final break. On the 4th of July, the American colonies declared their independence at just the moment that a British invasion force of more than 30,000 men landed south of New York. The stage seemed set for a battle between ideals and might. But the reality, like that of most civil wars, was to be far uglier. The Declaration of Independence was first read to Bostonians from this balcony.

It provided the ideological underpinning for the struggle, but it remained to be seen how American ideals would live up to a bloody and brutal civil war. In next week's programme, the British avenge the defeat at Boston by evicting Washington's army from New York and capturing the city. But at Saratoga, over a year later, the Rebels defeat a British army. The struggle in America becomes a world war.