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The Prime Ministers' National Treasures -

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(generated from captions) known bridge on the Thames. that they belong to the oldest of concrete and stone, Today the foreshore is a mass it would've been lined with reeds, but 3,500 years ago, and our bridge would've connected the two arms of the River Effra the island formed by

by the swirling confluence to an island created of the Effra, Tyburn and Thames. to the water's edge, Now, we build right up no people living here. but then, there were a forest of alder and oak. They'd all move inland towards that is now London... And all of this in a place ..but then would've been a land

and scattered communities. of floodplains, marshes, watching the foot. We need someone the other side if it slides too much. Just put your foot on it over the last three days We've discovered so much but we still have one last challenge. of this unique Time-Team dig, of our Bronze-Age structure Can we recreate how the timbers into the Vauxhall foreshore? were secured so firmly Eight people, who knows?

Yeah, drop your end. Depending on the length. Watch out! There's ground level. And where shall we say? There. doing this properly, Now, if you were a series of tales. you'd probably have Rest it on the pile. I did bring it up... Still a bit wonky, isn't it? You think that's alright? Now, that's better. Oh, when it's not swinging, yeah. One, two, three! (All exclaim) one graduation. Look, that's almost gone down What does that mean in units? Yeah. Bronze-Age inches? Well, it's like... it's gone in. One Bronze-Age inch, It's about two fingers. (All laugh) Oh, yeah! That's typical of you!

for Bronze-Age engineering, So, a victory of the Herculean task and just an idea who built London's first bridge. that must've faced the people Yeah. Shall I count to three? One, two, three!

(All exclaim) Closed Captions by CSI *

This program is not subtitled THEME MUSIC Flash as a rat with a gold tooth. What do you reckon? little things, really, Well, they're simple been a powerful way but badges have long what you think. of telling the world your local footy club, Whether you're supporting or doing your bit for charity, a political statement. or even making

together for a cause - They're a symbol of people coming do exactly the opposite. but some badges an issue that divided the nation. In fact, in 1916, one stood for for overseas service. That issue was conscription William Morris Hughes, And our seventh Prime Minister, simply had no alternative. believed Australia wouldn't volunteer, If enough young men to make them. then Hughes was prepared at the Powerhouse Museum in Sydney. Prime Minister Hughes' treasure is was split on conscription. Hughes' ruling Labor Party by calling for a referendum So he decided to force the issue in October, 1916. This is a pro-conscription badge leading up to the vote, for the campaign for Australia and the Anzacs". and it says, "Yes, on the Western front, Now, Australian casualties were 23,000. for July and August alone, Have a think about that. the entire Gallipoli campaign, That's almost in just six weeks. numbers falling, At that rate, and with volunteer would soon cease to exist, Hughes believed the Australian army would vote 'yes' to conscription. unless the people of Australia on World War I conscription. Michael McKernan is an expert Michael, it's incredible to think and what it stood for, that such a tiny little badge, in Australian society. could cause such a split the most divisive event Well, Warren, it was probably political history. in Australian you had all the bosses, On the one side, politics, business. the leaders of religion, and workers, and trades unionists. On the other side, you had farmers, opposed to conscription. And they were thoroughly Prime Minister like Billy Hughes, So if you were a Labor the workers and trade unionists and you didn't have be a real problem, I'd imagine. and farmers onside, that'd problem for him. It was a hopeless but only narrowly, 'No' won the vote,

'no' were Hughes' own supporters. and of course, the people voting So he had nowhere to go. from the Labor Party. Hughes was forced to resign simply switched sides, So he and his supporters with the Liberal opposition. and formed a new government this new Nationalist party Six months later, was overwhelmingly elected. conscription referendum, Hughes promised not to have another took a turn for the worse. unless the war And sure enough it did. to the people in 1917, When he went back

but still a definite no. the result was close, things got even more heated. And this time around, summed it up really well. This cartoon of the day

his 'vote yes' badge, Here's Billy Hughes wearing a dirty big egg in the face and he's copped

from the "'No' majority", by a youthful Australia. and its been thrown is based on a true event. Now, I know this one was campaigning in rural Queensland, One day Billy Hughes at him and it hit him in the face. when someone chucked an egg the state cops, who did nothing, And he was so angry with the Commonwealth Police. that he formed his own police force, volunteers throughout World War I. Australia's forces remained get conscription through, Hughes never did but remained as PM until 1923. eventually did fight for Australia, Conscripted soldiers

starting in World War II, around to see it. and Hughes was known as 'The Little Digger', In fact, the man affectionately was still an MP when he died in 1952. Our longest serving pollie sat in every parliament

since Federation in 1901. But William Morris Hughes is best remembered as the leading figure in the most divisive period in Australia's history. And that makes this little conscription badge, a national treasure. *

This program is not subtitled Tonight - Peter Tonight - Peter Costello turns 50 but it's a far from happy birthday. as another Australian as another Australian loan company feels the global credit squeeze. A warning that Canberra is head fog for nursing crisis and a World

curfew for Wallabies. Good evening. And welcome Good evening. And welcome to ABC News. I'm Virginia Haussegger. Still the maid - Peter Costello turned 50 today, but it today, but it hasn't been all champagne and Instead, the Treasurer has been fending off reports that predicted John Howard could not win the coming win the coming election. He also spent the day shoerg up a troubled Coalition worried that high rent s will cost the Government not out. But Peter believed he'd have been promoted to opening bat promoted to opening bat long before now. I think he can be very proud of what he's achieved in his years. Still, the years. Still, the ultimate prize alludes the prize alludes the Treasurer and he's felt frustration on many occasions. Two beaks occasions. Two beaks ago, the 'Bulletin' reported early 2005, Mr Costello was threatening to challenge threatening to challenge the

Prime Minister, declaring: Two months later, Mr Howard stood up a challenge Petered out and Costello went public with Costello went public with his displeasure. I think the Liberal Party expects that Liberal Party expects that at the senior levels there will be an orderly transition. Today, the Treasurer denied the Treasurer denied the 'Bulletin' quote. I 'Bulletin' quote. I don't know where the 'Bulletin' got that from, certain ly not from me. But at this restaurant