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The results show this was a significant drop in the levels of pain recorded by children.


pain recorded by children.

Tonight - mind over matter. The innovation that could revolutionise pain management.

When I had a go on the game, it doesn't hurt anymore.

More focussed on the game than what the nurse was actually doing.

I feel that flagelantism is a means of turning the hostile, harsh and destructive elements of man
into harmless channels.

And a famous Australian displays his dark side.

He was disconcertingly honest and He was disconcertingly honest and he didn't like anything to be
hidden. So he wanted people to know about that.

This program is captioned live.

Former NAB traders jailed

Former NAB traders jailed

Reporter: Heather Ewart

KERRY O'BRIEN, PRESENTER: Two rogue traders involved in a financial scandal at banking giant NAB
are behind bars tonight after a judge found they'd been enmeshed in a culture of malleable,
profit-driven morality that went off the rails. Senior trader David Bullen was sentenced today to a
minimum of 2.5 years' jail for his role in creating false profits on NAB's foreign currency trading
desk, which cost the bank $360 million. And junior trader Vince Ficarra will serve a minimum of 15
months. They're the last two men of a trading-room team of four to receive jail terms over a
scandal that severely damaged NAB's reputation and resulted in a major internal shake-up. With
fascinating insights provided by taped phone conversations of the dealers at work, Heather Ewart
takes a look at their high-risk culture and at whether other potential cowboys are likely to take a
salutary lesson from the outcome.

HEATHER EWART, REPORTER: It was a financial scandal that shook Melbourne's top end of town. By the
time it had run its course, it had claimed the scalp of the National Australia Bank's former chief
executive Frank Cicutto and put rogue currency traders in jail over unauthorised deals which cost
the bank $360 million. For one trader sentenced today, this is how it all began.

VINCE FICARRA (ASIC INTERVIEW, 18 FEBRUARY, 2004): We started like an average person and through
ambition got through, you know, jobs and have a bit of power. Power in that, you know, we're not
sitting behind a desk typing out emails for our boss. We're actually doing something and off our
own back making money.

HEATHER EWART: For an ambitious twenty-something like Vince Ficarra, it didn't get much better than
this: in the closed world of the trading room; dealing in millions of dollars; and getting hefty
bonuses for his efforts. That's until it all came unstuck.

STEPHEN MAYNE, BUSINESS COMMENTATOR: This trading scandal is one of the biggest six that the world
has ever seen and, yeah, there is a public fascination with how young blokes, big-talking blokes,
can suddenly put, you know, venerable institutions in jeopardy through their actions.

PETER HAYES QC, DEFENCE BARRISTER: There was evidence to show that people of upper senior
management knew or ought to have known what was going on.

JOHN HOOPER, HEAD NAB INSTITUTIONAL BUSINESS: With the wisdom of hindsight, the people we had
running our foreign currency option desk were not a good choice.

traders it will be a real wake-up call that they need to understand that this has personal
consequences for them and their families.

HEATHER EWART: It's a culture most of us are completely unfamiliar with; a place where the
occupants talk not in tens, hundreds or thousands, but millions - as an investigation by the
Australian Securities and Investments Commission revealed.

VINCENT FICARRA (ASIC INTERVIEW, 18 FEBRUARY, 2004): Basically take $33 million at a loss... or
around $33 million - I'm not sure of the exact number.

ASSOC. PROF. PAMELA HANRAHAN: It's a very performance driven culture. Not only in terms of "I want
to perform so that I'll make $10,000 or $50,000 or $100,000 more than I would otherwise," but it is
a very competitive culture.

STEPHEN MAYNE: And is it very, very blokey: lots of foul language; lots of big talking; you know,
lots of beer-drinking sessions.

ASSOC. PROF. PAMELA HANRAHAN: I think it does need an appetite for risk. It does need what some
economists refer to as "irrational exuberance".

STEPHEN MAYNE: These blokes think they are the master of universe, after a while. They come from
nowhere and they suddenly find themselves making $200-300,000 a year; they're doing hundreds of
millions of dollars of global trading deals and these people just start to think they can walk on

HEATHER EWART: So much so that it seems the traders didn't ever contemplate the possibility of jail
for their actions. Even after they knew the game was up and the authorities were on to them. As
shown in these taped phone conversations, recorded by the bank itself on the trading room floor.

would suggest a f.....g custodial stay is fairly unlikely. You'll probably get a few thousand hours
of f.....g community service so you'll spend the next 10 years painting a f.....g scouts hall. I
mean how bad can that be? Keep fit, get a bit of sun. (Laughs)

hear you.

HEATHER EWART: It didn't quite work out that way. The head of NAB's foreign exchange options desk,
Luke Duffy, and senior dealer Gianni Gray copped jail terms for their part in the scandal, which
basically operated like this: in the early hours of the morning, when most of us were still in bed,
false entries were going into the bank's computer system, recording big profits to disguise massive
losses. One junior dealer sentenced today for his role claimed he was simply doing as he was told
and, as shown in the phone tapes, this is how he carried out the boss's orders.

2003): It's always really hard doing this shit.

it? Why?

2003): Because you've got to tell the back office that the deeds are still to come or something or
some shit. Basically, it involves telling lies, which I guess I can do. I'm not impartial to
telling lies.

PETER HAYES QC: Everyone does it. Someone has made a bit of a loss and you start to hide it because
you're told, "Well, it's OK, we'll make it back," and then it becomes bigger and bigger and bigger,
and then, I guess, people just lose site of what's right or wrong.

JOHN HOOPER: Risk systems are either cumbersome and ineffective. They produced a lot of information
but it was quite difficult to wade through that and also people, a very small number of people,
chose to manipulate those systems to hide what they were doing.

HEATHER EWART: Vince Ficarra's barrister likens the whole scene to a big gambling den where the
stakes are high and so are the adrenaline rushes.

PETER HAYES QC: You take your money and put it down on the casino. I mean, you are betting on the
Australian dollar going one way or the Swiss franc going another way. There's an awful lot of
gambling involved. It's a gambling culture.

HEATHER EWART: And if you play the game, there are lucrative rewards in the form of bonuses.

VINCENT FICARRA (ASIC INTERVIEW, 18 FEBRUARY, 2004): As far as I was concerned a bonus is a bonus.
I'm 25 - only just turned 25 a month ago - a bonus of $100,000 is a lot of money to me.

ASSOC. PROF. PAMELA HANRAHAN: They are very significant amounts of money, but I wonder whether it
was entirely driven by money, rather than a desire, a competitive desire to be successful.

PETER HAYES QC: I use the analogy - maybe accurately, maybe not - with the Enron example in


arrogance, intolerance, greed.

rest of us.

HEATHER EWART: During investigations into the collapse of US energy giant Enron, documented in this
film, The Smartest Guys in the Room, junior employees were used to gather evidence against their
seniors. That sort of scrutiny wasn't applied to the middle and upper echelons of NAB, according to
Vince Ficarra's barrister.

PETER HAYES QC: Here, the older people seem to have said, "Well, look, we don't like what's gone
on. We're going to cut this out. We're going to make an example of these people," and the
authorities have concentrated on the young people on the floor. No-one has looked at how did this
happen for three years? How did they happen to have had a wrong profit and loss account for years?
Why didn't anyone pick it up?

JOHN HOOPER: My response really would be that ASIC brought the case against a number of our
employees and they did not bring cases against the senior management.

HEATHER EWART: But did senior management turn a convenient blind eye, as alleged in the courtroom?
The bank says "No" and asks us to have faith in its new accountability systems. But has that
brought about any real change in trading room culture?

STEPHEN MAYNE: I think you will still see a blokey, foul-mouthed, hard-working, hard-drinking
culture amongst these guys on the trading floors, but you won't have the lax accountability systems
in place that will allow them to rack up hundreds of millions of dollars of unauthorised losses.

ASSOC. PROF. PAMELA HANRAHAN: I think the reputational damage that the bank has suffered as a
result of this will make them really focus on whether they are our cultural issues that are
embedded within the bank that need to be addressed.

JOHN HOOPER: We spent the last two years working really hard on the whole infrastructure behind our
market's activity, as well as the culture and making sure people clearly understand what they are
employed to do.

PETER HAYES QC: Well, as long as you've got that kind of legalised gambling, where there is risk,
profit is king. I would have thought you're always open to this kind of abuse.

HEATHER EWART: The gamble is over now for the convicted members of the old NAB trading room team -
they lost. Whether they blame themselves or the bank, their careers in the financial sector are

Japanese MP honours killed POWs

Japanese MP honours killed POWs

Reporter: Shane McLeod

KERRY O'BRIEN: Sixty years after the end of World War II, Japan and Australia are closer than ever
before, but the scars of the past remain fresh for those who lived through it. The spectre of that
past has emerged again after one of Japan's most senior ministers paid tribute to allied POWs who
died in Japanese custody, some of them in a slave labour camp run by his own family. Taro Aso is
Japan's foreign minister, a controversial figure known for his outspoken views on the legacy of
Japan's wartime aggression and incidentally touted by some as a future prime minister. His prayers
for POWs have been greeted in some quarters with cynicism, with some claiming it's motivated more
by political ambition than acknowledging a shameful history. ABC North Asia correspondent Shane
McLeod reports from Osaka.

SHANE McLEOD, REPORTER: This is a special place in the commemoration of a dark chapter in Japanese
history. Juganji Buddhist temple near Osaka was the final resting place for more than 1,000 Allied
prisoners of war. They died after working under atrocious conditions in labour camps nearby. Each
year the temple hosts a ceremony in August to remember them.

YUKIO KONISHI, HEAD PRIEST, JUGANJI TEMPLE (TRANSLATION: I'm the 19th priest. The 18th priest took
care of the remaining POWs who unfortunately passed away in Japan during the war. We have been
continuing to hold memorial services.

SHANE McLEOD: But this is a special commemoration. A high-profile visitor wants to make a personal
pilgrimage - Japan's Foreign Minister, Taro Aso, a man with some personal history to deal with.

TRANSLATION: I would like to thank the previous priest and the current one and pray for the souls
of the people who passed away.

SHANE McLEOD: Taro Aso was just four years old when World War II ended with Japan's surrender in
1945, but during those last few months of the war, his family's company used allied POWs as forced
labourers to work its coal mine in western Japan. Among them was captured Australian soldier Mick

MICK KILDEY, FORMER POW: The treatment from the civilians as well as the Japanese guards was pretty
hard. Bashings for practically nothing at all and some fellows were tortured. I wasn't tortured,
but I took the beatings for the rest of them. If anyone did something wrong, everybody was

SHANE MCLEOD: Mick Kildey spent most of the years in shipyards at Kobe. After they were destroyed
in Allied bombing raids, he and other POWs were sent to Yoshikawa coal mine in western Japan.

MICK KILDEY: We got sorted out into day and night shifts at the coal mine and these shifts were
about 14 hours a day. They lapped over. Sometimes you would be nearly 24 hours without a sleep.
That was pretty hard work because you were bent over all day long. Most fellas like myself finished
up with a bad back. It just was real hard going.

SHANE MCLEOD: Many of the POWs who came to Japan would never return home. The Yokohama war cemetery
near Tokyo is the final resting place for more than 1,800 from Commonwealth countries, including
Australia. Their ashes were brought here in the years after the war, often from temples like

SHINPEI ISHII, POW RESEARCH NETWORK JAPAN: Most of the Japanese don't know or forget about the
facts existing of POW camps and the POW people and they suffered here and it's a good chance for
the Japanese to learn.

SHANE MCLEOD: Shinpei Ishii is a member of the Japan POW research network, a volunteer group that
are trying to learn the unknown and largely unspoken history of Japan's wartime prisoners. He says
Minister Aso's newfound interest in history is welcome, but he worries about the motivation.

SHINPEI ISHII: It smells for me that it's very political in his propaganda action of his upcoming
cabinet election or prime ministerial election. But even though, it's a good chance for him, I
guess, to make it appear to the world as he's a good man.

SHANE MCLEOD: Taro Aso is in the running to take over as Japan's next Prime Minister, but
controversy has preceded him. Comments suggesting Taiwan benefited from Japanese colonial oversight
and suggesting Japan's Emperor visit a shrine that honours war criminals have seen him accused of
insensitivity and poor diplomacy. The original plan for the temple ceremony was to include
ambassadors from Japan's World War II foes, including Australia, but late last week the minister
changed his mind, insisting his attendance would be in a purely private capacity.

YUKIO KONISHI (TRANSLATION): No, I don't know anything and also he's not coming as the foreign
minister. He's comes as Mr Aso and I haven't heard the reason why.

SHANE MCLEOD: Some think it had to do with pressure on Mr Aso to make a bigger gesture to those
POWs who lived and died in Japan during the war years, but Major General Bill Crews from the RSL
believes it's not necessarily about an apology.

MAJOR GENERAL BILL CREWS, NATIONAL RSL PRESIDENT: We're not about extracting apologies or laying
blame. The process of reconciliation is about healing wounds. It's about recognition of what
happened, ensuring that all of our younger people certainly understand what happened.

MICK KILDEY: To me, it's too late. That should have happened many, many years ago and as the years
have gone by, I think they've tried to hide it a bit more. I'm not bitter towards them. I'm not - I
don't hate them. There's no room in my heart for hate nowadays. That's just what I believe.

SHANE MCLEOD: More than 60 years on, there's a chasm between Japan's view of its wartime history
and those who endured it.

Game helps Australian burns sufferers

Game helps Australian burns sufferers

Reporter: Genevieve Hussey

KERRY O'BRIEN: Children who suffer serious burns face an often long and painful recovery that
requires daily dressing of their wounds. But now, an Australian innovation is easing that pain.
It's the ultimate distraction: a portable, hand-held virtual reality game, the principle of which
could have a much wider application. And it's attracting overseas attention. Genevieve Hussey

GENEVIEVE HUSSEY: For the past two months, 10-year-old Michael Loof has had to make a regular
journey he dreads: travelling with his father, Brad, to the Burns Unit at Brisbane's Royal
Children's Hospital after an accident left him with a third-degree burn on his right leg.

MICHAEL LOOF: I was riding my little motorbike. I hit this hole in the grass and I went off and the
bike fell on me and burnt my leg.

BRAD LOOF, FATHER: It was quite a bad burn. The skin was really wrinkled and it was quite a big
burn. Luckily, they only had to graft half the burn.

GENEVIEVE HUSSEY: At the hospital, he faces a painful procedure: his burn's dressing needs to be

DR JONATHAN MOTT, BRISBANE ROYAL CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL: As you can imagine, that can be quite a
painful procedure. The burns then have to be washed and cleaned and new dressings applied. And if
it's a significant burn or a new burn, they often end up in a bathtub with an anti-septic bathtub
and, of course, that can be very painful in children that have burns.

BRAD LOOF: Yeah, he was fidgety and moving around the bed a bit, even with the Panadol. Yeah, it
looked pretty painful.

GENEVIEVE HUSSEY: But now a new augmented virtual reality game - the first portable device of its
type in the world - is helping make this painful experience that little bit easier.

DR JONATHAN MOTT: This is a new version of virtual reality called 'Augmented Virtual Reality',
where the child starts playing with the game and becomes involved with the game and, therefore,
isn't paying much attention to what's going on in the dressing.

GENEVIEVE HUSSEY: The hospital has been taking part in a major trial to see whether children who
play the game feel less pain during the procedure, and the results have been surprisingly good.

DR JONATHAN MOTT: The results show that there is a significant drop in the levels of pain recorded
by children and by their parents, who describe how their children went through the process, when
they're using the device compared to children who haven't been able to use it.

GENEVIEVE HUSSEY: For Brad Loof, the difference has been obvious. What difference did you notice
once he had the game to play?

BRAD LOOF: He sort of was distracted. He sort of was more focused on the game than what the nurse
was actually doing.

MICHAEL LOOF: When I have a go on the game, it doesn't hurt anymore.


MICHAEL LOOF: It just takes me off like the pain. Like, when the nurse is undressing it, like I'm
not feeling it because, like, I'm focusing on the game.

child to pick up - just quickly in.

GENEVIEVE HUSSEY: The game was developed at the Centre for Interaction Design in Brisbane.

ASSOC. PROF. SAM BUCOLO: A lot of kids don't want to put it down; they just want to grab it and
say, "Hey, this is mine. Leave me. Let me have more time on this."

REPORTER: Is that the part of it, too, because they have to come back again and again, don't they?

ASSOC. PROF. SAM BUCOLO: Very much so. So, we are seeing this, you know, a couple of times a week a
child might have to use this.

GENEVIEVE HUSSEY: While virtual reality devices using goggles and a large machine have been
trialled in hospitals overseas, they're often not suitable for small children, who make up the
majority of burns patients. Half of the burns patients at Brisbane's Royal Children's Hospital are
under three. Even the very young can use this game. There are no buttons to push. By tipping and
turning the device, the player can move around the virtual world.

ASSOC. PROF. SAM BUCOLO: The main thing here is we've got 20 minutes to engage the child. They
don't have any learning, they have no pre-conceptions of what this is. They come in, they are quite
stressed, they are given this device, they turn it on and it has to be able to be used. There is no
learning, there's no time for a manual and they really only have that 20-minute space.

DR JONATHAN MOTT: This is more immersive, which involves more of the senses than simply playing a
video game and it's proactive. At all stages, the child is in control of the device and of the game
that they are playing.

GENEVIEVE HUSSEY: The second phase of the trial is now under way with a more advanced version of
the game. Doctors are trialling a small set of virtual reality goggles for older children.

DR JONATHAN MOTT: Well, the ultimate aim of this would be to have waterproof, wireless devices with
no cords that can be taken to any department in the hospital where a child is about to undergo a
painful procedure or is in a strange environment or is upset.

GENEVIEVE HUSSEY: And there has already been interest from hospitals in the United States where the
game has been on show. Its developers say its potential is enormous.

ASSOC. PROFESSOR SAM BUCOLO:We believe it can actually go horizontally into other areas like
radiology or oncology, dentistry potentially, and in other areas such as adults as well because
this is very much the first consumer device for diversionary therapy.

GENEVIEVE HUSSEY: Michael Loof is now well on the road to recovery. His father believes the virtual
reality game has made that recovery so much easier.

BRAD LOOF, FATHER: I think it's brilliant. You don't have to use Panadol and if you don't have to
use the medicine, it's even better. So, no, it's really good and they get a bit of enjoyment out of
it as well.

GENEVIEVE HUSSEY: The 10-year-old still has months of treatment ahead of him and there will be
special bandages for at least the next 12 months, but his goal of getting back on his bike is
within sight.

MICHAEL LOOF: I have to wear this garment and I got to choose the colours of the stitching and the
colour of it, and I have to wear that for 12 months.

GENEVIEVE HUSSEY: And what about bike riding? Are you going to ride your bike again?

MICHAEL LOOF: Yep, definitely.

Nothing off limits in Percy Grainger exhibit

Nothing off limits in Percy Grainger exhibit

Reporter: Kathryn Roberts

KERRY O'BRIEN: Percy Grainger's best-known work would have to be a song about English country
gardens but his life, his talent and his character were far more complex than that simple tune
would suggest. The Australian pianist and composer had his eye on posterity at an early age,
putting aside items for his own museum. Percy Grainger wanted to leave a collection that gave an
insight into what inspired his creativity. Nothing was off limits. Now a new exhibition at the
National Library celebrates the life, musical achievements and even the dark sexual adventures of
one of Australia's first great international artists. This report from Kathryn Roberts.

PETER SCULTHORPE, COMPOSER: He couldn't throw anything away. I mean, he just couldn't. He collected

DAVID PEAR, EXHIBITION CURATOR: I think even if it were an arrogant act, we're all very glad that
he did collect what he collected. Because it has given us a wonderful glimpse of a life in
Australia and in London, which nobody else has provided. And I think we can forgive him for that.

KATHRYN ROBERTS: From the gentle contrasts of the English country garden to the harsh edges of
sexual deviance, Percy Grainger was a complex, passionate and talented individual. He and his
mother were quite convinced of it, it seems, and he clearly wanted to make sure we were, too.

DAVID PEAR: Everyone around him told him he was a genius quite frequently and his mother reassured
him he was. To some degree, I think it's true he was.

PETER SCULTHORPE: There are drawings by him, paintings by him, clothes by him, clothes that he
designed - some of them very eccentric, musical instruments, musical instruments that he invented.

NEWSREEL ANNOUNCER: One of the busiest members of the faculty, Mr Grainger frequently finds time to
conduct. This time his own composition - 'Harvest Hymn.'

KATHRYN ROBERTS: Whether it was arrogance or his obsessive compulsive character, Percy Grainger
wanted to make sure future generations would be as interested in his secret life and his personal
peccadilloes as much as his music and what a legacy it is. Much of it laid out in this remarkable
exhibition at the National Library - personal items, including letters, jewellery, whips and even
his mother's hair. Throughout much of his life, Grainger's ambitions were driven and encouraged by
his mother, Rose. Their relationship was unusually close.

DAVID PEAR: There is no grounds or no evidence at all that it was actually incestuous, but it was
very close and he put his mother first and of course that prevented him really from establishing
any substantial long-term relationships in order to get married. I suspect Grainger thought by
composing he would leave something that was much more enduring and a much stronger memory, both of
himself and of his mother and of their loving relationship. And that's one of the reasons I think
he started to concentrate more and more on composition and finalising a lot of the compositions he
had begun and left hanging for so many years.

KATHRYN ROBERTS: And although his signature tune is a twee imperial folk song, much of the rest of
his music, like his personality, was far more adventurous. Grainger's musical approach had a
profound effect on some of those who experienced it. One of them was the young Peter Sculthorpe,
now one of Australia's finest modern composers.

PETER SCULTHORPE: Percy leapt off the stage - I mean he was a great athlete - leapt off the stage,
ran down the isle to the back of the hall, touched wood on the door and then ran back, leapt on to
the stage just in time to come crashing down with the cadenza, the big solo. I thought are all
concerts going to be like this? That wasn't even the end of it. He dived into the piano with his
hands and plucked the last string from the piano strings - pretty impressive stuff.

KATHRYN ROBERTS: Musically, he experimented with rhythm, sound and form. But his sexual life was
also what we might call "free form". In Grainger's world everything was connected.

DAVID PEAR: He believes that you couldn't be very constructive composer or a prolific composer
unless you were in fact a virile individual. He saw the two as quite strongly related.

KATHRYN ROBERTS: This exhibition offers a rare insight into the motivations of this complex
composer and nothing, it seems, was off limits. Throughout his life, almost everything was done
with at least one eye on his own legacy. But his was narcissism with a twist. One of the exhibits
is the mysterious envelope he left behind when he died with instructions that it not be opened for
at least 10 years. The contents detailed his fascination with sadomasochism.

WORDS OF GRAINGER'S LETTER: "I feel that flagellantism, like boxing, football and some other
sports, is a means of turning the hostile, harsh and destructive elements of man into harmless

DAVID PEAR: He was disconcertingly honest and he didn't like anything to be hidden. So he wanted
people to know about that, as much as about what he was reading and the fact that he thought, for
instance, studying Icelandic was an important thing to do. Everything was important to know about a

KATHRYN ROBERTS: The question is: what will live on? Is Percy Grainger's legacy his personal
eccentricity or is it his musical genius? Is what made him tick as important as his place in
Australian composition? Peter Sculthorpe has no doubts.

PETER SCULTHORPE: He was an amazing composer. Very eclectic. He loved all music, whether it was
folk music, band music, Pacific Island music, Chinese music. He was just an extraordinary human
being. Yes, he's one of our first great artists, really.