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(generated from captions) the debate about this issue. It

was an overreaction. As a

supporter of Israel, I am sorry

that's how they chose about it.

They outed him out as a former

Nazi and it is not the right

way to go about the debate. It

was a very disappointing move

on I real's part. It was a

stupid mood and it has been

condemned by sensible figures

in Israel. We campaigned

together about the fatwa on sal

mon Rushdie. Israel has a

hidden number, up to 200

nuclear weapons, they can

deliver them by Submarine but

Iran's record of lying through

its teeth about its nuclear

install ations makes us

disbelief anything its supreme

leader says especially as the

supreme leader was deeply

involved in the mass murder of

7,000 political prisoners, most

of them atheists or enemies of

God and because their Prime

Minister, or their president

wants to wipe Israel off the

map and because their supreme

leader believes that a state of nuclear-like chaos will trigger

the return of the 12th Iman who

is going to kill all us

non-believers and set down

Sharia law for the rest of the

world. He doesn't believe He doesn't believe you are going

to heaven. He certainly doesn't. You have this country

on the verge of having access

to a nuclear weapon because it

has got to stage where almost

it is dual use. You have

America with 15,000 nuclear

weapons. We are nearly out of

time. Very quickly, would you

condone, therefore, a military

action by Israel or the US to

end that threat? No, not at

this stage. What I am looking for is the present leadership

of Iran implicated in the mass

murder of the atheists back in

Security Council should set up 1988 should be prosecuted, the

a court to prosecute them for

that massive crime against

humanity because if they get impunity for that sort of

crime, for mass murdering

people who don't share their

belief, then they may give

themselves that impunity

again. I would like to go to

our politicians, however, we

have run out of time. We are

over time. Sorry to people who

still have their hands up in

the audience. That is all we

have time for tonight. Please

thank Christopher Pyne, AC

Grayling, Nicola Roxon,

Geoffrey Robertson and Lydia

Khalil. (APPLAUSE).

Next week, the outgoing

leader of the Australian

Greens, Bob Brown, will join us

to face your questions alone.

After almost 40 years in the environmental movement and

politics, he leaves the Greens

in good shape with his party

playing a critical role in

Julia Gillard's minority

government. But the party he

founded is also feeling the

heat from angry opponents from

the carbon tax. Many are wondering whether the Greens

will continue to rise without

Bob Brown. Plenty to talk

about, plenty to ask, when Bob

Brown joins Q&A next Monday.

Until then, goodnight.

Closed Captions by CSI

Tonight - at odds over the ANZ's interest rate

hike. They're not stupid, and I

don't think they would

willy-nilly put up their margin

like this if they weren't

suffering a problem with their

margin. I'm not here to

defend the banks. They're quite capable of defending

disharmony between the Leader themselves. We have clear

of the Opposition and the

shadow Finance Minister about

that matter. This Program Is Captioned

Live.

Good evening. Welcome to 'Lateline'. I'm Emma Alberici.

The latest research on young

people's brains shows that 80%

of their development happens in

the first three years of life.

That finding is changing

teaching practices all over the

world. Tonight, we'll bring you

the first of our two-part

special on the early education

intervention programs reaching

vulnerable children in Australia. And we'll question the Minister for Education,

Peter Garrett, on the

universal pre-school. You can government's commitment to

join the conversation with our

guest Tweeter author and

blogger John Birmingham at the

'Lateline' hashtag. But first

our other headlines. Canberra,

we have a problem. NBN about to

spend $650 million to launch

two satellites before getting a

guarantee it can use them.

Norway's mass murderer Anders

Breivik admits to carrying out

the attacks which killed 77

people, but denies criminal

responsibility. And Afghan

security forces repel a wave of coordinated Taliban attacks

Greens Leader Christine Milne across the country. The new

has weighed in to the economic debate ahead of the budget

calling on the government to

abandon its promise of a

surplus. Tony Abbott says the

comments are a sign that the deal between the Greens and the

government is fraying. But he

also found himself defending

accusations of disharmony in

his own ranks today after

wayward comments from his

shadow Finance Minister. Tom

Iggulden reports from Canberra.

Interest rates have been a hot

political topic since raised

its rates late Friday afternoon

just days after the Reserve

Bank held them steady. Andrew

Robb turned up the heat today

when asked if he thought the

hike was justified. They're not

stupid, and I don't think we

would willy-nilly put up their

margin like this if they weren't suffering the problem

with their margin. Mr Robb's

comments were supposed to be an

attack on government's economic

management, but came off as a

defence of an unpopular

decision. We've got banks that

are heavily part of superannuation funds. Millions

of Australians depend on the

banks performing. Mr Robb

now found finds himself in the position where he is now defending the position of the

banks. And Mr Robb's thought

bubble was soon a lead balloon

for the Opposition Leader. Do

you agree with Andrew Robb's

assessment that ANZ may have

had sound judgment in raising

interest rates? Look I'm not

here to defend the banks. The

banks are quite capable of

defending themselves. So we've

got clear disharmony between

the Leader of the Opposition

and the shadow Finance Minister

about that matter. And with

that the government had all the

backing it needed to riff on

his favourite political

themes. Why is it that the

opposition and the

Conservatives in Australia are

DNA hard wired to always stand

up for big interests? Most

families and small businesses

across this country who are

doing it tough would be

astonished to see an true Rob

giving the green light to banks jacking up their interest rates. The Assistant Treasurer

also took issue with the

substance plaintiff Rob's

argument, that bank profit

margins are under

pressure. Those funding cost

pressures that banks are facing

have been easing. An he says

the budget surplus the government's promised to

produce in May will make things

even easier. In doing that, we

will make sure that we give the

Reserve Bank the room that it

needs to cut interest rates in

the future. But I don't think

whether the budget is in

surplus by a few billion either

side of the line is going to

actually impact on the Reserve

Bank's decision in that case.

The Greens say they won't

support cuts in the budget that

will hurt families as their new

leader looked to branch out

into economics. The Greens are

the only party in the

Parliament against a

surplus. Most economists agree

with us. What we've got is a situation where the Prime

Minister gave an undertaking in

2009 that we would return to

the budget surplus in 12-13,

and she doesn't feel like she

can change her mind in spite of

the changed economic

circumstances. She says the Greens deal with the Prime

Minister still stands but the

Opposition Leader's challenging

Julia Gillard to prove it. The

government has a signed deal

with the Greens that when it

comes to supply and confidence

the Greens will support them so

the government has a very

simple way forward. A lot of families squabble over money,

in politics it helps to keep it

it behind closed doors.

Security guards confronted

hundreds of workers at Toyota's

Altona plant in Melbourne today

to escort them off the site so

they could be made redundant.

The job losses were flagged in

January and manufacturing

unions say most of the 350

people being sacked will

receive adequate redundancy packages. But today's action

shocked the workers, the

company had deemed its worst

performers.. 18 years doing the

same thing, up at 5.30. Used to

come here of a morning, not get

paid for overtime and do the

right thing, you know what I'm

saying but they don't look at

that. Toyota blames falling

demand and the high dollar for

the job cuts. A new brawl has erupted over the National

Broadband Network but this time

two crucial satellites are at

the centre of attention. It

emerged today at a

parliamentary hearing that the

NBN company is preparing to

spend $650 million to launch

the satellites into space. Even

before it has formal per

mission from the United Nations

to use them. The hearing was

told it could in fact take

years to find an approved

parking spot for the

satellites. David Spicer

reports. The great majority of

Australians will be connected

to the National Broadband

Network by underground

fibreglass cables on their

streets. It's been slow

progress. Last year the NBN Co

earned $356,000 from the first

2,000 households connected to

the network. It had outgoings

of $220 million. And even

though just 15% of households

offered the high-speed

broadband signed on, the head

of the NBN Co told a

parliamentary hearing it's only

early days. We're in fact

pretty happy with the rate at

which it's going. And the fact

is that the copper network is

going to be retired. Which will

mean a different dynamic for activations once that starts to

happen. Last month the Prime

Minister announced that by

2015, one third of the country

will be connected to the NBN,

or in areas where construction

will be under way. Those in remote parts of Australia are

expected to be on-line at the

same time. 200,000 homes and

farms will be connected to the

network by two satellites

casting 101 spot beams across

the country. The parliamentary

hearing was told today that the

NBN Co is stumping up $650

million to buy the satellites.

But it's not yet received a

parking spot from the United

Nations agency in charge of

space. The head of the NBN Co

confirmed today they could be

launched into space without

final approval. There's a very,

very small risk in our view, a

very, very small risk. Now the

option you have is just to wait

for many years to let this formal process end and then

start the process. That means

you won't be providing good

broadband service to the bush

for many years. The shadow Communications Minister Malcolm Turnbull went on the

attack. You are leaving open

the possibility albeit small of

launching a satellite into a

slot prior to it being formally

allocated. Is the answer to

that question yes? If we had discussions ... Is the answer

to that question yes? While

the answer was yes, the NBN Co

is far more worried about a

mishap on the launch pad than a

satellite without a parking

space. It's a matter of

adapting the satellite at some

point in time to adjust to a slightly different orbital

slot. It's not a question of you scrap the satellite and

start again. The further you go

in that process clearly the

further down the design and manufacture you are, but in

terms of this risk we rate that

way down on here. The risk

we're focused on is the risk at

launch. The satellite is not

due to be launched until 2015.

If there's a change of government, Malcolm Turnbull

could be the minister who decides whether or not it takes

off.

The newly Lech Campbell

Newman government has suffered

its first major blow with the

resignation of Police Minister

David Gibson for driving

without a licence. Mr Gibson

resigned tonight when it emerge

he'd been driving after his

licence was suspended last

year. He was suspended for

three months because of an

unpaid speeding fine, and now

he may be charged over the

incident. The Police Minister

was regarded as a future LNP

leader. And had been in the job

for just 10 days. The latest

neuroscience research on young

children's brains may have

major consequences for our

education system. 80% of brain

development occurs from the

time a baby's in the womb to

age of 3. This means children

living in vulnerable situations

in dysfunctional families need

educational interventions at 3,

not five, when most primary

schools start. Leading medical

experts say it's wrong to

expect the system to fix the

problems later in high school.

The research is fuelling calls

for governments State and

federal to ensure pre-school is

taken as seriously as primary

and high school education. In a

moment we'll be joined by the

Education Minister Peter

Garrett but first, this special

report by 'Lateline's Suzanne

Smith looking at two early

childhood projects one in Alice

Springs and one in Brisbane.

(Laughter) They say laughter

is the best

medicine. (Laughter) And

Play-Doh is really funny.

These three and four-year-olds

come from Alice Springs suburbs

an town camps. They spend three

hours day a day having

intensive fun reading playing

and eating good food. They're

part of the Congress Aboriginal

Service pre-school readiness

program, funded out of the Northern Territory intervention

an Stronger Futures policy.

More than 300 kids of this age

group live in Alice Springs and Congress Aboriginal Service

aims to get every one into the

pre-school program for three

hours a day. We see that from when they start, that's the

most amazing thing for us for

us, to see these kids come in

as timid shy children and as

they come and they know it's

safe and it's lots of fun, they start blossoming and smiling

and talking to us and we get

lots of hugs and, yeah, a lot

of them are coming from homes

where there's a lot of

unpredictability and they may not feel safe.

New neuroscience research on

the brains of children in the

womb and in the first five

years of life is causing a

major rethink of pre-school

education. Neuroscience is

telling us now that by age 3,

80% of brain development has

occurred, by age 4, 92% of

brain development has occurred.

We've got to work with children

and families well before

pre-school, from pregnancy

through to 2, through to 3,

they are the critical years,

and that's well before

pre-school. If a child lives

in a vulnerable environment, the effect on their brain can

be devastating. If you're

struggling fence the odds, if

you're growing up with

violence, if you're growing up

in a family where your needs

are not being properly met,

that's where you're sat in

front of the television too

much, where you don't hear a

lot of conversational language

in the house, where you haven't

got an effective routine, these

sorts of things have a huge

impact on your development, and

they overwhelm your genetic

potential. Genes are not

expressed in an adverse early

social environment. This graph

shows how many connections

there are in the human brain at

different ages. This indicates

the very rapid rate at which

connections between neurons are

being made in early childhood,

from 1 to 3 years of age. And

then those connections drop off

dramatically. The child's

environment affects how many

connections remain stable. Influencing their ability to

control emotions, language and

many other critical areas. And

babies in the womb can be

severely affected by stress. If

mothers in utero are living in

fear or in violence

relationships, are stressed,

then the baby will , if you

like, develop in a way where

it's expecting from birth

onwards to be in an environment

of stress. That turns on the

neurobiological pathways that

are activated when we're

stressed, for most people those

pathways only get activisted at

times with acute stress but for

babies in utero who experience

stress that neurobio logical

pathway is turn on the whole

time that has huge im-Mick

cases for their lifelong health

an well-being. Neuroscience

research is also backing claims

that leaving intervention until

high school makes it much

harder to achieve long-lasting behavioural change.

With this neuroscience in

mind, every pregnant Indigenous

woman in Alice Springs under 28

weeks gets their own nurse

until the child is five years

old. Here a nurse from congress

is visit ing sole patient

Natasha Hampton and her

16-month-old twins Aklyn and

Grace. Will they put a two-word

sentence together? Yes, yeah,

yep. What about go car or you

know ... Natasha says the

nurse has become a close

contact, and a confidante. The

nurse is really good. Like if

I've got certain things that we

need to check the progress as

in like developmental six

months, 12 months and so forth,

but over now and then, for

example, breastfeeding, I would

say I need information on

weaning breastfeeding, and

they'll provide that for me or

one time I was looking for external services to help me

with cleaning, so it wasn't

just about child development,

it was helping me to be a

better mother for my

children. Stand up until the

numbers stop. The integration

of eight and education services

is a big factor in this

program's success. Problems

like hearing impairment are

picked up straightaway. Try

again. Try again. You want to

show me ... OK. You

ready? No. 1, 2, 3.

3-year-old Callum has been in

the program for over a year.

When he first came, he couldn't

speak. See you next time. OK?

Before he went to this

program, he was very rowdy, um,

runned a merry muck on me.

Never spoke. Since he has been

going to the program, he's

starting to speak to me more

than what he used to. He's

saying extra words. Doing

things he never used to do. You

show me. Whoa! (Laughs) In

through your nose. And out

through your mouth.

It is early in the morning

in the outer suburbs of

Brisbane and eight children

aged between 8 and 11 are doing

their breathing exercises with

Sheryl Batchelor. OK. Hands on

your knees. Sheryl Batchelor

is the manager of this special

cognitive program known as

Shaping Brains. It is run by

the Benevolent Society, and

devised by some of America's

best neuroscientists. A former

Indigenous high school teacher,

Sheryl Batchelor says this

breathing exercise helps to

calm the brain. The children

here have been referred from

local schools, or through the

centre's health programs.

Nine-year-old Caitlin Dixon has

been coming to this special

early year centre for over a

year now. OK, stop. One more

time. Wiggle wiggle wiggle.

When Caitlin first arrived at

the age of 8, she couldn't read. And had severe

behavioural problems. She

didn't get the help she needed

at a younger age. She kept

touching other children. And

taking their things. And it was

like her brain was telling her

to go from one thing to

another. And she couldn't

concentrate on anything that

she was doing. To improve Caitlin's ability to control

her emotions, and improve her

memory and be mindful of her

behaviour, Cheryl introduced

her to cogmed a special

computer program. What's the science behind this program? The science behind is

that it's helping children

increase the capacity of their

working memory. Because we're

finding when children come to

school, they're having a lot of

trouble concentrating and they're not hearing what's

going on in the classroom

because they are diverted by

other types of sounds. So this

program helps kids really,

really concentrate. And really

focus their attention on

listening and using their eyes

to see what's on the screen.

And therefore increasing their

capacity to learn. Caitlin is

now reading an her behaviour is

calmer, and more rational. By

the ep of the first week I

could see improvement in her

ability to calm herself when

things weren't - like when she

wasn't winning the game or

whatever. So it was a

noticeable improvement

straightaway. When you feel

frustrated now, what do you

think in your head you've got

to do? I do get a bit

frustrated still sometimes and

kind of not work it out. But nt

end I always do what mum and

dad tell me to but I may not do

it instantly but I may do it

some time.

Sheryl Batchelor says this

project shows 15 hours a week

of pre-school education from

the age of 3 should be free and

universal and include first

-class neuroscience-based

programs. I left teaching

because I felt really helpless.

I felt like I was hitting a

brick wall every day I turned

up to skol. I really felt that

the system was letting a lot of

these children down. One longitudinal study in

the United States found that

children who had good early childhood educational

experiences were more likely to

graduate from high school. Have

a job. Have higher average

earnings. And lower levels of

crime. It is all about

long-term happiness after all.

Jouning us now from our

Parliament House studio is the Minister for School Education,

Early Childhood and Youth,

Peter Garrett. Welcome. Thanks,

Emma. Now the scientific

research is clear and unchallenged that every child

should be in a pre-school by

the age of 3 and it should be

provided by the State. Why

aren't we doing that in

Australia? Well, we are well on

the way to doing it. We do have

a commitment to universal

access for all kids in the year

before school. So that's

four-year-olds. We want them to

have 15 hours of high-quality

early childhood education and

care for 40 weeks a year. And

that's to be delivered by a

university trained teacher.

We've spent nearly a million

dollars - a billion dollars, I

beg your pardon, working with

the States to bring that into

play. That is a really

significant commitment. It's

getting us there and it's open

to parents and communities to

enrol their kids before

then. But of course the

neuroscience tells us that

that's not good enough.

Providing it in just the year

before they go to school.

Pre-school should be

universally available to all

3-year-olds. Why aren't we

going in that direction? We are

going in that direction but we're starting from the year

before school, which is still

identified as the most critical

year for kids before they enter

the school stream. Well, we

with all due respect, no, the

first three years as Dr John

Boffa said in that report, the

first three years are the most

critical. That's when 80 % of

brain development is

formed? Emma, with respect to

you as well, can I just finish

what I was saying? The

commitment that we have for

universal access for kids in

the year before they enter

school is a commitment that's made on the basis of what we

now have in place for the first

time ever in Australia, which

is a national quality

framework, an early years

framework, a specific

identification, not only of the

needs of kids as they go into

the school stream, but what we

need to have presented to them

in early childhood care

pre-school and the like and

that's on the basis of the

advice that we have been given

by childhood experts. Now

you're absolutely right to

point out, as your program has,

that this very early period, the post-natal period if you

like, of a child's development,

1 to 3, is absolutely critical.

We understand that, there are

many services including the

ones we've just seen in the

program that apply support to

parents and that provide those early interventions for the

kids. What I'm saying to you is

that we have begun this for the

first time nationally by having

a commitment to universal

access in the year before

school. I'm not saying that's

all that should happen. Of

course it isn't. But that is a

significant commitment that

hasn't been made before and

there's a couple of other

things that we're doing as

well. One of them a world

first, the Australian early

development index. Again

assessing a snapshot of the

developmental barriers

obstacles an pluses and minus s

of kids as they go into the

school stream. So we understand that the early years are

important, we're investing in

them and we recognise this

there will be more policy involvement, more targeted

investment in the future. That

universal access, will it be

free and when will it be

introduced? The commitment is

to have universal access for

all Australian kids in year

before school available to them

by the myle of next year. It's

free in some instances

particularly say, for example,

to Indigenous kids. But it's

not free overall. It applies ,

parents make a choice on where

they send their kids. They may

send them to a community child

care centre, they may send them

to a private provider and of course parents are available

child care rebate, the child

care benefit and the like. So

the opportunities are there for

parents to be able to have

their kids ... If you don't

mind me interrupting you, I'm

confused. When you say

universal access what exactly

do you mean about choice and so

on? Where is the universal

access, are you building

pre-schools, where is this

coming from? You're talking

about these new programs about

having a university qualified

teacher and so on. In what

building structures is this

going to be delivered? It's our

agreement with the States that

they should provide the

opportunities for any child in

the State to have access to a

year of early childhood care

and education in the year

before school with 15 hours a

week over 40 weeks of the year,

with the provision of

university trained education.

So the States are under a

requirement to provide the

facilities if there is a

shortfall in facilities. Those resources are identified for

the purposes of infrastructure.

We're also providing extra

places for training for people

so that the university-level

qualification that we want to

apply in the universal access

is in place as well. This is going to be means tested

then? Well, it's the same

conditions apply under the

child care benefit and the

child care rebate through

universal access as apply now.

The difference is this: we've

never had the Commonwealth

Government before provide money

to the States for the

infrastructure needs which will

enable them to provide that

level of child care education

care in the year before school.

We also provide the opportunity

with extra places at university

and relief for things like HECS

and help fees so that we've got

enough highly trained teachers

working in the childhood

area. So it's not strictly

universal access then. It's

pretty much business as usual

with rebate and the other child

benefits? Look, I think that's

being a little cynical. I mean,

to be clear, we're investing

$955 million for the first time

to provide the States with the

opportunity to deliver the

infrastructure and the

services, 'cause it's the

States that basically have been

delivering early childhood care

up to this point in time. We

recognise how important it is

so we're providing them with

the resources to make sure that the spaces are there, available

for kids in the year before

school. And we're also

providing the additional

support to make sure that the trained workers are in the institutions themselves. But

how can you guarantee they will

be affordable? Well, it's not a

question about guaranteeing

affordability. It's a question

about recognising that every

child should have the

opportunity to that

high-quality care ... If it's

not affordable, how is it an

opportunity if it's not

affordable? Well, it is

affordable, and I can say one

thing about the affordability

question that you're asking me.

It's now much more affordable

for any person in Australia to

enrol and put their kid in

early childhood care than it

was under the previous

government. We're not talking actually about the previous

government. We're talking about

world research, and I have to

tell you having just come back

from living in the UK, they've

recognised all this neuroscientific research,

they've attached pre-schools to

primary schools, and every

family regardless of means is

entitled to a place in a

pre-school from the age of 3

for 15 hours a week. I know

because we used it. And it's

recognised and put within the

school framework. Look, I applaud what's happening in the

UK and there are many similar

instances of what's happening

here as well. We are also

putting pre-schools in association with schools

particularly primary schools.

We're also providing the

opportunities by the

construction of early learning

family and child centres with,

for example, what we saw on the

program with kids being able to

go into an early learning

centre to get the health advice

they need and the education

support that they need. But

it's a real patchwork of policies across the country at

the moment because we that in

Tasmania and Queensland they

have access to affordable

universal pre-school, but yes,

New South Wales is crying out

for help, the minister there, who we'll hear from in

tomorrow's night second part of

our feature, is saying that he

has to come up next month with

a review of funding so that he

can work out how he might be

able to deliver affordable

access to pre-school in this

state which he says is in a

crisis in terms of being able

to provide places let alone

affordable, there's just no

places. Well, look, there's an

obligation on the States to

make sure that they continue to

provide the opportunities for

pre-school access for the

parents and their States.

What's happened though here is

that for the first time we have

a national quality framework,

we have a national regulator,

we have investment in universal

access to the tune of nearly a

billion dollars. Now, I expect

the States to make the

necessary investments and

commitment to do the very

things that you and I and the

people who are watching this

program want to see happen.

We've put that money in for the

very first time and our

expectation given that we've

agreed that process with the

States is for it to happen. I

make one other point very

quickly. We've now got a national quality framework that

we never had before, so you're

right, we have inherited quite

a piecemeal approach to early childhood care and education

but not any longer. From 1

January this year, we now have

an Australian quality framework

that all early child care

providers must work to. A very

clear by the way advice on what

we expect each provider to

deliver to the kids that are enrolled in their system and

that's based on the advice that

we're getting from the

childhood experts in our own

country. But it's about access

and affordability, and that

first early development index

that you talked about, this

landmark index in Australia,

that first test back in 20089

told you that there were one in

three children at risk in the

country because they weren't

developmentally getting that

early intervention before or at

the ages of 3 and 4 and yet

when you gave David Gonski the

terms of reference for his

review of education funding,

there wasn't a single line in

there. You didn't ask him to

analyse pre-school funding. Why

not? Well, for two reasons. The

first is that we're already

spending some $21 billion over

four years to support

pre-school generally and

pre-school access and fees are

more affordable now than they

ever have been. That's the

first thing. Not in New South

Wales, with respect. Not in New

South Wales. Hang on a minute.

Hang on a minute. And as well

as that, we've also, for the

first time, introduced a

national quality framework,

with a regulator, with the

investment necessary for the

States to provide that access

for kids in pre-school so

that's the first thing. The

second thing is the plain and

simple point and that is Mr

Gonski's review was about

school education funding. We're

providing record levels of

investment for pre-school

education funding, as well as

for school education funding

that wasn't within Mr Gonski's

remit. I would argue very

strongly that for the first

time we actually have a

national government that is

taking early child care

seriously. I would argue very

strongly that not only the

level of investment but the

integration of the research

that you've mentioned in your

program, with the understanding

that we get from the early

development index, with the universal access provisions

that we have, with the national

quality framework and a

national regulator, and tying

that in to the investment that

we've got in family and child

centres, all of these things go towards addressing this very

issue and I understand it very

well. The more that we can

invest early, the more

intervention there can be and

support for kids in their early

learning part of their lives the better learners they will be through school. But of

course we still don't have it

throughout the country. One of

the architects of the

government's early development index pediatrician Frank

Oberclad fre, the royal

children hospital in Melbourne

says if you designed a school

system today based on what we

now know behind brain research

and science it would look

nothing like the school system

we have here today. Does your

government have the courage to

reconsider education in

Australia from the ground

up? With the same thing that

Frank talks about wouldn't

apply to the sculs of today

either, with respect. The

schools of today, if you

started from scratch u wouldn't

design the buildings like that

you wouldn't have them laid out

in the way that they are. And

Building the Education Revolution has done something

towards addressing that ... I

think he is talking about the

way we learn and the way we

teach rather than what the

buildings look like. No, but

it's the same reflection. I

mean, nowadays you might have

composite classes of smart kids

across thee, four and five in

an open learning environment,

close to the library. The same

thing applies with early

childhood education. I mean we

do know and we do understand,

because of what people what

this Professor tell us that we

need to have a concentrated

emphasis on intervention, on

support, on analysing the developmental needs of kids as

they come through the early

childhood care and education

period of their learning life.

We understand that very well

and we're delivering record

levels of investment to do T

now the schools you're talking

about, they're run by State

Governments. It's a challenge for both levels of government, the Federal Government and

State Governments, to recognise this learning. One thing I

would say is this: we're

particularly focused and

understand and the statistic

you referred to earlier on the

Australian early development

index, of those kids who aren't

doing - the majority of our

kids do well by the way but of

those kids who weren't it is

Aboriginal kids it's quite

often kids in remote areas.

There is a lot of targeted and

focused investment on providing

that support. We saw some of it

in Alice Springs. As well as

that there are programs such as

the home information parentsing

program, which is sitting down

and giving parents the

opportunity to start doing

small learning exercises with

their kids before they go into

school which we are supporting.

We're providing the dollars,

we're providing the framework.

Yes there will be pressure on the States to deliver but we do

it because we do understand

very clearly how important this

need is to get kids on the

right foot as they go into

school and then hopefully in

later life to work and

university. Thanks very much

for joining us tonight. Thanks

Emma. Tomorrow night, the sec

part of our special early

education report will focus on

how the New South Wales

Government will transform 15

struggling schools to help

students who are not meeting

their potential. A big part of

that plan is, again,

pre-school. We'll also hear

from one of America's leading neuroscientists, who's

successfully using brain

research to develop classroom

programs.

The trial of the man who

killed 77 people in Norway last

year has begun. Anders Breivik

gave a far right salute and

shook hands with prosecutorses

and court officials before hearing the indictment against

him read out to the court. The 33-year-old has already

admitted to carrying out the

bomb and gun attacks last July

but says he was acting in

self-defence. And he denies any

criminal responsibility. I do

not recognise the Norwegian

court. You've got your mandate

from political parties that

support multiculturalism.

Later in the hearing, Breivik

choked back tears as he watched

a film he had made showing

photos and drawings of

Islamists which he posted n on

the Internet on the day of the

attacks. The court must now

decide whether Breivik is

criminally insane. If it

decides he is, he will be committed to psychiatric care

rather than a prison. Heavy

fighting in the Afghan capital

Kabul has ended after an

18-hour battle between Taliban

in-Sur jemts and Afghan

soldiers backed by NATO troops.

A Taliban spokesman said the coordinated attacks were a

response to recent claims by

NATO officials that the

insurgency was weak, it was

also in retaliation over recent

actions by American soldiers.

Jon Stewart reports. Suicide

bombers and gunman staged

attacks in the heart of Kabul.

Targetsing embassy, hotels and

the local Parliament. The

United States, British and

German embassies were all hit.

The attacks were well

coordinated. Outside of the

capital, the insurgents struck

an airfield at Jalalabad. South

of Kabul, in the town of

Gardez, American soldiers

responded to an attack on their

base. (Gun fire) Afghan

security forces led the

counter-attack, backed by NATO

air support. The Taliban may

have struck a symbolic blow, reminding the world of their presence in the nation's

capital. But the insurgents

failed to penetrate foreign

embassies or the Parliament. By

the end of the two-day battle,

36 insurgents were dead. Eight

Afghan soldiers and three

civilians also died. This is

obviously aimed to send a

signal. The signal could very

well be that they are able to

enter the city. Well, they

might've entered the city today

but Afghan National Police are

showing them at the very moment

very clearly where their

limitations are. The Foreign

Minister reaffirmed the Australian Government's

commitment to preparing Afghan

forces to take control of their

own country. I'm not pretending

for a moment that the news

we're dealing with today is

anything but distressing an

discouraging. But you've got to

persist with the job of

transition. That is so that the

Afghan security forces

themselves are carrying out

security and after 2014,

carrying out the combat

functions. That's a job that

we're passing over to them.

It's a job that will keep

Australian forces busy for at

least the next two years.

The fragile ceasefire in

Syria which began last Thursday

appears to be unravelling. This

amateur video purportedly shows

government forces pounding the

opposition stronghold of Homs

with shells and mortars.

Opposition groups say it's the

third consecutive day of

shelling. The latest violence

comes as an advanced team of

six United Nations observers

arrived in Syria. They're now

in discussions with Syrian

officials about the ground

rules for monitoring the

ceasefire. Now a look at the

weather.

That's all from us. If you

want to look back at tonight's

interview with Peter Garrett or

review any of our stories or

transcripts, visit our web

site. You can also follow us on

twit and on Facebook. 'The

Business' is coming up with Ticky Fullerton. I will see you again tomorrow. Goodnight.

Closed Captions by CSI

9 hours. More on our website at

abc.net.au/news.

over yet. Warnings the big

banks still have camping up to

do with borrowers caught in the

middle. I'm Ticky Fullerton. You're watching 'The Business'.

This Program Is Captioned Live.

The ANZ's copping flak for

its surprise rate hike. Now the

waiting game is on over which

bank will move next. So banking

on a backlash. But the fourth

biggest lender has at least one

friend in Canberra. Tough love

for the Greens. Can the

farmer's daughter woo business

in the bush? And - looking for

the next billion dollar baby.

Australia's new whiz-kids on

the tech start-up block. First

a quick look at those markets.

Australia's major lenders

have yet to follow the lead of

ANZ and raise their home

mortgage rates. But if they do

they can count on the support

of Andrew Robb. The shadow

Finance Minister defended the

ANZ's action while his leader

Tony Abbott prefered to blame

the government. With tensions

building again over European

debt analysts say it's only a

matter of time before the other

banks join the ANZ. Opposition

leader Tony Abbott found a

manufacturer which isn't losing

sleep because of the high

Australian dollar. At the

thriving mattress manufacturer

Sleepmaker even the ANZ Bank

escaped criticism despite

lifting interest rates. I'm not

here to defend the banks. The

banks are quite capable of

defending themselves. With the

help of shadow Finance Minister

Andrew Robb. You know they're

not stupid. And I don't think

they'd willy-nilly put up their

margin like if if they weren't suffering a problem with their

margin. They are responsible

citizens. Maybe not so

responsible according to one

banker. ME Bank CEO Jamie

McPhee says the big banks are

favouring shareholders, and

institution wlos can rely on

taxpayer bail-outs when times

turn nasty, ought to be

behaving differently. I

certainly think the economy's

got a sense of fragility about

it. And so therefore to your

point that I just think it's up

to the major banks to make sure

that they don't add to that

fragility in the economy. The

Federal Opposition leader,

while not backing Andrew Robb,

preferred to lay the blame

elsewhere. When you got the

government borrowing $100

million every single day, of

course there's going to be

upward pressure an interest

rates and that's the problem.

The pacic economic problem, it

seems, the ANZ failed to

mention when it raised rates

last week. Analysts say there

are much larger forces at

work. I think the main reason

for rates going up is the

international financial situation particularly the risk

in Europe and the capital

markets in Europe. Rates are

higher than they've been for

some time. Flat growth in

Australia in terms of loans and

also deposits are nothing

really to do with the

government situation, the

government debt. And there's

noened in sight to the

pressures. It's tough both in

the wholesale markets and as

you just mentioned, what's

going on in Europe and it

doesn't seem to be getting any

better. I think the pressure on

wholesale rates is going to

stay high for some time and of

course that's flowing into a much greater level of

competitive innocence our

retail rates. It suggests the

days of banks running their own

interest rate race aren't

over. I would expect to see

some movement up over the next

little while. How much will

depend a bit on where they want

to position competitively and

how much volume they want to

write. And how much criticism

they're prepared to take. The changing of the guard at the

top of the Greens has created a

flurry of speculation on what

this means for politics, the

bush and business. New leader

Christine Milne is embarking on

a listening tour in the bush

where she believes the Greens

have a lot in common with many

farmers. Take foreign buy-outs

of agricultural land and coal

seam gas for starters. A

company that owns an awful lot

of the bush b 1% of Australia

actually, is AA Co the