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New device measures driver fatigue -

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(generated from captions) As the sun guess down, we're

biologically programmed to hit the

sack. We need about eight hours

sleep a night, but in our modern

24-7 way of life, up to 30% of us

aren't getting anywhere near that

and the consequences can be deadly.

It a esestimated fatigue is a

It a esestimated fatigue is a factor in 20% of fatal road accidents.

Enough to warrant graphic public

education campaign. But you don't

have to have been up all night to

have to have been up all night to be at risk of drowsy driving. Waking

even a few hours short of the reck

mnded eight, can be dangerous.

Even for one night with four or

Even for one night with four or five hours of sleep increases your risk

of having an accident by about

of having an accident by about three fold. So - and if you're doing that

every night on a permanent basis

then you chronically have an

increased risk of having a road zen.

Dr Mark Howard is a sleep doctor

at the Austin Hospital in

Melbourne who's worked to combat

fatigue in the transport industry

which is notorious for cheating

sleep. His team is trialing a new

device that provides an early

warning of dousiness. (Alarm

beeps) These glasses contain

infra-red sensors which blinks

infra-red sensors which blinks which are connected to a box with two

alarms of increased sleepiness even

before the driver is aware of it.

You are now too drowsy to drive

safely. There's really a continum

from being completely alert through

to that stage of falling asleep.

There's slowing of eyelid closure

and increased duration of eyelid

closure as you become sleepy. Not

necessarily closing your eyes for

very long periods of many seconds,

but an increase of a few hundred

milliseconds or even tens of

milliseconds is actually abnormal.

As shown on this driving simulator

these early stages of drowsiness

increase alertment and ability to

react to visual stimulous like

another vehicle or a red lite. The

Austin researchers are now testing

the devoice on people with slope

disorders, like Romeo Sacris. The

29-year-old night shift worker has

sleep apnoea, a condition

sleep apnoea, a condition affecting 5% of the population in which

5% of the population in which throat muscles relax during sleep to block

breathing, which then triggers

constant waking. I keep waking

constant waking. I keep waking every 2-3 minutes and I start breathing

2-3 minutes and I start breathing 40 times an hour. So you wake 40

times an hour. So you wake 40 times in an hour? Yeah, every 2-3

minutes. The condition leaves him

chronically sleepy and once almost

resulted in tragedy during a long

car trip from Sydney to Melbourne.

Suddenly I was tired and I didn't

even notice that I fell asleep for

- I don't know, maybe 1 second or

- I don't know, maybe 1 second or 2 seconds because when I wake up my

car was already on the gravel. It

was scary because you have got all

of your loved ones in the back of

your car. Romeo Sacris is now

receiving treatment, but believes

he'd benefit from the drowsiness

device. Marketed as Optalert, it

device. Marketed as Optalert, it was invented by Taryn Onafaro, a

invented by Taryn Onafaro, a retired Melbourne sleep physician. After

more than 30 years treating sleepy

patients, he dreamed up the device

in his back shed as a project for

his retirement. Initially I did the

soldering riern at home in a shed

soldering riern at home in a shed in the back, so it was all very

primitive and my basic driving

primitive and my basic driving force was if I know how to measure

drowsiness in people, maybe I can

stop them being drowsy when they

stop them being drowsy when they are driving and maybe I can save a few

lives. Nine years after he started

tinkering, Taryn Onafaro' hobby

moved from the drawing board to the

road with one of Australia's

road with one of Australia's biggest transport companies Toll Holdings

trialing the glasses in some of its

trucks. I've been in the transport

industry for over 30-odd wroers and

started as a driver myself and I've

noticed the amount of accidents

noticed the amount of accidents over the years and we can control the

accidents on the road and make

everyone safer, I think it's

certainly worth use

certainly worth using the device.

29-year-old Brad Ibrahim hauls a

volatile cargo of 55,000 litres

volatile cargo of 55,000 litres of fuel. He already operates under

strict fatigue management rules,

strict fatigue management rules, but was surprised when using the

was surprised when using the glasses of how unaware he was of early

of how unaware he was of early signs of drowsiness. When I first put

of drowsiness. When I first put them on, they were alerting me I was

drowsy and I thought I'm not even

drowsy but driving down the road a

bit I thought I could do with a bit

of a nap or get out and kick the

tyres. Yeah, you don't realise

tyres. Yeah, you don't realise until it actually happens. Toll is

negotiating with Optalert to

purchase the device and is talking

to the inventors about developing a

central monitoring service that

could alert head office if a driver

isn't heeding the warnings. As

alcohol can affect people

differently, so, too, can

drowsiness. So the Austin

researchers are now investigating a

standard point at which a tired

driver is too tired to drive.

One of the difficulties is

determining a level which

determining a level which integrates high-accident risk. Not a level

which integrates a mild degree of

tiredness. Optalert won't be

available to domestic drivers for

some time, but its designers are

leading the world in getting this

far. Much to the delight of Taryn

Onafaro, who has bank rolled much

Onafaro, who has bank rolled much of the development. I'm independent

doing it because I aim to get rich.

I'm doing it because I'm a

I'm doing it because I'm a physician and I like helping people and I see

this as an opportunity to make a major difference. Natasha Johnson with that report.

In Sydney earlier this evening, fans of Margaret Olley gathered for an event

that they never imagined would take place - the launch of the artist's biography. The 82-year-old seems to have spent her life in the limelight,

ever since William Dobell's exotic portrait of her won the 1948 Archibald Prize.

Over the years Olley gathered plenty of her own prizes and has remained a favourite with art lovers for her instantly recognisable still lifes. Up until now, she's tended to draw a veil over the detail of her personal life, but Margaret Olley has now revealed all her secrets to biographer Meg Stewart. The friendships and the lovers, including a marriage proposal to homosexual artist Donald Friend, are all documented, as are the battles with both alcoholism and depression. There's also the joy of her life with theatre director Sam Hughes,