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(generated from captions) What ifr I do, I do it to excess. This program is captioned live. Welcome to the program. in recent weeks, With petrol prices soaring about alternative fuels. there's been renewed discussion little interest The Prime Minister showed in last week's petrol summit, a junior minister. but did eventually send his commitment The same day John Howard reiterated to the bio-fuels industry ethanol blends. with plans to increase the use of Australia's major oil companies Today he met with the leaders of achieve his target to map out a plan to bio-fuel production by 2010. of 350 million litres of

a cleaner option. It's seen by some as On the other hand, ethanol may damage cars. there are concerns that

on the government's hands So, arguably, the biggest fight public confidence. revolves around how to boost And what about petrol prices? we'll be paying less for fuel? Is there any guarantee some of the answers. Tracy Bowden went looking for

Ethanol-fuelled vehicles are

nothing new. Way back in 1896

Ford's first car, the quadracycle, nothing new. Way back in 1896 Henry

ran on ethyl alcohol. He called it

"the fuel of the future". But by

time the model T Ford was coming "the fuel of the future". But by the

the production line in the early time the model T Ford was coming off

1900s, there was another option -

gasoline. It would become the fuel

of choice, but now Australian

motorists are being urged to go

to the future. It runs beautiful motorists are being urged to go back

with it and I really think - I'm

very happy with it. Good economy,

good performance. John Klasson's

Subaru WRX is a far cry from Henry

Ford 's wheels, but he's a convert

to by wrote fuels and has no time

for those who caution against

ethanol. Big business, you know.

oil companies that want to make, ethanol. Big business, you know. The

know. I put 10% ethanol and that's oil companies that want to make, you

10 less for the big business, big

oil companies. The myths and

would have us as great antagonists oil companies. The myths and stories

against ethanol. That's actually

not the case and we hope to promote

its use. That's exactly what the

Prime Minister was hoping to hear

today when he met with the leaders

of Australia's big oil companies.

Their co-operation is critical to

the success of the bio fuel

industry. The principal purpose of

the meeting was to talk about the

government's target of 350 mill

litres of bio-fuels by the year

2010. I'm pleased to report that

both the government and the oil

companies have agreed to work

together to achieve that target.

target. That was a very together to achieve that

discussion. There was no coercion. target. That was a very constructive

There was a lot of fact finding and

discussion, points of view of view

that were shared back and forth,

certainly no pressure. Ethanol is that were shared back and forth, but

form of alcohol distilled from certainly no pressure. Ethanol is a

or sugar cane and currently form of alcohol distilled from grain

multibillion-dollar fuel market. for only 0.1% of Australia's or sugar cane and currently accounts

What the government is doing now

critical to the establishment of an What the government is doing now is

industry in Australia. Not a small

group of ethanol and by yes diesel

producers. We need a national scale

industry. Proposals from the

government-commissioned bio fuels

taskforce include allow

taskforce include allowing blends

5% ethanol or E 5 to be sold taskforce include allowing blends of

labels and conducting testing on 5% ethanol or E 5 to be sold without

theious of E10 ethanol blends.

Whether that's good or bad news

depends on who you talk to. We had

the biggest trials in the world

on 10% ethanol in '97, '98 and the biggest trials in the world here

there's not been one single

of engine-related ethanol damage there's not been one single incident

reported in Australia since 1992.

1992. You've got to remember we're reported in Australia since

doing a national experiment by

making this change. Now, let's

very carefully about that before we making this change. Now, let's think

do that. The ethanol debate is

fuelled by a potent mix of elements

- economic, environmental and

political. Then there's public

perception. Consumer resistance to

ethanol was hardened by reports of

actual engine damage. Engine makers

and even the biggest Ier of petrol

bowsers worried too much could void.

void... A few years ago, after bowsers worried too much could

claims unspecified amounts of

ethanol, were being placed in fuel,

service stations began to promote

the fact that their petrol didn't

contain it. The government

acknowledges that key to reaching

its target, is improving consumer

confidence. We need to build the

confidence, as far as consumers are

concerned, and we believe that the

government can lead the way in that

regard. Some independent operators

with encouragement from the major

Australian producer of ethanol,

Manildra, decided to turn a

into a positive. With all of the Manildra, decided to turn a negative

scare tactics, we eve seen that

ethanol was seen as a taboo subject,

something that no-one would want

everybody hides, a seetive additive something that no-one would want and

smuggled into your fuel and illegal.

We said ethanol is not illegal and

doesn't hurt your car. Why not put

it up on the main boards of our

service station and let everyone

know when they drive down the road

before they pull in we sell ethanol

in our fuel. We've got the opposite

way to what the other operators

and we have found this is slowly way to what the other operators have

increasing our sales and increasing

awareness. Nick Fletcher's family

runs a chain of service stations in

NSW selling a 10% ethanol blend.

Some customers have come to us and

said they save $5-10 a week from

just filling up at our service

station. So there is a big saving

for the family - average family

during the week. But not even is

enthusiastic. Australia's car during the week. But not even is so

industry is opposed to the Prime

Minister's notion of a 10% blend.

favours half of that. Australia Minister's notion of a 10% blend. It

harmonises to the European standard

for engineering and for fuels and

for emissions and in this instance

we would like to see a situation

where we follow that particular E 5

limit and in that respect we can

have all new vehicles in the market

in Australia able to use ethanol

with 5% and it does make it a

simpler, a little easier, for the with 5% and it does make it a little

used vehicles in our car park here.

Yet Holden in Australia does make

a vehicle for the South American

market that takes more than 20%

ethanol. A vehicle can be

to run on various levels of ethanol, ethanol. A vehicle can be modified

that is correct. What we are simply

saying is it's not appropriate for

Australia. What they do in Brazil

South America is for their own Australia. What they do in Brazil or

particular market and we don't have

to follow that particular situation

at all. Then there 's the

environmental debate. While calling

for extra research, the

for extra research, the Government's bio fuel taskforce suggests ethanol

offers health and greenhouse

benefits. Not everyone is convinced.

The public have to be a little bit

sceptical of claims that are coming

from various interests and see

from various interests and see where those claims are coming from and

those claims are coming from and who stands to benefit from this. Dr

Robert Niven has been researching

the environmental impact of ethanol

and warns of significant pollution

problems. It certainly is true that

exhaust emissions decrease, but you

also get higher eoperative losses

from ethanol fuels and these

overcome the benefit you've got

overcome the benefit you've got from the exhaust emissions. You end up

with higher volatile emissions and

with higher volatile emissions and a slight increase in nitrogen oxide

emissions and both of those

emissions and both of those together will increase ground-level ozone

concentrations or what we refer to

as photochemical smog. This is

already a concern in Australia, in

most of our cities. The bio-fuel

industry enjoys strong backing from

the Federal Government, including a

50% excise concession and a swag of

funds to support new production.

funds to support new production. But the Prime Minister has faced

considerable opposition from within

his own Cabinet, amid concerns that

a mandate enforcing ethanol blends

would prop up inefficient rural

industries. What is mandatory is an

implementation of our policy and

implementation of our policy and our policy announced in 2001 was that

policy announced in 2001 was that we would get to that target and we

would get to that target and we will get do that target. We need the

co-operation of the oil companies

and they have indicated a

willingness to co-operate. Everyone

knows that a mandate is always

possible. The Government always has

a choice to do that but I think

a choice to do that but I think they recognise that would be the wrong

thing to de. John Howard has

settled for individual action plans

from oil companies and eventually a

cross-industry strategy, but so far

there's no timeframe. What about

concessions the Government needs

concessions the Government needs you on board, did they offer you any

concessions in other areas to

encourage you to help out? No

concessions offered and none

expected. This is really a

commercial decision that has to be

done in the context of a policy

done in the context of a policy goal of the Government and there's been

no trade-off discussions whatever

and nor do I think there should be.

What about the most important

request for motorists? Will this

mean cheaper fuel? Apparently not.

mean cheaper fuel? Apparently not. We've never represented this as

being some kind of comprehensive

answer to dearer petrol. It can

answer to dearer petrol. It can make some contribution over time, but it

should not be seen as some magical answer. That report from Tracy Bowden. It's school holidays in much of the country and, despite the high price of fuel, that means an increase in long-distance car trips to holiday destinations. But when drivers spend many hours on the road they can be at greater risk of becoming drowsy or falling asleep at the wheel. It's estimated that fatigue is a factor in one in five road accidents and despite graphic public education campaigns drivers often fail to recognise when they're too tired to drive. Now there's a ground-breaking new device being trialed in Melbourne which can measure a driver's sleepiness and sound an alarm which warns drivers to pull over. Natasha Johnson reports.

As the sun guess down, we're

biologically programmed to hit the

sack. We need about eight hours

sleep a night, but in our modern

24-7 way of life, up to 30% of us

aren't getting anywhere near that

and the consequences can be deadly.

It a esestimated fatigue is a

It a esestimated fatigue is a factor in 20% of fatal road accidents.

Enough to warrant graphic public

education campaign. But you don't

have to have been up all night to

have to have been up all night to be at risk of drowsy driving. Waking

even a few hours short of the reck

mnded eight, can be dangerous.

Even for one night with four or

Even for one night with four or five hours of sleep increases your risk

of having an accident by about

of having an accident by about three fold. So - and if you're doing that

every night on a permanent basis

then you chronically have an

increased risk of having a road zen.

Dr Mark Howard is a sleep doctor

at the Austin Hospital in

Melbourne who's worked to combat

fatigue in the transport industry

which is notorious for cheating

sleep. His team is trialing a new

device that provides an early

warning of dousiness. (Alarm

beeps) These glasses contain

infra-red sensors which blinks

infra-red sensors which blinks which are connected to a box with two

alarms of increased sleepiness even

before the driver is aware of it.

You are now too drowsy to drive

safely. There's really a continum

from being completely alert through

to that stage of falling asleep.

There's slowing of eyelid closure

and increased duration of eyelid

closure as you become sleepy. Not

necessarily closing your eyes for

very long periods of many seconds,

but an increase of a few hundred

milliseconds or even tens of

milliseconds is actually abnormal.

As shown on this driving simulator

these early stages of drowsiness

increase alertment and ability to

react to visual stimulous like

another vehicle or a red lite. The

Austin researchers are now testing

the devoice on people with slope

disorders, like Romeo Sacris. The

29-year-old night shift worker has

sleep apnoea, a condition

sleep apnoea, a condition affecting 5% of the population in which

5% of the population in which throat muscles relax during sleep to block

breathing, which then triggers

constant waking. I keep waking

constant waking. I keep waking every 2-3 minutes and I start breathing

2-3 minutes and I start breathing 40 times an hour. So you wake 40

times an hour. So you wake 40 times in an hour? Yeah, every 2-3

minutes. The condition leaves him

chronically sleepy and once almost

resulted in tragedy during a long

car trip from Sydney to Melbourne.

Suddenly I was tired and I didn't

even notice that I fell asleep for

- I don't know, maybe 1 second or

- I don't know, maybe 1 second or 2 seconds because when I wake up my

car was already on the gravel. It

was scary because you have got all

of your loved ones in the back of

your car. Romeo Sacris is now

receiving treatment, but believes

he'd benefit from the drowsiness

device. Marketed as Optalert, it

device. Marketed as Optalert, it was invented by Taryn Onafaro, a

invented by Taryn Onafaro, a retired Melbourne sleep physician. After

more than 30 years treating sleepy

patients, he dreamed up the device

in his back shed as a project for

his retirement. Initially I did the

soldering riern at home in a shed

soldering riern at home in a shed in the back, so it was all very

primitive and my basic driving

primitive and my basic driving force was if I know how to measure

drowsiness in people, maybe I can

stop them being drowsy when they

stop them being drowsy when they are driving and maybe I can save a few

lives. Nine years after he started

tinkering, Taryn Onafaro' hobby

moved from the drawing board to the

road with one of Australia's

road with one of Australia's biggest transport companies Toll Holdings

trialing the glasses in some of its

trucks. I've been in the transport

industry for over 30-odd wroers and

started as a driver myself and I've

noticed the amount of accidents

noticed the amount of accidents over the years and we can control the

accidents on the road and make

everyone safer, I think it's

certainly worth use

certainly worth using the device.

29-year-old Brad Ibrahim hauls a

volatile cargo of 55,000 litres

volatile cargo of 55,000 litres of fuel. He already operates under

strict fatigue management rules,

strict fatigue management rules, but was surprised when using the

was surprised when using the glasses of how unaware he was of early

of how unaware he was of early signs of drowsiness. When I first put

of drowsiness. When I first put them on, they were alerting me I was

drowsy and I thought I'm not even

drowsy but driving down the road a

bit I thought I could do with a bit

of a nap or get out and kick the

tyres. Yeah, you don't realise

tyres. Yeah, you don't realise until it actually happens. Toll is

negotiating with Optalert to

purchase the device and is talking

to the inventors about developing a

central monitoring service that

could alert head office if a driver

isn't heeding the warnings. As

alcohol can affect people

differently, so, too, can

drowsiness. So the Austin

researchers are now investigating a

standard point at which a tired

driver is too tired to drive.

One of the difficulties is

determining a level which

determining a level which integrates high-accident risk. Not a level

which integrates a mild degree of

tiredness. Optalert won't be

available to domestic drivers for

some time, but its designers are

leading the world in getting this

far. Much to the delight of Taryn

Onafaro, who has bank rolled much

Onafaro, who has bank rolled much of the development. I'm independent

doing it because I aim to get rich.

I'm doing it because I'm a

I'm doing it because I'm a physician and I like helping people and I see

this as an opportunity to make a major difference. Natasha Johnson with that report.

In Sydney earlier this evening, fans of Margaret Olley gathered for an event

that they never imagined would take place - the launch of the artist's biography. The 82-year-old seems to have spent her life in the limelight,

ever since William Dobell's exotic portrait of her won the 1948 Archibald Prize.

Over the years Olley gathered plenty of her own prizes and has remained a favourite with art lovers for her instantly recognisable still lifes. Up until now, she's tended to draw a veil over the detail of her personal life, but Margaret Olley has now revealed all her secrets to biographer Meg Stewart. The friendships and the lovers, including a marriage proposal to homosexual artist Donald Friend, are all documented, as are the battles with both alcoholism and depression. There's also the joy of her life with theatre director Sam Hughes, the man she eventually shared a house with,

but Margaret Olley seems to shine as a solo act, as she says, "I never wanted to be owned." That spirit was captured by Barry Humphries tonight when he launched Margaret Olley's story.

We praise today Neath Edmond's

noble vault, the queen might once

have made a dame, sprightly and

always generous to a fault, she

stands here like her paintings in

a frame. (Laughter). So raise your

glass of Dom, Moet or Bolly, as

glass of Dom, Moet or Bolly, as this new century grows ever dreerier.

Thank God there's still an artist

like Ms Olley to paint Australia's

unchartered interior. Here is no

volume for faint-hearted wowsers or

nuns locked up in intellectual

priories nor for those pierced

feminists in trousers. This become

might just outlive 'The Latham

Diaries'. (Laughter). Margaret

Olley a tell-all book at the age of

82. Why now when you've been fairly

circumstance inspect about some

aspects of your past? Well, I

aspects of your past? Well, I just don't think it really matters about

your past, but people then start

asking you questions and - well,

they have been for years, but a few

years ago I got no a terrible black

hole of depression. I was

overmedicated. But it really is

serious. I thought I was dying. I

really wanted to kill myself, to be

quite honest, but I thought I'd

quite honest, but I thought I'd make a mess of it. My friend, Philip

Bacon, thought - he got me

interested and said the book should

be written before I die. He didn't

say "before you die", but, "I think

you should do a book." I agreed to

it in a weak moment. It's been like

two years of questions and

questions. It's quite an

questions. It's quite an interesting process because you don't remember

the past. I mean, you don't think

about it. It's been interest

about it. It's been interesting,

about it. It's been interesting, but I don't know whether other people

would be interested. Oh, I think

they will. Let's go through some of

the things. Friendships are at the

centre of the book and the centre

centre of the book and the centre of your story, aren't they? Where

would we be without friends?

would we be without friends? Friends to me are everything. What about

Donald Friend? He was a central

figure in your life, wasn't he?

Well, everybody is central to

Well, everybody is central to where you are at the moment. But

he was a great friend. We painted

well together. I mean I love

painting and being with Donald

working because he was always

working and I love people who are

doing. But with Donald Friend what

was interesting is the become

reveals certainly that at one stage

both of you considered taking it to

another level, in fact considering

marriage, and you in fact proposed

to him at various stages. What was

prop pepping all of that because he

was a gay man, wasn't he? I

was a gay man, wasn't he? I wasn't going to mention this at all, my

side of the story. But when the

library in Canberra started sending

me ex tracts from his diaries I had

no idea that he had any of these

feelings about me. I had no idea at

all. He never told you? Hmm?

He never told you? He never told

me. I regarded it just as

friendship. What were your

friendship. What were your feelings towards him? He was a good friend.

I mean, I had no sexual feelings

about him. So why did you suggest

marriage? Oh, well, that was - I

became pregnant with an impossible

person and in a drunken moment -

person and in a drunken moment - you know, drinking got out of control

know, drinking got out of control in those days, I think I thought that

was a solution, but of course thank

God and because it would have been

disaster. Why do you say that?

Well, can you imagine? You

Well, can you imagine? You problem by didn't know Donald. But it would

have been disaster. I mean, I've

have been disaster. I mean, I've had many disasters in my life. Not

disasters, escapes. I call them

"disasters", lucky escapes.

(Laughs). Sam Hughes wasn't a

disaster. He's the great love of

your life? Yes, I adored Sam.

Why did that work, by the way? Is

it because you gave each other a

lot of space? Because we gave

lot of space? Because we gave each other a lot oaf space. As I've said,

I don't like to be owned. I'm a I don't like to be owned. I'm a

I don't like to be owned. I'm a free spirit and I hope I always remain a

free spirit because being a fro

spirit allows you to do whatever

spirit allows you to do whatever you want to do. You've always taken a

dim view of conventional marriage,

haven't you? Oh, no, it works

haven't you? Oh, no, it works very well for other people. (Laughs)

You've nearly always paint

well for other people. (Laughs). You've nearly always painted scenes

of domestic life. You know, fruit,

jars, bowls in wonderful -- I

jars, bowls in wonderful -- I love painting landscapes, but I don't

drive, unfortunately. So, what,

some mornings you

some mornings you do get up and say,

"I would love to paint a landscape,

but I can only make it to the

studio, so I'll do a nice still

life"? No, I have paintings in

people's places that I suddenly

thought I must get out so I would

ring a friend and said, "Would it

ring a friend and said, "Would it be convenient if I come over?" One

place in particular in Elizabeth

Bay, I just loved there, watching

the bay and the harbour, getting

some vitamin D. It is gorgeous,

some vitamin D. It is gorgeous, just watching Sydney pass by. You've

said you paint for yourself. Is

said you paint for yourself. Is that right? I do. Who would you paint

for? So you don't have a

for? So you don't have a particular market in mind or? Oh, perish the

thought. No, the only reason you

have an exhibition is really when

they say "it is up". The become

also documents some dark moments

also documents some dark moments and one of them of course is your

one of them of course is your battle with alcoholism. Oh, yes. Whatever

with alcoholism. Oh, yes. Whatever I do, I do it to excess. (Laughs)

do, I do it to excess. (Laughs). Whatever I do, I do it to excess.

Why do you and the bottle not get

on? I thought it was all made for

me. Every drop was made for me.

Until the end it claims you.

Something had to be done or I

Something had to be done or I would have been long gone dead. So that

was a very lucky escape and the

wisest thing I've ever done in my

life. Is it still a battle? Do you

still say the AA prayer, for

instance, from time to time?

Oh, I say it all the time.

Oh, I say it all the time. Anybody could imemploy it. God grant me the

serenity to accept the things that

serenity to accept the things that I cannot change, courage to change

cannot change, courage to change the things that I can, and the wisdom

things that I can, and the wisdom to know the difference. Anybody could

apply that to their life. When

you're in a tight corn

you're in a tight corner, it really

gets you together and centres you.

You're quite a fighter. Well, of

course. If you want something, you

really have to fight for it. I

don't think anything should be

don't think anything should be easy. If you are determined, you

will become the writer or the

musician or the dancer. If you want

to do anything, you will do it.

Having done a lot of that, what

would you say sustains you now?

What do you feel is the richness

in your life now? Friends. But

what I really like doing best is

painting. I've got so many ideas of

what I want to do. Do you believe

in God? I believe in a higher

power, whatever it is, God as you

understand him, whether it is

Buddha, Allah, God, whatever it is,

every sophisticated religion, most

primitive religion, always believe

in something outside themselves.

It's very humbling. And Margaret Olley's latest exhibition can be seen at Sotheby's in Sydney's Woolahra. And that's the program for tonight. We'll be back at the same time tomorrow, but for now, goodnight. Captions by Captioning and Subtitling International.