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(generated from captions) NARRATOR: In the last few years, of Indigenous companies Redfern has seen an emergence moving into the area. These companies, that were already in the area, along with the organisations are creating a new look to Redfern. Having an identity... but the whole of the inner city. And not just about The Block, that wouldn't normally be. To bring people into Redfern of the NCIE very deliberately We chose Redfern as the home cultural, social history of Redfern. given the important political, It's just a really great place to be of a strong community here. and I really get a sense ten years, has been redeveloped Because Redfern, over the last being repaved, with the streets of Redfern new businesses coming into the area, of Australian Technology Park. the redevelopment just up the road again - We've got Green Square another 3,000 residents. Service has been redeveloped. The Redfern Aboriginal Medical been happening around The Block, So all these developments have transformed into anything yet The Block hasn't that the community wants. that we know

(Siren wails distantly) Growing up on The Block, to be part of The Block. I was very proud about a lot of strong Koori people Being here we learnt in the place and obviously saw some tough times

and what could go wrong, it was deadly Koori families, but most of the time that were strong. deadly things were happening there's something good happening Every day in almost every house here. that's what I think makes it strong. So that's what we saw and or is shown outside of The Block, The stuff that other people see of what this place is about. it's just scraping the surface

for Aboriginal people. The Block is our form of housing That's, like, in the constitution. fought so hard for the land. I mean, our people trials and tribulations. They went through our people right from the beginning. It's been really a struggle for And I think what we are doing, or their dream on. we're just carrying their vision on concept plan approval Well, today we announce

on The Block. for the Pemulwuy Project (Cheering and applause) is rebirthing the land again. The Pemulwuy Project we went through a very vicious cycle I think, as you know, in our community. it was a cycle of learning, But I really felt never make the same mistake that we should when we build a new complex. for the Pemulwuy Project NARRATOR: When the concept was approved in July 2010 the Aboriginal Housing Company the concerns of the residents moved to accommodate and finalise the plans. for our children for the future MAN: I really believe it is and for Redfern itself. for The Block includes 26 apartments NARRATOR: The new concept design and 32 townhouses, a two-storey car park and student accommodation on The Block. to help subsidise affordable housing but patience is a virtue. It took a long time, overnight. It takes time. And I believe you can't do it the script had been written But, as I said before, right from the beginning first called them houses of when our first people is really coming to reality. and I believe that script

has always been a dream NARRATOR: Developing The Block ever since it was established for Indigenous people. as affordable housing Last September, houses in this street in Redfern - a city developer bought most of the Louis St. they evicted the black tenants. At the time they bought the places

But some of the blacks came back in some of these derelict houses. and squatted and jailed for doing so. And they were busted by the police It was a really hard time. couldn't get a house. We looked all round, we slept everywhere. We slept in the park, and all that. We went to relatives' places for Aborigines in those days, But to rent a house, was very, very hard. And we couldn't get work much. we got through it. So, anyway, we struggled through, There was a group of us together. Oh, there was a lot of us. Mum Shirl... Richard. they all got together and... And then that's when some developers were doing it up. They saw in this block here, And, anyway, they went and asked, Would you sell that land to us?' 'We've got the money. So that's how it started. And he said, 'Yeah'. Housing Committee was set up A special Aboriginal were made to Canberra and urgent pleas to set aside $1.5 million so that the whole block, Vine, Everleigh and Louis Streets, bounded by Caroline, could be set aside for blacks only, a special compound of blacks administered by blacks. run by blacks, as you look at that block Vic, what you've talked about has been very idealistic. your own vegetable gardens, Your own preschools, your own police force. Yes. Can you do it? Well, I don't know. Can anybody do it? are born to be together. Black people the Whitlam government granted money NARRATOR: In 1973, Aboriginal Housing Company to the newly formed to buy the land in Redfern. moved into The Block Low-income Aboriginal families to the houses. after renovations were done were among the first residents. Dick Blair and his wife Yvonne I'd just cry because we had a home. 'This is your home'. Nobody knew what it was like to say, The houses were all fixed up lovely. and all this sort of thing and... We all used to have barbies It was a good community. to be living in, here. It was a really good crowd (Train whooshes) of young Aboriginal people NARRATOR: The '70s saw an influx and missions moving away from country towns in the city. to try and get better jobs were often their first port of call. Redfern and The Block our legal services, Our children's service, black theatre, Koori Radio, it all started here. All those Aboriginal organisations that are now spread across Australia... ..this is their originating home. This is an area where they're found something, a little spark, to move forward into their own communities. It's a meeting place for our mob all over Australia. NARRATOR: The vision for The Block was one of great optimism. No-one foresaw the problems that were to come. Probably right at the end of the '80s and the beginning of the '90s for sure the introduction of heroin came into the community. The non-Aboriginal bloke that lived across the road sold heroin. Young blokes who were using it lived on the community. I had really good mates... One's gone now. ..they started selling over there to support their habit. Other people started doing it, they were users. And then no-one saw the death that was connected to it and the destruction of families. Towards the end of it, around the year 2000, I was saying that The Block became an Aboriginal graveyard. Because, as you know, you see with the elephants, they always want to go back to a certain area to die. And The Block started to become that. And we sort of came to a mindset of 'We can not let that happen. We can not let The Block be Aboriginal people's graveyard'. For eight years at least I just became apathetic. I just thought, 'I'll just go to work, I don't really care. I just want no-one to use at the front of my house'. And that was it. Um... that was wrong. We played a role in that by not standing up. Some families I saw, they probably feared standing up to it. Most of the good families just said, 'Look, we've had enough of this. We're out'. NARRATOR: Poverty, drugs and crime overwhelmed The Block. Houses began to deteriorate and the need for better housing conditions started talks of a redevelopment of The Block. Before you can ever build, you've got to demolish. And what you do is relocate the tenants out of some of their houses. Actually, a lot of people don't like changing, that's why they didn't want to move, 'cause they believe this is their area. But you can make changes and it's better for the future.

NARRATOR: Demolition of The Block began in the late '90s and residents were relocated to other areas outside of Redfern. Many rejected the prospect of their homes being replaced with commercial buildings. They've got to think about the benefits that will be delivered to the Aboriginal community, the broader community. They need to understand that you've got to have a revenue base to support your organisation. We don't want to be relying on government handouts. We don't want a handout here, we want a hand up. And providing some funds to get the project going is great but, like I said, we don't want this welfare mentality. We want to move away from that. And it's all about sustainability. By having those buildings and affordable rents to provide a revenue stream for the organisation to survive. (Angry shouting) NARRATOR: Things went from bad to worse for the residents of The Block when, in 2004, protests against the death of a young Aboriginal boy descended into riots. We're putting the blame on our people, too, for doing the wrong thing. We're not just blaming, blaming, blaming everybody else. We are blaming our own people for what they do wrong in our own community. So it's time for people to stop getting in the vicious cycle and all that vicious cycle problem because they're the ones that created that vicious cycle, too, not only just the non-Indigenous people, all the people. Our people created this too, the vicious cycle. So I think it's time for us, as Aboriginal people, to say, 'No, enough's enough. If you don't want to do the right thing in our community, move on. Because we don't want this, you know?' That's why the Pemulwuy Project is so important. 'Cause we are paving the way and building a strong platform for a brighter future. The bad has to be learnt from. We've got to have a big shift in our thinking about what's happening here. People are focussing more on what we can do, instead of the deficits. And the deficits are always there. There's always something wrong and everyone wants to focus on it. We were conditioned to think that way so we've got to teach our children, I want these fellas to know, people might say, 'Oh, that's bad' about the Aboriginal community, don't focus on that. Look at all the great things that happen in your community every day. Look at all the great things that happen in all of our history from the time our people first walked the land. ? MODERN DIDGERIDOO MUSIC NARRATOR: Redfern has changed considerably since those dark periods. A new vibrant atmosphere has been built around the establishment of new facilities and services for Indigenous people, such as the National Centre Of Indigenous Excellence. We've found here, through the centre, that it's been a great place of community interaction, particularly between blackfellas and whitefellas, which has been really surprising for me, the number of non-Aboriginal people who live in this community, and they've lived and worked here for a long time, who claim to have never had much contact with the mob in Redfern. But they now come to the centre every day, whether they're a member of the gym or whether they volunteer in other programs, interacting with Indigenous people. You can see the attitudes are changing. You can see the way that people are responding to the fact we've got majority Aboriginal staff working here in every aspect of the work at the centre. So Redfern isn't just a place for getting answers for our own mob. It's about educating the wider community, as well, which I think is an important thing. If only people could see what the local people have taken up with the National Centre For Indigenous Excellence there's lots of benefits here, 'cause you've got Aboriginal people working behind the desks, you've got Aboriginal people running programs, you've got Aboriginal instructors, you've got Aboriginal participation. It's a gathering place again. So I can't see any reason why it can't be transferred to The Block. I certainly feel like there's a vibrancy here and like we're on the cusp of something big. We identify our problems and we come up with our solutions to our problems. And really having a precinct or a hub here with such a diverse range of Indigenous organisations and people I think will allow that to happen. It is a really exciting place to be. And if the outcome is that more and more people come back to Redfern and call this their home and create new futures for themselves and their families and, again, that's a really exciting thing that the centre is here at the right time and the right place doing the right kind of things in the community. We have to make a conscious effort to support good change

and we have to be proactive in it. We can't just wait back and talk about things and hope it's going to happen. We have to be part of it and support us rebuilding our community and making The Block a place that represents strength and pride. This is a regeneration of what was here once upon a time, a long time ago. And I heard my mother and father talk about this place many times, about it being a place... You could walk into any house in this street and get a cup of tea or a cup of sugar and have a yarn, you know? And now the way the place is, you can't do that. So I think those little things that make a community, hopefully we can bring those back.

I'm really confident we can do. I think this new development at The Block will embrace that, with the cultural centre, with attracting tourism, with multicultural students in the student accommodation. We've got a deadly community here with strong values, strong culture and strong family. So, yeah, I'm looking forward to the Pemulwuy Project development.

NARRATOR: For the Pemulwuy Project to be a long-term success, the communities recognise the need to give young Indigenous people the tools to not only survive, but flourish into leaders of the future. So we might just get Zeke... If you can get him up in the wheelhouse doing a bit of work. NARRATOR: The Tribal Warrior Association works closely with the youth of Redfern.

Their mentorship training program uses role models within the community to support and educate youth and business to work together. It's been an evolving project for a long time within the Redfern area. And our people have been mentoring forever, you know? So, basically, the opportunity to formalise this into a program for the young ones coming through... You and some of the mentors are going to be feeding people, so you'll walk around with plates. The good thing about the program is we, as the older fellas, get to mentor the younger blokes, the 19s and 20s. And these are the kids that have been through the hoop and are looking at turning their lives around. And that gives them the ability to teach the younger blokes, which are a little bit harder for us to get through to. And that little bit of extra time in the loop with us makes a complete difference for the kids coming through. It's influencing each other to stay out of stuff and just keep themselves focussed on building what they have got. So if it's sports, that can be just part of it and we're trying to bust the myth that we're just good at sports or we're just good with our hands so that people are doing different things, but they've got a foundation, that's what we're trying to do.

NARRATOR: In readiness for redevelopment and so tenants can qualify for other affordable accommodation the Aboriginal Housing Company, in November 2010, sent out final eviction notices to the 20 families that still lived on The Block. Over the last few months many of those families have been relocated and the houses boarded up. There are now only a few families left. It's a shame to see it go. But it's got to be properly done. If you want to have something, you've got to take pride in it and do what's right. They went around and knocked on doors first and said, 'We're going to give notice 'cause we're going to start the rebuilding. This development's going to happen'. Yeah, the process was fairly lengthy. And you had supporters and you had people that didn't support it. It's the way it is. You go down there, they call this a ghost town. A lot of people say, 'Gee, it's sad'. Yeah, in some way, I suppose. A lot of people are sad because the past has gone, but they should be happy now that there's a new future. There's a lot of people in the area that are still opposed to the change. I've got my own family who's opposed to change, as well. But I think for the betterment of the movement forward for Aboriginal people we have to move forward with the rest of the world. And if it means changing a few buildings and looking at an environment where our kids are safe, well, so be it. The talk is different. Nobody talks about, 'What about The Block?' All that talk about The Block is past tense. 'Oh, we used to do this, we used to do that' which is sad, but you got to pick it up and go for it as hard as you can to get where you want to go. If you want to develop into a nice home or whatever, you work at it, you know? Yeah. We've been told we're going back. Several families have been told they're going back in. It's based on working families, it's based on people who've got a good rent... record or have tried and worked with plans and based on some of the families that were there in the past that were good tenants and brought pride to the place and strength. On 25th July 2013 it'll be the 40-year anniversary. That's the date we are really pushing for for the complex to be finished, but it mightn't be. But that's the date we've got and we're pushing for that date. NARRATOR: This year will end a chapter in the history of The Block. Time will tell when the bricks will be laid, but the future of the area is one of hope. Right now is a good time. People are pulling back together. And if we can do that knowing that we've done it ourselves, that we're not being orchestrated by any other government department and we hold the cards, that's healthy and that's what we've got to do. We control our own destiny. Nothing's going to be perfect, but we can make a big start by just focussing locally on local issues and having local solutions lead that. And us just working together as a community, there a lot of pluses in that. People said to me, 'Mickey, where are you getting the money?' I said, 'Don't ask those questions, but just have faith. If you're doing the right thing by the community, and by your people and even by people in general, it will come to reality'. Good has got to come out of it this time. We can't let ourselves be dampened. There's going to be good come out of it. All this publicity and all this thing that's been going on, something good's got to happen. We can't be oppressed, 'cause there's a lot of educated young people coming up now. We have politicians and doctors and all that so we'll look for the future for that. That's what I hope. I pray for it. The Block isn't about and Redfern isn't about the buildings on them, it's about the families and the houses that make it up. The ones who care about the place, they're the ones that need to help and stand up and make this place strong again. The ones who don't, we need them to be part of the solution and not the problem. We can't write them off, but we'll make sure that we've got something strong for them to come back to. We believe there's a lot of benefits here, you know? The benefits are going to be tenfold. It's going to provide opportunities for employment and housing and education. And that's all the things we want. We just want to be able to provide that opportunity for our community. And our community members want that and they want to be a part of the process. Because it's going to improve their quality of life and that's all we're after, just like everybody else in Australia. Closed Captions by CSI

THEME MUSIC Istanbul on the Bosporus, the capital of modern Turkey, but once the heart of the great empire of Byzantium. Our wonder is one of the greatest buildings in the world, a building that had a huge influence on Western architecture. Istanbul is a city where two worlds meet - the Christian world and the Islamic world. At its heart is our wonder, once a church, then a mosque.

Hagia Sophia was built by the Emperor Justinian in the sixth century AD. When completed, it was the greatest church in the world. In 537, after nearly six years of construction,

Justinian reputedly said "Oh Solomon, I have surpassed thee",

an incredible statement. He was referring, of course, to Solomon's Temple, the great temple that had inspired so many churches around the world. The name Hagia Sophia means divine wisdom. It became a fitting place for emperors to be crowned. With the rise of the Ottoman empire in the 15th century, Hagia Sophia became a mosque and many of the decorations today feature Eastern influences from that time intermingled with Byzantine art, an extraordinary melding of East and West. Hagia Sophia's main feature is the huge dome that appears to flat in space. It's supported by a series of half-domes and rises off great masonry piers almost concealed in the structure. So the outward thrust of the main dome, the horizontal forces, are countered by equal forces from the series of half-domes and quarter-domes below. This mighty church became a great prototype of pioneering construction - the first to have a huge dome. Hagia Sophia led the architectural way for others to follow - the Duomo in Florence, St Peter's in Rome and of course St Paul's in London. Closed Captions by CSI The Western Ghat mountain range is one of the world's great natural treasure troves. Its multi-storeyed worlds have fascinated wildlife photographer Sandesh Kadur. He's spent the last decade documenting its astonishingly varied but fragile ecosystems. This is the story of Sandesh's journey through one of India's last wildernesses. There is a saying that goes, "We will only conserve only what we love, "we will only love what we understand, "and we will understand only what we are taught." My photography is a tool that I use to help people make that first step. My parents, of course, wanted me to join the family business. But the Western Ghats were always there, boiling away in the back of my mind. My friends got careers, went into business, manufacturing, property, and into IT. I took photographs! CAR HORNS BEEP How could I go to an office with the Western Ghats only a few hours drive away? Also known, as the Sahyadris or "Benevolent Mountains", what makes the Western Ghats so hospitable to all life is the range of different habitats these mountains embrace. Ghats means steps, and the Western Ghats are a very step-like mountain range. We're on a journey along this staircase and we're ascending into discreet worlds. Below me is a familiar Indian jungle, the jungle of Rudyard Kipling, the Jungle Book. Tigers, elephants and monkeys. But as we go up into the mountains behind, we enter the rainforests, and in the rainforest we have strange monkeys like the lion-tailed macaques. As we get further still, we ascend into the high grassland, and this is an area that very few people have been to, the animals that live there are virtually unknown, and nothing has been filmed. In his quest to show not just the beauty but also the importance of this wilderness, Sandesh recalls an extraordinary turning point. Ten years ago in the high-altitude grasslands, he had an encounter with a mysterious cat, a type of feline he'd never seen before. It was nine o'clock in the morning, lovely light filling this valley and this cat comes up over the shoulder of the hill, sniffing the grass. It was a very uniformed greyish-coloured cat with a long tail. My mind is flipping through the book of Indian animals by Prater, and I couldn't place which cat this was. It could only be one of 15 or 16 species of cats found in India, and it wasn't matching any one of them. Sandesh is driven by the tantalising prospect that somewhere in the Western Ghats, there's an undiscovered predator. Sandesh is now back to spend a year in the Western Ghats.