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(generated from captions) has marred the end of the hajj, The worst tragedy in 16 years and hundreds injured in a stampede. with more than 350 people killed government inquiry And Egypt will launch a high-level six Australians dead. into the bus crash that left

remain in hospital, Another 22 Australians with four in critical condition. And that's the news to this minute. The '7:30 Report' is next, at 8:30. and there'll be a news update From me, goodnight. International Pty Ltd Captioning and Subtitling Closed Captions provided by Tonight - gripped by fear first Asia and now Turkey from bird flu. as a third child is confirmed dead with each month The situation is worsening continues to grow each day. and the threat of influenza pandemic in Australia? How likely is an outbreak Any influenza strain and has not been in humans before that is virulent in one species must give us some cause for concern.

This thing grabs us at the wrong

place at the wrong time and we're

dead. The film 'Brokeback Mountain'

knocking down stereoStipes and

Australia. making headlines in America and

free publicity for the film. The ironic thing is it's created More people will want to see it. that's paying off big time. Heath Ledger on the bold gamble people's reactions or judgements, If you make decisions based upon then you make really boring choices.

This program is captioned live.

Welcome to the program. are racing against the clock Authorities in Turkey to stop the spread of bird flu from the disease. after confirming another death Three young siblings have died has now climbed to 18, and the number of people infected just four and six years of age. the latest patients

has come under attack The Turkish Government for its handling of the crisis.

around the infected sites Quarantine zones have been set up of chickens have been destroyed and hundreds of thousands in the past fortnight. it's a case of too little, too late, But local officials say help could be on its way. but it seems announced Overnight, British scientists to the H5N1 virus. they've unlocked the DNA prepared on the drug front, The upside is that we can be better is still mutating but it seems the virus a distinct possibility. and a pandemic remains Nick Grimm reports.

It's living, growing, changing.

Avian influenza - bird flu. Health

experts say that with every passing

the day the moment approaches when

the disease will jump the so-called

species barrier and begin to spread

from human to human. As a new

case reported in Turkey recently from human to human. As a new human

shows, the situation is worsening

with each month and the threat of

influenza pandemic is continuing to with each month and the threat of an

grow every day. It's the first time

in history that we are watch

in history that we are watch

in history that we are watching a

form in birds jumping to humans but

we don't know how long that can

for the varieties to adapt. Now we don't know how long that can take

authorities fear the current

outbreak in Turkey has moved one

step closer to the global pandemic

that could result from the current

H5N1 strain of bird flu mutating

into a form capable of human to

human transmission. Any influenza

strain which is virulent in one

species and has not been in humans

before must give us some cause for

concern over. Overnight British

researchers finished decoding the

DNA sequence of the virus: They've

discovered it's already evolving.

The good news is scientists now

a clearer picture of the virus's The good news is scientists now have

weaknesses and how they can be

better targeted with vaccines. The

bad news is it's developing new

characteristics that make it better

suited for infecting humans.

we need to monitor the changes in

the virus to fully understand

happening. While which understand the virus to fully understand what's

some of the things which make these

viruses more transmissible from

human to human or from avian to

human, we don't understand them all.

The disease is not spreading

humans yet. But three confirmed The disease is not spreading between

deaths in turkey were a brother and

two cyst relevance who had all

contracted the disease directly

birds. But Melbourne-based Dr Ian contracted the disease directly from

Barr from the World Health Organisation's Centre for Influenza

argues we need to be prepared for

the worst-case scenario. ThisH5N1

virus has killed more humans than

any other novel strain which has

been detected in humans in the past

10 or 15 years. If the Turkish

strain of the virus is changing rk

it's all the more urgent that the

disease st quickly brought under

control. The more people inflected,

the more likely it evolve into a

more deadly strain. But limiting

spread of the disease is proving more deadly strain. But limiting the

difficult. In somevilleances,

are reluctant to kill off their difficult. In somevilleances, locals

thir looking birds. We got poison are reluctant to kill off their hell

kill the chickens, this farmer says, thir looking birds. We got poison to

but we don't want to kill them.

Elsewhere, other villagers complain

they can't rid themselves of their

birds fast enough. TRANSLATION: We

asked the officials to collect the

chickens but still we are weight.

Our children are playing with

chickens, children, they don't

understand what is going on. The

World Health Organisation now

bloofs the H5N1 strain has killed World Health Organisation now belief

around 80 people worldwide since it

emerged in 2003. In addition to to

the 3 Turkish fatalities,:

That figure fails to take into

account two more recent Indonesian

deaths which tests are yet to

officially confirm were caused by

bird flu. Even so, a 29-year-old

woman who died just two days ago

almost certainly the latest victim woman who died just two days ago was

of the disease. So if bird flu is

the doorstep, could Australia of the disease. So if bird flu is on

its next target? The poultry the doorstep, could Australia become

handling practices in Turkey are

similar to what occur in South-East

Asia, the way they house their

poultry and it's different from

we do in Australia and in Eastern poultry and it's different from what

Turkey the practices are very

similar - poultry in close

habitation with people. Dr Peter

Scott is a specialist in avian

influenza. He beliefs the H5N1

strain of the disease is a far

bigger threat for nations where

cockfighting is common. There

handling cocks and suck secretions cockfighting is common. There people

from the wounds of the bird and

the mouth and obviously people are from the wounds of the bird and from

handling very sick and diseased

birds with bird flu and handling

extroo Creta from the birds and birds with bird flu and handling the

that's how they're contaminated.

The agricultural practices tans

surveillance of the poultry

surveillance of the poultry industry is of high quality in Australia.

But, nounls nonetheless, if you

But, nounls nonetheless, if you have a migratery bird bringing in an

infection into the Northern

Territory as part of their normal

cycle of yearly activities, it's

quite - it's feasible to see that

quite - it's feasible to see that an infection could get into the local

bird industry. That's something

Australia simply can't Ied for to

let happen, according to one expert.

Professor Peter Curson estimates

bird flu has already cost the world

economy around $16 million. After

economy around $16 million. After 30 years studying Australian epidemics,

everything from influenza right

through to smallpox, he argues that

now Australia must do more to head

off what could become a major

off what could become a major health crisis. What we need is an

up-to-date computer-based system

over the whole of Australia where

vets and doctors and laboratories

anded animal hospitals can report

quickly and feftly to a centralised

authority. In Europe, the bird flu

outbreak has seen countries

surrounding Turkey implement

surrounding Turkey implement drastic mesh nurse a bid to head off the

disease. Even so they know too it

takes just one infected bird to fly

across their boarders and it might

be for nothing. At least now, thank

os the British research team

os the British research team success in cracking the genetic code, the

world is slightly better prepared.

The more we learn about how this

virus is transmit and how it

transfers from country to country,

the better the place will be we

the better the place will be we will be able to put in measures to

counteract that and hopefully stamp

out the H5N1 virus. Nick Grimm with that report. We all know that heroin addiction is destructive but decades of work has failed to stamp it out as a major public health issue. Arguments abound about the most appropriate treatment for addicts and one of the more controversial is the drug Naltrexone. The drug holds the promise of breaking the cycle of addiction and is seen as an alternative to a lifetime of dependency on other drugs such as methadone. The idea has the support of the Health Minister, Tony Abbott,

but the Government's own Drug and Alcohol Research Committee warns that Naltrexone can be a risky option for addicts. Natasha Johnson reports.

You wake up every day, it's like

having chemo. You wake up sick,

throwing up. It's like by the end

throwing up. It's like by the end of the day if you don't get it you're

going to die. And you just keep

getting sicker and sicker and

getting sicker and sicker and sicker and sicker until you get it.

I'd chop me arms off if I knew I

wouldn't use - I'd do anything.

Absolutely anything. 25-year-old

Shaun was once the Australian

Apprentice of the Year. He's now a

heroin addict. For eight years, the

Melbourne plasterer has battled a

$3,000 a week habit that's

$3,000 a week habit that's destroyed his life. He has no job, a criminal

record and strained relationships

with his family. Very devastating.

It's like somebody like your heart

inside is burning, you know.

You can't sleep at night. Sometimes

you're wondering where he is,

whether he's alive. You're waiting

for that knock on the door, for

somebody to come and say he's not

alive anymore. Today, Shaun, who

doesn't want to use his real name,

is undergoing rapid detox at the

First Step Recovery Clinic in

Melbourne. He's previously try add

variety of treatments from

residential rehab to prescribed

methadone and managed to get clean

methadone and managed to get clean a couple of times but relapsed.

Now he and his family are pinning

their hopes on a controversial drug

called naltrexone, which prevents

heroin from working. It blocks the

receptors and if people use opiates

they can't get a high from those

opiates. And so therefore it helps

them to stop using. We've given

them to stop using. We've given you a fair bit. I've got a real high

tolerance. It means they're not

getting high all the time so their

brains actually start working Bert

and they can start thinking more

clearly and start dealing with the

issues in their life. After

undergoing this intense 8-hour drug

induced withdrawal treatment, Shaun

will On naltrexone. I've left the

continuery, I've gone to the bush,

I've done it every way I thought

possible and this time I've got me

mind set. I'm on the urge where I'm

going to end up like this for the

rest of me life or change it now

while I can. First using in the

'70s, naltrexone was once hailed as

a miracle cure but the medical

a miracle cure but the medical world remains divided on its benefits.

Compared to so-called min tennance

#24er7ies like methadone or a similar prescribed drug,

buprenorphine. Naltrexone is the

buprenorphine. Naltrexone is the one form of pharmacotherapy that's

specifically designed to stop the

patient being addicted whereas

methadone and buprenorphine keep

methadone and buprenorphine keep the patient addicted. It's

spectacularly effective when people

take it. The problem is that people

don't take it. And not only does

that make it ineffective but it

that make it ineffective but it also makes it a very dangerous drug to

makes it a very dangerous drug to be used. Potentially dangerous because

naltrexone reduces heroin tolerance

back to zero. So if an addict stops

taking naltrexone and goes back to

using heroin at the dose they were

used to, it's highly likely they

will overdose and die. That

possibility has prompted now

research by the National Drug and

Alcohol Research Centre, which is

funded by the Federal Health

Department. We looked at the

mortality rate for naltrexone and

compared it with methadone and

buprenorphine and we found that the

mortality rate for oral naltrexone

was four times higher than for

methadone and seven times higher

than methadone in the period of

than methadone in the period of high risk. If you don't set up a proper

system you have patients coming off

naltrexone very quickly and you

naltrexone very quickly and you have very bad results. Perth

very bad results. Perth obstetrician George O'Neil operates the biggest

naltrexone clinic in the country.

He's recorded 80 deaths in 3,000 of

his oral naltrexone patients over

four years. He's now developed a

slow release implant he argues

combats the compliance problem and

reduces the overdose risk. A claim

supported by research from the

University of WA. Dr O'Neil says

there have been no deaths among his

there have been no deaths among his 1600 implant patients. With

1600 implant patients. With implants naltrexone you are guaranteed that

the patient gets the medicine and

you are guaranteed the patient gets

the medicine for six or nine months

in a row and that gives you a

in a row and that gives you a window where you can start changing your

lifestyle and as I said we're

lifestyle and as I said we're seeing 50% or more - in the order of 50%

come back for a second implant.

Dr O'Neil's family company Go

Medical has patented the implant

Medical has patented the implant and last year received $2 million from

the Federal Government for research

and development. In addition, Dr

O'Neil's Fresh Start Recovery

O'Neil's Fresh Start Recovery Clinic has received $5 million from the

Western Australian Government and

last year Health Minister Tony

Abbott awarded a $100,000 grant.

The Minister has previously been

reported as supporting greater

access to naltrexone services, and

in a statement to the 7:30 Report,

he said:

But Dr O'Neil wants the Government

to go further and subsidise

naltrexone, like methadone and

buprenorphine. It's a ridiculous

situation to meet a family and say

if we want you to get better and

if we want you to get better and you have a heroin addiction, the

Government is going to give nothing

unless you take an addictive

substance and they're not going to

fund the non-addictive substance at

all. The problem is that while

naltrexone is registered in

Australia to treat alcohol depen

dance, it's so far failed to get

approval from the Therapeutic Goods

Administration for treating drug

addiction and can only be

addiction and can only be prescribed under a special regulatory

under a special regulatory exemption for experimental drugs. The

for experimental drugs. The implants are a new and a good idea, it's

worth trying, and the implant

research is being conducted in many

countries around the world,

including Australia. And the

including Australia. And the results aren't available yet and in

aren't available yet and in medicine we have a strict rule these days

that, until a new medical

intervention has been carefully

researched, we take the attitude

that it is ineffective and unsafe

until proven otherwise. If you've

got a child with cancer and you go

down the children's hospital,

there's a good 50% chance you will

have to use a #34edication that is

not yeah yet passed by the TGA as

well. So if you have a really

serious condition, as a parent or

serious condition, as a parent or as an individual, you've got the

privilege of using a medicine that

is not yet registered. So in that

case, as a parent or as an

individual, and as a doctor, you

have to take responsibility.

Naltrexone treatment can cost up to

$4,000, depending on which clinic

$4,000, depending on which clinic an addict attends. Dr O'Neil says he

charges only those who can afford

charges only those who can afford it and subsidises the rest. So the

first bit is the local, which

stings. And then it goes numb.

The First Step Recovery Clinic many

Melbourne offers naltrexone as well

as methadone and buprenorphine.

It's highly selective about who it

treats, reflecting the National

treats, reflecting the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre's view

that naltrexone is suitable for a

minority of well-motivated addicts.

We're looking for people whose

We're looking for people whose lives are reasonably stable, so they've

got somewhere they're living,

preferably if they're working -

preferably if they're working - that certainly is a big aid - people

certainly is a big aid - people with other social supports, either

family, friends, spouses, and

family, friends, spouses, and people who are looking to finally get

who are looking to finally get right away from the drug scene. I just

pray this is the time. Otherwise I

don't know what we're going to do.

Shaun and his family are sprending

$2,000 on implants they hope will

give him 12 months breathing space

to turn his life around. They're

well aware it's an experimental

treatment but when all else has

failed they're prepared to try

anything. I'm prepared because he

could overdose on heroin. That's a

chance. A chance we've got to take.

Like it wouldn't brother me if I

Like it wouldn't brother me if I had to get one for the rest of me life

every year. What's $2,000 a year to

be normal. It's priceless. It's a

bargain, I reckon.

Natasha Johnson reports. Celebrated young Australian actor Heath Ledger looks set to crack Hollywood's A-league with his latest film role. 'Brokeback Mountain' is based on a short story by Annie Proulx. Ledger plays a ranch hand in the American Rocky Mountains who unexpectedly and overwhelmingly falls in love with a cowboy. While the film might break all the stereotypes of the typical western,

renowned director Ang Lee says his film is not a gay cowboy movie but a great romantic tragedy. And while the film has outraged some conservatives in the US, it's enchanted many critics. Earlier today Tracy Bowden caught up with the actor

who's now been nominated for a Golden Globe for his role.

Set amongst breath taking scenery

Set amongst breath taking scenery in the Rockies, 'Brokeback Mountain'

the Rockies, 'Brokeback Mountain' is quite simply a love story, albeit

quite simply a love story, albeit an anguished one, a far cry from the

traditional western, it follows the

emotional journey of a ranch hand

and a cowboy who meet one Sumner

1963 and form an intimate

1963 and form an intimate connection and an unbreakable bond. Ledge

ledge ledge plays the stoic, silent,

Ennis Del Mar. What if you and me

head off to a ranch somewhere and

have a cow operation. It would be a

sweet life. I told you, it ain't

going to be that way. What was it

that made you want to do this film?

Ang Lee is the director, was the

director, and I always wanted to

work with him. The screen play, it

was one of the most beautiful

scripts I had ever read. So a

combination of those to things and

also the character of Ennis Del Mar.

I had never come across such a

complex, lonely figure and I felt

complex, lonely figure and I felt it was going to be an opportunity

mature as a person and mature as an

actor and that's always exciting.

Did you worry at all initially

Did you worry at all initially about whether you could be Ennis, whether

you could get that character?

Yeah. It's kind of a rule of thumb

for me to self-doubt going into any

kind of project. I always think

kind of project. I always think that I shouldn't be doing it and I don't

know how to do it and I'm going to

fail and that I fooled them. I

always try to find a way out.

So you get the role and then you

panic? Yeah, yeah, I do. My agent

recognises it as a pat yearn of

mine, so he doesn't respond at all.

He brushes it off and - but you

He brushes it off and - but you know it seems to be a necessary process

of mine in order for me to kind of

focus in more and concentrate and

try to defeat myself, my own

anxieties and so this was no

exception to that rule. How did you

find that that place that he was in?

That quiet character and all those

different parts of his personality

that you portray, often without

saying a word? A big part of Ennis,

purely because as you said there

were very few words to convey his

story and his battle, a big part of

it was actually in fact going

it was actually in fact going inside him and trying to explain his

battle. I knew it was going to be a

very physical performance so I

wanted to physicalise this battle

within his posture or lack of

posture, within his accent like his

voice was very important. I wanted

him to be clenched and I wanted his

mouth to be a clinched fist and I

wanted to words to be punching

wanted to words to be punching their way out from within. And just any

form of expression had to be

painful. So I spent a lot of time

developing his stance, his physical

and mental posture, because that

and mental posture, because that was going to be really important to the

character. Are you going to do

character. Are you going to do this again next summer? Maybe not.

Like I said, I was getting married

in November. So I'm trying to get

something on a ranch I guess.

Given its subject matter it's

probably no surprise the movie has

raised eyebrows in parts of the

United States. With some cinemas

refusing to screen it. Whether or

not it's controversial I think it's

relative to the person you. Are I

don't think the topic is

controversial and nor do I think it

should be. I'm an actor and I've

taken it upon myself - I've made it

my responsibility to investigate

different walks of life and try my

best to portray it. And it's good

best to portray it. And it's good to be a little ruthless with your

career. If you make decisions based

on people's judgments you make

booring choices. I would just get

bored with my choices. So, you know,

you have to be a little ruthless.

The film's not been played in some

cinemas in the States. Does that

bother you? No. I think the ironic

thing is it's created free

thing is it's created free publicity for the film, more people will want

to see it now. It doesn't bother me.

Ang Lee has said ledge ledge ledge

underplays powerfully but the

response of the critics has been

anything but low key, one #k078

pairing the Australian to Marlon

Brando and Sean Penn. It's a bit

embarrassing because I would never

compare myself to those two. It's

obviously an honour just to have

your name within the same sentence.

But I would never compare myself to

them, person ally. You still go

fishing with Jack Twist? Not often.

After a series of patchy roles that

saw his viewed by some as a

Hollywood lightweight, 'Brokeback

Mountain' is a turning point for

ledge ledge ledge in more ways than

one. And I tie add note to the end

of the line. It said hello, bring

some fish home. He met his partner

Michelle Williams playing opposite

her in the movie and now they have

her in the movie and now they have a baby daughter Matilda. It's ironic

in a film about love, lost love,

lost opportunities you found love.

Yeah. I know. It's incredible just

to what extent this film has

to what extent this film has changed my life. As you said, not only is

my life. As you said, not only is it a beautiful film and I'm proud of

the movie but it's also given me

the movie but it's also given me two beautiful girls and Brooklyn. It's

completely changed my life so I

completely changed my life so I will be forever grateful to Ang for

hooking me up. How fulfilling is

that other new role of father?

It's completing fulfilling. It's

quite miraculous, it really is.

Just waking up every morning to

Just waking up every morning to that smile, just - it brightens your day,

it really does. I'm incredibly

it really does. I'm incredibly proud of both of them. You've been back

here in Australia. How important is

it to keep the Australian

connection? For you? It's hard for

me to shake it because I am

Australian. It is very important,

yeah. And I love Australia, I love

coming home and Michelle loves

Australia as well, which is a good

thing.! Even work-wise, I'm going

to try and come back as often as

possible and work back here again.

The 26-year-old actor doesn't

pretend to enjoy the publicity and

the profile that goes hand in hand

with Hollywood. But seems to be

attempting to accept it. With

success comes a high profile when

you're an actor. There's no way

around it. Is that the downside of

success for you? - being recognised,

people seeing you around, the

interest? I guess so. I don't want

to sound like a whinge. I get a lot

of out of it. I learn a lot about

myself and life and people around

me. And that time between action

me. And that time between action and cut I thrive on. So, yeah, it's a

little uncomfortable with people,

cameras and the spies - the

cameras and the spies - the stalkers that hunt you down with those

cameras. But, you know, I guess

you've just got to take it on the

chin. Honey, what are you all

chin. Honey, what are you all doing here? Heath Ledger is nominated for

a Golden Globe and there's talk of

an Oscar but he's trying not to get

too carried away by all the hype.

Now Golden Globes just around the

corner. How are you feeling? Are

corner. How are you feeling? Are you nervous? Yeah. Yeah. I am a little

bit. But I'm very proud of Michelle.

She's been nominated as well and I

don't know, it will be sweet.

I guess I'm just being told by the

people around me to breathe and

relax and go with the flow and not

take it too seriously, so that's

what I will do. Thanks for talking

to us. No worries. Tracy Bowden speaking there with Heath Ledger. And that's the program for tonight and the week. Have a great weekend, and we'll be back at the same time on Monday. But, for now, goodnight. Closed Captions produced by Captioning and Subtitling International Pty Ltd This program is not subtitled

This program is not subtitled SONG: # You must remember this # A kiss is still a kiss # A sigh is just a sigh # The fundamental things apply # As time goes by. #

DOORBELL RINGS Good morning. Name of Hardcastle? That's right. Ignore his face. He's got the hump.

I've got the perfect right to have the hump. Not on duty, you haven't. Having the hump on duty is unprofessional. Now, smile. You can look at his face now, if you like. I think I preferred him with the hump. All over a bag of toffees. Chocolate raisins. Toffees! Did you come specifically to have a row or did you want something?

Sorry. Name of Hardcastle? Yeah, we've established that. So we did. Delivery for you. Cots. Cots? Cots. For babies. I think you've got the wrong address. You claimed your name was Hardcastle. I didn't claim anything. It is. So where do you want the cots? Jean? She'll know. Women always know where to put things. If you were a woman, you'd never have put that bag of toffees on my seat. They were chocolate raisins. What's going on? We're having a fascinating debate about toffees. Chocolate raisins. Or chocolate raisins. Which seems to have obscured the fact that they're also insisting on delivering two baby's cots. Oh, I see. Now, come on, be honest. Was it toffees or chocolate raisins? Toffees. Raisins. Chocolate raisins.

That's that settled. The cots go upstairs. Follow me. CHIMING 'ORANGES AND LEMONS' Oh, aren't they sweet?

There's nobody there. The cots. Yes, they're very nice. When I saw them I just couldn't resist them. What are they for? Well, babies, of course.

Whose babies? Judy and Sandy's babies. I didn't even know they were pregnant. Well, they're not, as far as I know. But they will be. It stands to reason. Your reason, presumably. Yes. Well, assuming you're right, why have we got two cots here already? Lionel, do be sensible.

For when they want us to look after the babies.