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Message Stick -

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(generated from captions) THEME MUSIC Welcome to Message Stick. Hello, I'm Miriam Corowa. tracing the foundation Today we continue in Canberra. of the Aboriginal Tent Embassy The year is 1972 out on the lawns of Parliament House, and with the Embassy freshly staked activists from all over the country. it served as a beacon for Indigenous protest for Aboriginal rights It quickly grew to become the largest in Australian history. violent confrontations, Amid the tension and sometimes gained momentum Australia's land-rights movement to power in the federal parliament. and the Whitlam Government swept Good evening. there's an Aboriginal embassy For the first time in history in Canberra. of Parliament House for some weeks. It's been on the lawns in front

has surprised many white Australians The fact that it's there at all it's been there for so long, and the fact that has surprised even more. it's not just a matter of surprise, But for Australia's Aborigines different from any other year. it's made 1972 determination to be noticed. It's one symbol of their growing a new phase in the relationship The embassy is just one aspect of between white and black Australians. The other is an issue - land rights. intensive pressure for land rights The setting up of an embassy and the Aboriginal spokesmen and leaders. comes from a new generation of they're younger, more impatient On the whole, than their predecessors. and more militant To question Bobby Sykes and Paul Coe, 2GB Macquarie Broadcasting Service Brian White, Head of News Programmes

for The Australian. and Dominic Nagle features writer

when we speak of land rights - Miss Sykes, where what land, for which Aborigines, are we talking about? the country has always belonged Acknowledgement of the fact that to the Aboriginal perhaps. still belongs to them Aboriginals think that the country the white man to recognise this fact and all they want is for and acknowledge it they decide that they want back. and give them areas back which you see land rights? Mr Coe, is that how Well, I see land rights as such -

that before the coming of Cook That it should be recognised of the land that there was prior ownership since this was our property, and as such, the Aboriginal people's property

was taken by force and because the land

of any person whose property there should be, as in the case some form of compensation. is taken by force, that the land, There should be some acknowledgement the land as it now stands, and used by the Aboriginal people. was owned, controlled to take control of the economical, All we want to do now is of the people and of the land, the political and cultural resources and of the land, the Aboriginal people power to determine their own future. so that they themselves have got the do you have in mind? What sort of action you know, the embassy, The action that you're seeing, people making their demands. to demand their rights, In fact, people starting in the past and which has been... which hasn't happened very often ..ignored when it has happened. the direct action. Well, let's talk about at least the people in Sydney, That direct action with which I'm a member of, the young group of blokes direct black action is that concerted know the problems of our own people where we mix with our own people, to try to overcome these problems. and try to find some way ourselves than domestic harassment? Do you think this is more efficient than international embarrassment? Domestic embarrassment less effective being so powerful, No because they are in a position,

anything that we do. that they can practically neutralise for instance, The embassy in this country, has received so little publicity

publicity overseas, and it's received so much a really militant stand in Australia where it's been proclaimed as of The New York Times. and appeared on the front page on the front page of any newspaper? But in Australia has it appeared No. I think it did.

what do you think is the motive? Can I ask you, institutionalises hypocrisy, We know that the white press it institutionalises white racism, a policy speech on land rights - where in fact Whitlam go up to make when Labor gets into power whether, or not they'll carry it out that remains to be seen. 10 black speakers there speaking, In fact, there were of the Aboriginal people about the grievances and problems the white media weren't interested. but the press, the white press, policy speech and then left. All they wanted was Whitlam's Just a moment. That ought to be of interest... This to me is a good value judgement ..to you too.

on this present society and in fact, who are concerned when the black people all over Australia and have come from denied them the right to be heard. to voice their opinion, the media for Aboriginal people, Being a bit realistic for so long after being promised so much to be a bit cynical? and nothing's ever eventuated in what Whitlam had to say. This is why the press is interested a politician has been nailed down This is the first time that about Aboriginal policies. in the Federal sphere and... The rest of it is fairly vague

realistically, Looking at the whole thing come under the same pressure I think that Whitlam will

the Liberal Government is now under from the foreign investors that and the whole thing is very dubious. the whole lot piecemeal We cannot be expected to swallow in front of a crowd. merely because it's been said in front of crowds, Lots of things have been said and never eventuated. in front of TV cameras but do you hate white people? This might sound a banal question, No, I don't hate white people. some of my best friends are whites. I could use the old common phrase Put it this way, with white society as it stands, I'm not particularly in love people not in love with it. there are a lot of young white I think a change has to come I would like to see a change. better cos it couldn't be any worse. and I think it could only be for the When you see these young kids, that dies from malnutrition, like for every white kid six black kids die. To me, that is white violence, legalised white violence, because you deprive these kids... you are depriving these kids a chance to live because the resources are available in this land. when you consider that per head of individual this is one of the most wealthiest countries in the world per head of population speaking, to me it's a scandal that there are so many Aboriginal kids

dying from malnutrition, that it's only blacks living in ghettos and shanty towns when in fact this is our land and as such we should have some control, or some slice of the economic and political resources of this land. Miss Sykes, Mr Coe, thank you very much for joining us on Monday Conference. Thank you, Brian White. Thank you, Dominic Nagle. There'll be another Monday Conference next week, 'til then goodnight.

Briefly before bedtime, tonight Marius Webb is talking with Gary Williams. That for whites to accept blacks in their own right in Australia, they'll have to do a complete reconstruction of thought. You know, 99% of white people don't really know what a black person is in Australia. They know what a person with black skin is but they don't know a person with black thoughts. They can't get it into their heads that the black people here are dissatisfied with what the whites have given the blacks. I think the embassy has been a real success, not only because black people have accepted it as an embassy.

It's there, it's still there, a thorn in the side - it's doing what we should have done years ago and that is put the onus on the government. ..This Australian government is a white Australian policy, kill the blacks.

How are you doing? I'm inspector Johnson. Pleasure as always. The law that prevents the... ..the camping, or the erection of tents on unleased Commonwealth land... PROTESTORS: Land rights now!

Land rights now! Land rights now!

Land rights now! Land rights now! The property is damaged.

(Dog yelps)

The government has brought down ordinates,

the orders are being carried out by the police

before 50 minutes of the thing actually being off the presses. As Gordon Bryant said, the police are only doing their duty but it's a pretty dirty duty they've been given to do. Now, this sorry story started round about January early this year - Australia Day. Australia Day 1972 saw, as I remember it anyway,

the first Aboriginal embassy erected outside Parliament House. At that time I don't think it was intended to be anything other than a fairly temporary measure. It was intended to demonstrate the great need for attention to be given to the Aboriginal cause and in particular land rights. This great, driving, emotional, unifying force called the need for Aboriginal land rights. PROTESTORS: Land rights!

Land rights! Land rights! Easy! Easy!

Land rights! Land rights!

Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! There she is!

Land rights! Land rights! (Screams)

Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! Come on, get up. Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! REPORTER: Labor Member for the ACT, Mr Gordon Bryant. The Labor Member for Willis in Victoria. Gentlemen, can you comment on the situation? Yes, it's a great commentary on government's proclaimed desire for law and order. They've done this, this is a deliberate act. These people were not hurting anyone, it was a peaceful assembly. They objected this flag. And you see the result of it, a deliberate act to create unrest. These people are acting in a predictable way, government intended this to happen. Mr Bryant? The most despicable action that I've seen government perpetrate in my 20 years in public life. What should the police do? They didn't need to do anything. The ordinance is there, the government could have taken some action to entice them away, or make some offer, some symbolic gesture in the Parliament

and it would have all been over. But they wouldn't do that. They'd rather bring all the forces of the police to drag them off.

Now it's bad for the police and bad for the whole nation.

Who won as a result of today? I suppose Australia's lost,

but the Aboriginal people at least will have everybody in Australia

know what they're fighting about tonight. A few arrests, a few injuries on both sides and it was all over in about 15 minutes. The government saw that it had had it's way. 50 ACT police used this very successful method to clear the Parliament House eyesore. The ACT ordinance prohibiting camping on unleased ground had been law for but a couple of hours. The ordinance was both the excuse and the reason for the police to move in. The police paddy wagon and the police trailer can cart away the immediate evidence of the Aborigines dissatisfaction but the problem is surely left behind. Unless now anyone imagine that the government was touched by this scene this morning, let me report that a federal minister told me after, "You and I couldn't do it, so why should they? We told them to move, they got what was coming to them. They deserved everything they got."

PROTESTORS: Land rights!

Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! (Screams)

Land rights! Land rights! (Screams)

Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! (Screams) Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! (Screams) Land rights! Land rights!

(Screams)

Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! (Screams)

Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! Land rights! (Screams)

Land rights! Land rights! What do you want? Land rights! When do you want it? Now! What do you want? Land rights! When do you want it? Now! What do you want? Land rights! When do you want it? Now! What do you want? Land rights! When do you want it? Now! What do you want? Land rights! When do you want it? Now! What do you want? Land rights! When do you want it? Now!

What do you want? Land rights! When do you want it? Now! What do you want? Land rights! When do you want it? Now! What do you want? Land rights! When do you want it? Now! What do you want? Land rights! When do you want it? Now!

Ladies and gentlemen, to present his Policy Speech for the forthcoming Federal election here is the right honourable William McMahon Prime Minister of Australia. Good evening, tonight as Prime Minister and leader of the Liberal Party, I want to talk to you about the issues on which we will fight this election. When you pray do you pray for things in fact? Yes, I do. Would you pray for something like victory in an election? Yes. (Crowd laughs)

APPLAUSE AND CHEERING That's a magnificently direct answer. They say I'm not very direct, so forgive me on this occasion. That was gloriously direct. Has he given any sign in response? Usually. # It's Time (Labor Party campaign jingle) The man who is going to be the first labour Prime Minister of Australia for 23 years - Gough Whitlam! APPLAUSE AND CHEERING We will legislate to give Aborigines land rights. APPLAUSE AND CHEERING Not just because their case is beyond argument, but because all of us as Australians are diminished while the Aborigines are denied their rightful place in this nation. APPLAUSE AND CHEERING The ABCs Canberra news editor Jack Commons says the government has been defeated.

At these meetings, the clans have outlined the land they call their own and where they want to live in future with the least interference. (SPEAKS ABORIGINAL LANGUAGE)

These deeds as proof in Australian law that these lands belong to the Gurindji people. APPLAUSE AND CHEERING The proclamation which you have just heard read by the Governor General's official secretary was counter-signed Malcolm Fraser. CROWD JEERS 1300 sq km of land, including Ayers Rock and Mt Olga.

MELANCHOLIC MUSIC PLAYS

MELANCHOLIC MUSIC PLAYS What do you want? Land rights!

When do you want it? Now! What do you want? Land rights! When do you want it? Now! Closed Captions By CSI

This program is not subtitled

made a gruesome discovery high in the Italian Alps.

They assumed it was the body of a climber. It turned out they had stumbled on a scientific sensation. The oldest ice mummy in history. The body was that of a man who had been trapped in the ice for 5,300 years - 1,000 years before the first pyramid. Throughout the entire history of civilisation, he had lain here unseen and untouched. They called the Iceman... Otzi. With him, they found a treasure-trove of belongings... tools, clothes, ornaments, weapons. But Otzi himself remained a mystery. Who was he? What did he do? Above all, how did he die?

Many of the clues remained frozen inside the corpse. But 10 years of CSI science can now reveal an extraordinary picture of our past. The Iceman and his world can be brought to life. It's a world of mystery, magic and violence. The top scientists who have worked on the Otzi case have come together to reopen their files. They piece together the jigsaw of the Iceman's life and try to solve the mystery of his death.

The case is full of twists with three completely different theories. Did he die a lowly shepherd? An outsider murdered in an act of vengeance? Or, a warrior with blood on his hands? It's the oldest whodunnit story in history. And it begins 5,300 years ago. DRUMBEATS KNOCKING ON WOOD KNOCKING GETS FASTER

GROWLING WHISTLING Until the Otzi find, scientists had an incomplete picture of how these people lived. But they knew our Neolithic ancestors were at a threshold in the human story - on the brink of the modern era. GRUNTING AND BELLOWING GRUNTING CONTINUES The big mistake that we moderns make is thinking that the tribal Palaeolithic hunter is primitive, that they might not have the same emotions or range of feelings. They can only grunt at each other. They were... somehow subhuman. That says more about us than them. HORN SOUNDS

Otzi's possessions provide the first leads to his identity. That trail of investigation begins with something buried deep in the hair of his shirt. We found spikelets of einkorn. Professor Klaus Oeggl has devoted the past 10 years to examining microscopic plant life found on the body and scattered nearby.