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didn't you? You read this spreadsheet, Confidential. The one in the file marked But don't rile your Superintendent. You want to protect your team. Sam, talk to me! What is it you're not telling me? then he's got one. If he wants a fight,

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Tonight - the deserters.

Thank God for that. I don't have any blood on my hands. Leaving everything behind. because it's the right thing to do. I would have turned him in Cowards, traitors or refugees? pumping the good oil. Coconut power -

disturbing the ghost of Franco. And from Spain - Welcome to the program. I'm Tracy Bowden in Toronto. Bush announced a surge in troops Ever since US President George W. in Iraq increase there's been a small but steady in the number of soldiers going AWOL to seek sanctuary in Canada. and crossing the border

the conflict in Iraq Rather than face in the United States, or possible jail they're seeking refugee status here.

and face a much tougher journey But they're in legal limbo, during the Vietnam War. than those who made the same decision MUSIC

crossroads in my life PATRICK HART: I knew I was at a what I was going to do. and wasn't quite sure along with my family at the time - I was leaving behind - pretty much the American dream.

Patrick Hart remembers vividly over this bridge, the day he travelled north possibly for the last time. Coming over the Peace Bridge,

as to what I was doing. I hadn't quite made up my mind from the United States into Canada, Crossing over the Niagara River, he was embarking on a journey towards the unknown. from the familiar everything was going to be OK. I just had a gut feeling that And everything is OK, you know - about being deployed, I don't have to worry have to...have to worry my son doesn't to see daddy again, about when he is going 'cause he sees daddy every day. Patrick Hart was a career soldier. in the industrial city of Buffalo, Born and raised in northern New York State, and the security of the military. he thrived on the routine in World War II. My grandfather was a mess sergeant My Dad served in the navy.

joined the military - Everyone I knew you know, it is just what you did. He was great at it. It suited him. respected him so much. The soldiers beneath him military wife. Jill Hart was a proud and patriotic You know people made jokes - red, white and blue", you know. "Oh, Mrs Hart? She bleeds My whole house was it was red, white and blue. and that is not a joke - the kitchen - everything. The whole living room, to support something I felt like if you are going

you support it 100%.

in Kuwait in 2005, But during a tour of duty Patrick Hart started to question

his next deployment to Iraq. whether he could face were coming into Kuwait. All the units returning from Iraq when they got there You know, I would meet them and they would show me a little DVD, some with video - some pictures. photos that they had taken - you know? And these photos were just insane,

50-calibre machine guns. Just people being ripped apart by There's nothing left of them.

I have seen pictures all over their hands. of babies with chemical burns you couldn't go to Iraq? So, you felt, morally, I felt like I could... what they were doing, I could have done

what I signed up to do, you know. but that is not... That's not

not do stuff like that. I signed up to help people, our most recent soldier... Warmly welcome Patrick Hart, CROWD CHANTS So, Patrick Hart went AWOL. at Fort Campbell in Kentucky, While on leave from his base he fled to Canada, and their supporters. joining other deserters

welcome here! (Crowd chants) War resisters in Iraq, In a country opposed to the war Patrick Hart's dilemma, many Canadians understand to him and the other deserters. and have extended a warm welcome crossed the border to Iraq. When I was in Kuwait, I never

Thank God for that. I don't have any blood on my hands.

the US without telling his wife. He'd made his decision and left I remember him saying, "Hi, honey", That afternoon he called. for about 45 minutes. and then I remember screaming I was sick to the stomach. I was terrified. I thought, "Oh, my God." never came into my mind The word 'coward' and I know he is not a coward. because I know my husband came to my mind - But the word 'traitor'

I have to be honest. as a traitor to this government? I thought, "Will people view him you know, "Would people view him," that they view terrorists?" "in the same manner What would you have done beforehand what he was planning? if your husband had told you I would have turned him in. his company commander. I would have called I would have said, "My husband had a conversation with me that he thinks "where he expressed than going to Iraq. "going AWOL is a better option "Please come and get him." that was the right thing to do. And I would have done that because I've always loved my husband, I love my husband, but he was going to break the law.

what to do next, Jill Hart didn't know made for her but says the decision was her husband's commanding officer, during a conversation with who was devising ways to get his AWOL soldier back.

at the talks she now gives It's a story she re-tells

of deserters. on behalf of the spouses to get word to your husband He said, "We can arrange "that you have been so severely sexually assaulted to take custody of your son." "that he needs to come back that I could say was, And, in two seconds, the only thing but this conversation is over." "I am sorry, sir, to join my husband in Canada. And that's when I made the decision Within just a few weeks, Jill Hart crossed the border with the couple's young son. I would rather be in Canada than to be in the States

and have Patrick in prison for God knows how long in a country where the maximum penalty for what he has done is death by firing squad. That is insane. (Phone rings) War resisters. Lee Zaslofsky has become something of a father figure to the deserters.

As coordinator of the War Resisters Support Campaign, he meets them on arrival, arranges housing, and helps them settle in. How will you be getting here, car or bus? He also sought sanctuary in Canada almost 40 years ago during another controversial war.

I didn't believe in the war - I believed it was wrong, so when it came - when they gave me orders to go to Vietnam, I had a decision to make. So, I decided to come to Canada and, frankly, it was the best decision I ever made in my life but it was very difficult. It was hard on my parents for sure.

SOLDIER: Bring him back here! Remember to stop the bleeding! Between 1965 and 1973, during the days of the draft, as many as 50,000 Americans went to Canada rather than fight in Vietnam. CROWD CHANTS IN PROTEST Despite a US amnesty in the late 1970s pardoning draft evaders, many stayed on in Canada. Back then, it was relatively easy to gain permanent residency

and start a new life. What they want now is for people to apply in their home countries and wait for as long as it takes - it could take a year - before they, in their home country, to see whether Canada wants to let them in. Well, this isn't very feasible for someone who has got a warrant out for his arrest, is it? This time, the numbers are in the hundreds rather than thousands,

but Mr Zaslofsky says there's been an increase in the number of inquiries and arrivals since US President George W. Bush proposed a surge in troops in Iraq. We used to be accustomed to getting maybe a war resister one a month, maybe two a month. Now, it is very common to get two a week. Lee Zaslofsky seems to spend every waking hour

working on the cause of the deserters he so strongly identifies with.

None of them are cowards, none of them hates the United States or wants to betray it in any way. I think they feel betrayed, I think they feel let down,

and I think some of them were deeply revolted by what they saw happening in Iraq or in Afghanistan

and couldn't square it with their idea of what it means to be an American. Most of the deserters have chosen to settle in Toronto, separated from the United States by the icy waters of Lake Ontario.

Canada and the US may be close neighbours, with intertwined economies,

but the deserters feel a long way from home.

People act like that is just an easy decision to leave your country and walk across to another and I have to say it is probably the hardest one I ever made, and I'm sure with the rest of the guys as well. Tonight, the deserters and those who support them are attending the launch of Joshua Key's book. It tells of his seven months in Iraq and why he couldn't go back. After many days - and, of course, it is not like a rash decision you just make - "I am going AWOL." You sure look at the consequences. You sure look at the other routes. I called the JAG officer and he said you got two choices.

He goes, "You either go to prison or go back to Iraq." And I said - I just hung up the phone and looked at my wife and I said, "OK, we gotta make up our own choice." And that choice was to run. Joshua Key made his decision

after what he says were dozens of fruitless raids on Iraqi homes. I am not a baby killer. I am not a civilian killer. You know, of course, I am a soldier and I am here to kill enemy combatants, but I was never seeing that. All I was seeing was civilians getting hurt, getting killed, traumatised, and still no justification for for it. Canada's immigration laws are now much stricter

than they were during the war in Vietnam.

Joshua Key and his family entered the country as visitors, and have applied for refugee status. Along with the 34 other resisters taking the same course, all he can do is wait.

It is comforting to know that more soldiers are coming, and they're coming all the time, you know. So, that reassures... ..that reassures me that, of course, with the more instances,

that, of course, I am not alone. And while Canadian authorities have not exactly welcomed the deserters, they haven't deported them either. Helping the resisters with the legal process in Canada is another man who feels a sense of deja vu - Vietnam draft dodger, now lawyer, Jeffry House. The soldiers are applying for refugee status. They are saying that the war in Iraq violates international law,

therefore, they shouldn't have to fight it and, therefore, any effort to punish them is persecution. You shouldn't have to do something illegal and you shouldn't be jailed because you don't want to do something which is illegal. Back in the US, at the Pentagon, the army takes a very different view.

We do what we are told. We all raised our hand and took an oath to support the constitution of the United States. It is not a soldier's job, it is not a soldier's prerogative to determine which wars he or she will fight, and which wars he or she thinks are illegal. The Pentagon estimates that as many as 8,000 soldiers have deserted

since the Iraq war began - less than 1% of the force. Penalties range from involuntary discharge to death. But the army spokesman is doing his best to play down both the impact of desertion and the punishment. In 94% of the cases, we let them out with less than honourable discharge. That's not to say there isn't somebody at Fort Leavenworth right now serving time for desertion, but the vast majority of the soldiers who desert do not spend time, long periods of time in jail. One of the resisters we spoke to said he was told, "You've got two choices - go back to Iraq or go to jail." I don't think 'go to Iraq, go to jail' were the only two possibilities that this soldier had. The army is not that incompassionate. We understand soldiers are humans, we understand soldiers have problems and we work as hard as we can to solve problems for soldiers if we can.

So far, none of the deserters applications for refugee status have been approved in Canada. The Immigration Department says each case will be assessed on its merits. I believe that Canada will not send them back to jail. I think that Canada itself refused to participate in the Iraq war because Canada thought, correctly, that the war was illegal.

One, two, three, four... Patrick Hart is convinced he'd go to jail in the US, and he's angry. You can hear the anger in his music, and in the words of a song he wrote called 'United Hate of America'. (Both scream distorted lyrics)

It is a great outlet, you know.

Every time I sing it, I am just imagining George Bush in front of me and just screaming in his face. Are you embarrassed at all about what he did? Do you feel that he's not doing his duty, but other soldiers still are? Absolutely not. My husband made a stand and said, "I will not be responsible for deaths of innocent people,"

and how can you not respect that? I served 9.5 years in the army. I was prepared to go and fight and die and I will fight for a just cause - I will fight to defend myself, I won't fight or be a corporate mercenary.

Joshua, do you think much about the guys still in Iraq, who, I am sure, don't necessarily want to be there either? Oh, very much so. I mean, that's my, my... One of my intentions I'd...

They shouldn't be there, you know.

I wish that I could wave a wand and they would all be home, because none of us - I mean, the guys I was with, there was a few wanted to be there, you know. I used to be them - the GI Joe type, - but I would say, for the most part, we are all doing what we are told. We don't want to be there. Soldiers who desert are in violation of their contract. It is a contract not just with the army - it is a contract with the American people. It's a contract with the units they are serving in. The deserters believe that more and more soldiers will break those contracts. Rather than return to Iraq for longer, more frequent deployments,

they will put down their weapons, walk away from their country, and head north to Canada. MUSIC

It's a tough life for the residents of Buka and other parts of Bougainville. The autonomous region is still recovering from a decade-long civil war that ended in the late 1990s. Its day-to-day living here and the people rely heavily on imports, especially fuel.

It's expensive

and it's not uncommon for vehicles and generators to run dry

before a new shipment arrives. But there is something going on in this place that's taking the ouch out of the oil price. In fact, it's such a slick idea it's got the locals turning their backs on the imported stuff. Around here, money might not grow on trees,

but the next best thing does. DULL THUD Forget drilling and start picking. oil comes from above. What usually slips down the gullet is now being tipped into the tank. So, here we got the raw material - that's the copra and it goes into the primary crusher. It just makes it easier to feed through the secondary crusher when then expels the oil and then it comes flowing out, right out of these gaps here.

From Betzdorf in Germany to Buka in Papua New Guinea. Matthias Horn just loves coconuts. And, then, right into the feeder presses here, which take all the bits and pieces out of the oil and, then, into this holding tank system here,

which are settling the oil for any other sediment. And, after two weeks' time, we can use it straight away in our cars. They sometimes refer to me as the mad German because how can you do that to your car, filling it with some coconut juice, which you normally fry your fish in.

In this shed in the middle of the Bougainville jungle, coconuts are squeezed and strained with such a force that engines don't know the difference between pure coconut oil and diesel. The coconut tree is a beautiful tree. It's like doesn't it sound good if you really run your car on something which falls off a tree, and that's the good thing about it, huh? You run a car and it smells nice and it's environmentally friendly and that's the good thing. Matthias Horn and his wife, Carol, have spent the past three years extracting oil from locally grown coconuts to use in engines. The idea is not new. Locals tried the same thing during the war, with limited success. It's only now the concept of putting coconut oil in the tank instead of diesel is gaining momentum on Bougainville.

It's much cheaper and it's a sustainable resource. The number of cars, trucks, tractors and other engines running on the stuff is on the rise. Give us you best coconut. Fill her up!

She'll probably only take 25.

New Zealand policeman Kevin Riordan is assisting the Bougainville force. His fuel bill has dropped by a third since switching to coconut oil.

There's no difference in the performance.

You don't have to do anything different than you do to a diesel engine. You just fill it up with coconut oil instead of diesel. And, as you can see, it's smooth - I'm in fourth gear - and I can take it up to a 100km no problem at all. For the people of Bougainville it's a God send. Well, Father Henry Saris thinks so, anyway. It comes from up top - everything, all blessings, come from up top, but the coconut really is the tree of life here. As long as you have coconuts you will survive.

Father Saris converted to coconut fuel three years ago and won't hear a bad word against it. What if on a Sunday morning you are running late for a service? Can you put your foot down and it gets you there on time? It doesn't make any difference. There were people in my car here who didn't even realise that the car was running on coconut oil.

But you'd notice the difference in the more southerly parts of Australia

because the car simply wouldn't go. Pure coconut oil solidifies at a certain temperature. Here, in Buka, the oil freezes up at around 27 degrees. Once the temperature dips below that,

such as in the higher reaches of Bougainville.

Then, other fossil fuels, like diesel, need to be added to make the engine run. The colder the climate, the bigger the mix of diesel. Still, Matthias and Carol Horn hope the clear, sweet aroma of coconuts will, one day, replace the black oily smoke of diesel fumes. We have an export licence but we have not exported any fuel yet.

We have had a couple of enquires from outside - Australia and Iran. Iran? Yes, Iran. A couple of emails from Iran inquiring about the fuel. So, I was wondering what they wanted with the fuel because they already have enough fuel. Carol and Matthias Horn say they're in it for the long haul. The daily 2-hour drive to the factory

gives Matthias Horn ample time to dream up ways

of making coconut fuel a viable option world wide. That's when all these thoughts get developed,

then, I pull out the calculator and the piece of paper and I put these thoughts. Then, I have a beer over it and, then, another beer over it and after three beers you have really good ideas, eh. Then you keep on going - not drinking the beer but with the ideas - and then we develop.

And there'll be no selling out to major oil companies either. The Horn factory is providing many jobs for people affected by the war. It's very important we come up with more revenue-raising options and fuel is an example,

instead of spending money outside getting in fuel, we try to make it here.

Coconut oil might just be the tonic to kick-start Bougainville's economy and get the region moving forward once again. Hello, I'm Chris Clark in Spain. In the 20th century, this country was dominated by civil war and dictatorship. Hundreds of thousands died in the conflict and repression that followed.

There were atrocities on both sides - by republicans and by the ultimately victorious, nationalist forces of General Franco. Now, the Spanish government thinks it's time to pay proper respect to republican victims of the war and the repression. But that means delving back into a period in Spanish history which many people today would rather not revisit.

In the southern Spanish city of Malaga, local archeology students are brushing away 70 years of dirt, revealing a time when Spain was at war with itself.

A war where, seven decades on, the number killed is still disputed. Some say 250,000, others contend as many as 1 million died. And only now is this mass grave from the war being exhumed. They're digging away at history. But uncovering the past is painful

and some fear it'll divide Spain again.

(Sobs) In 1936, General Francisco Franco led a military uprising

against Spain's elected, left-wing government. He embraced Fascism. Here he is meeting Hitler. German planes bombed Spanish cities to help him. Franco's victory in the civil war ushered in a period of dictatorship and repression,

which ended only with his death in 1975. Franco was a historic mistake of Spain's. Spain could have made it to the 20th century much earlier. Spain didn't make it to the 20th century - as far as I'm concerned - until, economically, probably until the mid 60s - politically, definitely until 1978 with our constitution.

Just a few years after Franco's death, Spain became a democracy.

It's been a rapid transition. So, on a quiet Sunday morning in the backstreets of Malaga, it's difficult to conjure a vision of Spain at war. Between 1936 and 1939, here and across the country,

it was neighbour against neighbour. No-one disputes that there were atrocities on both sides in the Spanish Civil War, though people will argue about the numbers. In the early months of the conflict, when Republicans were in control here, by one estimate, around 1,000 nationalist sympathisers

were executed. So, when the Nationalists won Malaga in 1937, reprisals quickly followed.

In Malaga, many accused of Republican sympathies were brought here to the San Raphael cemetery, then lined up against this wall and shot. Among them, Francisco Espinosa's Republican father. In all, about 3,600 were killed here and dumped in a mass grave. Not all at once - the process took months. It was systematic and calculated. As Francisco Espinosa explains,

Republicans on the left of politics had earlier shot nationalists from the right on this same spot.

So, in part, this is about honouring the dead from the losing side -

long after the winners have had their day. But it's also political

because Spain's governing Socialist Party wants to help people not only identify the remains of relatives but offer compensation to victims of Franco's repression.

This is Valle de los Caidos - the Valley of the Fallen. Franco ordered it built as a national monument to the war dead. In the end, he was buried here too, and that's one of its problems. His remains lie beneath the floor of the basilica, and Francoists - old and new - come here every year on the anniversary of his death

to remember him. There are flowers, they give their little fascist salutes

and, all of this - the annual presence of a few thousand political fringe dwellers and simple nostalgics - has given the place a very bad name. Unfortunately, we can't take the camera inside to show you the religious service that's about to start. It has been possible in the past but it's not possible this year. Perhaps it's all just a bit too sensitive. In any event, you get the flavour of the place and, perhaps, an understanding why some on the left of Spanish politics, struggle with the idea that this really is a monument

to all the dead of the civil war. This is all that's left these days of the Falange, the Fascist political party that supported Franco. The Valley of the Fallen is where they come to pay homage to the dictator. And one thing the government hopes to do with its new law is to somehow turn this place into a truly representative war memorial.

Juan Antonio Barrio de Panagos is a government MP.

The government's opponents say that with its flag-waving neo-Fascists and Francoist diehards, the Valley of the Fallen means nothing to most Spaniards,

whatever their history or current politics. So, why make it an issue?

You have never seen a single member of a democratic Spanish political party go to the Valley of the Fallen since Franco died. Never in these 30 years of Spanish democracy has a single, serious Spanish politician been seen in the Valley of the Fallen. Indeed, what's striking is how few obvious, physical reminders of Franco remain.

In a small apartment in Madrid, there is the Francisco Franco Foundation - not a shrine as such - a research facility, according to its president, Felix Morales, who also tells me the Valley of the Fallen isn't a memorial to Franco.

But, then, adds that it makes sense

as the dictator's final resting place. It's certainly a fair bet that Franco would struggle to reconcile today's Spain with the one he left in 1975. So, why 30 years after Franco's death are people only now dealing with this issue? The reasons are political. When the dictatorship ended, both left and right in Spanish politics agreed

that building a democracy was more important than settling old scores. I think that one of the most important things that Spain ever made was its transition,

and we've got to honour that transition because it's not just the king, and certain politicians that were the architects of that transition, it's actually the whole Spanish people.

For Francisco Espinosa, it's about honouring a father he never knew. And it's a painstaking process - each set of remains from the mass grave in Malaga goes into a numbered box and DNA tests will try to match them to the living. It's also about more than honouring a memory. Francisco Espinosa wants the records changed so that people executed without a proper trial

will have their convictions quashed.

But righting past wrongs is easier said than done - there are records of those shot and dumped here but, in many other cases, there aren't,

regardless of which side they were on. In a Malaga restaurant, I met men who all had relatives killed by Republicans. Angel Rosso Garcia didn't know his father.

His father was killed in the early months of the war.

Jose Sanchez Rosso was only four months' old when Republicans killed 42 people in his village, including a cousin and an uncle.

These men don't want to revisit this period.

For the past 20 years, Francisco Espinosa has been combing the local archive. In Franco's time he couldn't do it. Among the government's proposals is that archives be reorganised so people can find out what happened. But even on this point, one man's search for historical truth is another's political witch hunt.

The Spanish parliament's debating the bill's final form. The main opposition, the Popular Party, wants it thrown out. The Socialists say that proves the opposition are still closet-Francoists.

Franco is dead. He died in bed - nobody removed him from power. Nobody in Spain - be it the democrats from the right or the left - were capable, able, willing or courageous enough, and, let's face it, courageous enough, to overthrow Franco and his dictatorship.

Just about every Spaniard has a story of the war. Many would rather these stories were not told. Francisco Espinosa wants to tell the story of a father he believes was unjustly killed.

But the Franco years still cast a giant shadow. And that's one reason why so many Spaniards would rather the past remained buried.

And that's the program for tonight. Hello. I'm Mark Corcoran in Northern Cyprus.

Next week - location, location,, location. The British seachangers who've found their little piece of paradise here find themselves caught up in this divided island's increasingly bitter property dispute. I think that they are, you know, a bunch of opportunists. They find a cheap villa by the sea - "Ah, let's take it!" It is disgraceful. It is really disgraceful. Until next week, goodnight.

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