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(generated from captions) by the gods to save Rome. Augustus was the hero sent of a new golden age. It did seem like the beginning But all of this was built on a lie. The people had been duped. as a peacemaker, While portraying himself all opposition. Augustus was eradicating behaved like corrupt royalty. he and his family lived and While preaching humility, handing back power to the people, And while boasting that he was Augustus was a king in all but name. a system of dictatorship In reality, he had founded that would last for 400 years. to manipulate people Augustus had used images into believing one thing, the very opposite was true. when in fact to tell a political lie. So he discovered how to use art embraced by dictators down the ages. It was a technique that would be to deceive their people. They too would turn to art persuade their people to hate, Through art, they would and even on their own neighbours. to turn on their foreign enemies And worse - some people were less than human. to persuade them to believe that leaders in the ancient world Over thousands of years, power of art to persuade. discovered the extraordinary promote themselves and their ideas. They realised its potential to for more sinister purposes. they learned to exploit art And with Augustus, are using techniques Today's politicians by leaders thousands of years ago. very similar to those invented the same universal human traits. Both exploit used paint and marble - The leaders of the past digital technology. today's politicians... as vulnerable now But we humans remain as we ever were to the persuasive power of art.

CC THEME MUSIC to Foreign Correspondent. Hello, and welcome I'm Mark Corcoran. Tonight - Papua in peril. troubled province. A rare look inside Indonesia's Hidden from the world's eyes - are dying. thousands of our neighbours The uncounted victims. once known as Irian Jaya - Indonesia took over Papua - in the 1960s. marked by conflict Ever since, the province has been between the Indonesian military their own lives. and Papuans, seeking to control to see the killing Indonesia doesn't want the world from visiting. and often bans journalists There is, though, a bigger killer. Papua now has of HIV infection in the world - one of the highest rates the rest of Indonesia. much higher than to report from inside Papua. It took months to get permission Indonesian officials Helen Vatsikopoulos persuaded

it deserves international attention. that the problem is so grave MUSIC PLAYS of Jayapura, Twice a week, in the Papuan capital spilling out its human cargo. an inter-island ferry docks, and Indonesian transmigrants The passengers are ethnic Papuans their home. who've made this province disembarking, and no journalists - You won't find many foreigners later to get here, it took us months and many permits so paranoid are the authorities. of Indonesian rule, After four decades the coastal cities. transmigrants dominate the police and the military. They also dominate the economy, have never been to school Yet, half of all indigenous Papuans

on the margins of society. and most remain (Woman cries) to an epidemic They've become vulnerable

up to 3% of the population, that has already infected and set to double in future.

(All wail) and neighbour Yarmin Wenda. They're mourning for their friend He died this morning of AIDS. (Cries) a few weeks ago, AIDS worker David Wambrauw met him his funeral. and today he's organising reach into their own pockets Once every month, he and his staff to buy coffins, crosses and graves, come to them when it's too late. because people like Yarmin Wenda

on five of Yarmin Wenda's friends - And God may soon be calling they're also HIV positive. there will be many, many others. Field workers fear than anywhere outside of Africa. HIV-AIDS is more prevalent here is being laid to rest. In the darkness, Yarmin Wenda At least he knew his killer - by having unprotected sex he contracted HIV-AIDS

have multiple sexual partners. in a culture where men undiagnosed and uncounted. But many others have died

(Cries) infected in Papua, For every four people

are indigenous. three, like Yarmin Wenda, as this, And in a place as tense and sensitive becomes infected by politics. everything, even health, of Papua in 1969 Indonesia took control but flawed referendum. under a UN-brokered began in earnest, Soon, a policy of transmigration socially and culturally transforming the province. Now that HIV-AIDS has taken hold - population the hardest - hitting the indigenous some Papuan leaders are alleging by Indonesia the virus was deliberately introduced to decimate the population. Papuan leader. Agus Alua is a respected His predecessor, Theuys Eluway, by Indonesian special forces. was assassinated the latest strategy of Indonesia's He says HIV-AIDS is just to destroy his people, reduced through time to 66%. once the overwhelming majority, genocide reality here in West Papua. We have put this issue as the what you mean by genocide? Can you explain further and indications We have some experience are dying anywhere that a lot of Papuans of HIV-AIDS here. because of the incidence

because, behind all of this, This is a kind of business we have illegal logging, illegal mining, illegal fishing - all of this. prostitute women into Papua. And all this business bring in these remote areas? So who organises the prostitution any support by military or police. It cannot survive without Never.

of genocide by HIV-AIDS, Agus Alua has no evidence leaders agree with him. and only a handful of other Papuan Constant Karma -

a former deputy governor of Papua and now heading the AIDS Commission here - is not one of them. MUSIC PLAYS Merauke, the southern port city, gazes across the Arafura Sea, where Thai fishermen regularly trawl the waters. And, in 1992, they had sex with local prostitutes. When they finished, they left behind Papua's first recognised cases of HIV-AIDS. Dr Nafsiah Mboi heads the Indonesian AIDS Commission. The wife of a former governor of East Timor, she's come from Jakarta to help out. The free condoms they've been sending are just not being used.

She also knows that men can be unfaithful, so she's pushing the female condom as first line of defence. She says women must act to protect themselves in a culture that has always practised high-risk sex. There is a history of high prevalence of sexually transmitted infection in Papua.

Even during the Dutch colonial times, two times there was a big outbreak of sexually transmitted diseases. Some tribes were almost wiped out. So it's not that this is something new. MUSIC PLAYS Merauke has one of the highest sex-worker infection rates in Indonesia. In Yobar, the red light district, the advertising in the brothels is all about safe sex. Condom use is compulsory according to the brothel madam, who says she goes around and checks that they've been used. And, as for the girls, well, the local government has made testing compulsory. So what happens if you find that a girl is HIV positive? Tati Mama, is either lying to us or unaware of what's going on under her own roof. When she's gone, we secretly interview a sex worker she'd recruited from Java. Let's call her Lola. Lola is HIV positive, and still on the job. When you have a customer, do you tell them that you're HIV positive?

If a customer says, "I don't want you to use a condom, "I'll give you some more money," what do you say? Health officials had better hope she's telling the truth because this is the regulated sex industry - the one they think they have under control. It's a 3-hour drive from Merauke to Domande village, home to 250 members of the Marind tribe. (All sing) They've organised a traditional welcome because visitors don't come here often. Neither do they get much in the way of health services here. Village elder Paulinus Ndinken says health educators first came here four years ago

to warn them of the dangers of the deadly disease, but he still doesn't know very much about it. Not one person here has been tested for HIV, and they have no idea where to get condoms. We have not been able to reach them with appropriate health services and all that, but the men can walk down to Timika, they can walk down to Merauk, etc., have fun, get infected and go back to their families. MUSIC PLAYS It's a Saturday night in Jayapura's Imbi Park. This is the secret sex industry. Where services are provided in cars, alleyways and the beach. Most of the girls are indigenous, and few are full time. They're here because they have no alternative. Hiding in the shadows is Erni. She's troubled and illiterate, the daughter of transmigrants. She's already had two clients this week making just enough to feed her three children. Erni is also HIV positive. Do you tell your customers you are HIV-positive? Do you ever use condoms? Does it not worry you that you could be passing this on to other people? That's probably how Emil Deda got it. He was a security guard, who often worked away in Timika near the Freeport gold and copper mine, and he didn't tell his wife, Wilhemina Sawaki, that he went to brothels. Wilhemina Sawaki is now HIV positive. And part of a disturbing development there are now more HIV-positive housewives that infected prostitutes. Her husband died of AIDS two months ago. And he fits the profile of the typical carrier of the virus -

from the brothel into the family home. It's a week night in Sentani Jayapura's red light district, and the Kijangs are virtually bumper to bumper - that's the 4WD favoured by public servants. They've got money and a third of them regularly buy sex.

More money began flowing to them after 2001, when Jakarta granted Papua special autonomy, and as the money and developers flowed to remote areas, so did prostitution - fertile ground for the spread of HIV. A degree of self-government for Papua has also meant decentralisation of health services and, ironically, this has made it even more difficult to fight the virus. It's impossible to get exact figures on how many Papuans are HIV positive because there's been so little testing done. Half the population don't know what it is and, in remote areas, three-quarters of the population have never heard of the virus. Officially, Jakarta says the prevalence rate is 15 times the national average, but field workers say that figure is closer to 50 times. This woman was infected by her husband,

and she has since died, leaving behind three orphans. Papuan leader Agus Alua despairs at the ever-increasing death toll. All of this became, has come from Papuan men. But that's not genocide, is it? That's not Indonesians introducing something deliberately to kill the Papuans, is it? Really, that is not the direct plan of genocide, but it's indirect because of who arranged all this business anyway. And then the Papuan men and women are victims of this business.

To leaders like Agus Alua, the wounds of the past are so deep, his people so traumatised, that health and politics inevitably merge. Suspicious at the need for a 14,000-strong security force, under special autonomy, he says they're here to weed out the independence fighters, and HIV-AIDS fits in with this strategy. It's a claim dismissed by Jakarta,

though it must be said that soldiers, also being mobile men with money, have, so far, not been tested for the virus. The process of delivering diseases or delivering people here in Papua is the best way. How we can influence the Papuan people in order till they stop their political aspiration like this? We on our side doing our best to save this nation, not this nation - to save Papuans from the disaster. It's the best we can do at the moment to prove that we do care. Every single Papuan is important to us. ORGAN MUSIC PLAYS Today, almost every single Papuan knows someone who has died of or is infected with HIV-AIDS. Husbands and wives and now, tragically, children. Samuel Imbiri was infected at the age of 12. But once is all it takes. If attitudes don't change, if the brakes aren't put on infection rates soon, Papua will face a social and economic catastrophe in future. I cannot say I'm confident, Helen, but I'm hopeful. We can do the best we can. Samuel Imbiri is now 18 and he represents the age group with the highest infection rate. He should be the future of this province, yet, he's living on borrowed time. Samuel Imbiri is talking, but no-one is listening.

Helen Vatsikopoulos on the hidden tragedy in our neighbourhood. We asked the Australian Government how much money has been committed to HIV programs specifically in Papua? The answer is just $6 million over the last four years. However, over the next seven years,

Australia plans to spend $100 million on HIV programs across Indonesia.

Well, that's all tonight. You can see some of our best programs on the website: Here's a preview of next week's show. Thanks for watching. Goodnight. Hello, I'm Michael Maher in Selma, Alabama,

and I'll be travelling the backroads of the deep south with American photographer Peter Kayafas. There's no particular mission in mind other than to take photographs, listen to music and speak to people along the way. And stranger than fiction - mercenary and money men. I regret all that. I mean, you go tiger shooting and you don't expect the tiger to win. From his jail in Equatorial Guinea, soldier of fortune Simon Mann on the coup that failed. Closed Captions by CSI