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(generated from captions) biggest capital Here in the Arab world's in the making. there is a sense of history for the president Tomorrow there will be elections and here's the novelty - in over 50 years, for the first time more than one candidate. Egyptians will be able to vote for

Hosni Mubarak, The President of 24 years, is facing competition. about who is running for election, But this is a story not so much as who is forbidden from running. is this: And the question now in Cairo Is it time the region's largest Islamic group, to bring in from the cold the Muslim Brotherhood?

TRADITIONAL MUSIC PLAYS and the streets are boiling. Summer in Cairo

HORNS TOOT But it's not just the heat - world's most influential capital, democracy is on its way to the Arab more than 20 million souls. a city crammed with CROWD CHANTS and it's hissing and fizzing. Anger has an outlet,

Islamic groups - Students, doctors, lawyers,

you name it, they're here. "enough" - Their rallying cry is "Kifeya" -

enough of President Hosni Mubarak of a state of emergency. and enough of 24 years Muslim Brotherhood official. Dr Ali Abd Al Fattah is a senior piece of democracy. But this is a very Egyptian

It's been permitted by the state, a tiny city corner, it's confined to and they're no match for security. But that it's come even this far due to the work is in no small part campaigner, Saad Eddin Ibrahim. of Egypt's leading democracy on all issues. I continue to speak my mind

agenda on Egyptian public debate. I take pride in helping to set the that nobody had raised before. We have raised issues was thrown into jail five years ago Saad Eddin Ibrahim on various charges,

damaging the good name of the state. including fraud and

was something else. But his real crime the state of democracy in Egypt. He spoke his mind about an international uproar. His case caused all charges were quashed. After 2.5 years, Yes, I am enjoying my freedom. that I have I'm enjoying the margin of fighting

since I get out of prison. from being in prison? What are the scars Scars? My health. That's the only downside was a very rich experience. of an experience that otherwise It helped me grow. It helped me know myself. my president, the Egyptian elite, It helped me know my society,

the Egyptian intellectual, and also to appreciate my family simple Egyptian people. and to appreciate normal, nerve damage, Dr Ibrahim has been left with to walk - and it's difficult for him for weeks on end a legacy of being sleep-deprived while in detention. he's an honoured guest - At this family wedding,

freedom fighter, the internationally revered returning to his hometown. friends and family, though, Outside this circle of

this sociology professor remains with a dangerous mind. a dangerous man (Speaks Arabic)

He's concentrating now elections are free and fair. on making sure Egypt's presidential

At his centre in Cairo

election monitors he's organised the training of with money from the US Government. antagonise the state all over again, And though he will surely he's ready for the battle. The pressure is always there. I have learnt to manage pressure, I think the difference is that

and to answer back very forcefully I have learnt to answer back

and to speak to Mubarak directly, an intellectual is - and that is what the role of

to speak the truth to power. UPBEAT MUSIC AND CHEERING CROWD is President Hosni Mubarak, Mubarak, of course, powerful country in the Arab world. the most powerful man in the most

campaign for election. For the first time, he's having to uncontested President Hosni Mubarak has been Egypt's

for nearly a quarter of a century

for the United States. and he's been a valuable ally CROWD CHANTS

to Egypt. It donates $2 billion a year a stable friend In return, the President has been in a hostile neighbourhood. have to prove anything to anybody. In this room, the President doesn't

CHANTING CONTINUES has another audience in Washington. But the Hosni Mubarak a great deal of attention to Cairo. The Americans have been paying

behind closed doors, You don't know what happens is the right noise, but definitely the noise they make are the right statements, the statements they make and as an activist, and push for it. I will take it and run with it the benefit of the doubt. I do not - I give people anti-American I am not a professional

my fellow intellectuals like many of here and elsewhere. Egypt matters now has made it a key testing ground because the Bush Administration to the Middle East. for bringing democracy Earlier this year, Condoleezza Rice, came to town. the US Secretary of State, aimed at Cairo, She delivered a major speech

the heart of the Arab world. the United States, For 60 years, my country, democracy in this region pursued stability at the expense of here in the Middle East, and we achieved neither. a different course. Now we are taking

aspirations of all people. We are supporting the democratic APPLAUSE I personally welcome the assertion to democracy, of her country's commitment in the wrong for 60 years her admission that they had been over democracy, by preferring stability on 9/11, something that they paid dearly for

to pay for it and they will continue this stability business as long as they stick to over freedom and democracy. who will carry its torch? So if democracy is the answer,

presidential candidate, Ayman Nour is one

the US would like to encourage. the kind of alternative

he's committed to secular democracy. He's young, he wears a suit and The 41-year-old lawyer became a cause celebre for the US

earlier this year. He had been detained on charges of electoral fraud, charges which he denies. And when Condoleezza Rice came to Cairo, she made a point of meeting him.

Ayman Nour has become a rallying point

for the disaffected in Cairo's educated urban classes. CHANTING Inside the Nour bubble it's easy to get carried away. Outside, it's clear that what matters most

is not so much what Ayman Nour stands for, as who he is standing against.

But even Ayman Nour knows he stands little chance.

Egypt's problems would test the wisdom of the pharaohs. TRADITIONAL MUSIC PLAYS

Top of the list is unemployment. HORNS TOOT Young men with university degrees are frustrated by the lack of professional opportunities.

Ahmed Mustafa is 30 years old and a graduate in computer science.

He's been driving taxis for the last seven years.

One man who sees the hardship daily is a small supermarket owner who returned from America five years ago. Go back 15 or 20 years ago,

the living in Egypt was better, a lot better. Now it's just a struggle. The people struggle to make a living honestly. It's 80% of the Egyptian people, they are underground.

You mean they are so poor? Yes. So poor - 80%. It's very miserable, but what can I do? I am only one person, what could I do? (Call to prayer) Political Islam - it's the power of the streets.

Officially, though, it's invisible. The Muslim Brotherhood is far and away the biggest opposition group here, but it's banned from running for any government elections. In Egypt's second city, Alexandria, the Muslim Brothers control the doctors' union. Its chief spokesman is Dr Ali Abd Al Fattah.

He, too, has been sent to prison - in his case, 12 times. And Dr Fattah believes it is only a matter of time

before the Brotherhood becomes part of the official political scene.

Back in 1954, Egypt's revolutionary president Gamal Nasser banned the Muslim Brotherhood.

The Muslim Brothers disbanded their military operations in the mid-1960s and since then there's been no violence committed in their name. But questions remain over the Brotherhood's possible links with more radical offshoots, such as this group of fundamentalists on trial after the assassination of president Anwar Sadat 25 years ago. Today the Muslim Brotherhood is not linked to al-Qaeda,

nor is it on the US list of terrorist organisations. Despite this, its members regularly serve time in prison. But with Egypt's economic problems, there's a ready support base for the Muslim Brothers.

In a country strapped for social and health services, these people look to the Muslim Brotherhood. It operates a shadow social welfare system. As it gives clearer vision, the Muslim Brotherhood wins hearts and minds. But the group isn't only getting support from the poor. Better-off people like Mamdouh Zakki also subscribe to their values. And you see that as more valuable

than the kind of life they would have in America? Oh, yeah. Mahmoud Zakki spent almost 20 years in the United States before returning with his family. He believes Egypt needs democracy,

but he's not interested in any of the candidates officially on offer. Most of the good people, they are in jail. The Muslim Brotherhood?

Yeah, the Muslim Brothers - they are in jail for no reason. They don't do anything. I guess the reason, from the point of view of the Government, is that those people are a threat to the state? These people don't do anything. Every six months they take them, they put them in jail. Every six months.

It's hard to know exactly how much support the Muslim Brotherhood has. Estimates vary between 30% and 50% of the population. The Muslim Brothers have abandoned their decades-old slogan: "Islam is the solution." Now it's: "Democracy is the solution." Their goal is an Islamic state, perhaps like Saudi Arabia, and the sceptics fear that with power, they would be anything but democratic themselves. Certainly the US won't be getting any favours.

Even the poorest are watching satellite TV.

Publicity for America is all bad. Its attempts to bring democracy to Iraq are the nightly horror show. Iraq was supposed to be the model in regime transition from non-democratic to democratic rule. Instead, it became a quagmire and a bloody exercise, and that is definitely not good for the Iraqis, not good for the US, not good for the region,

and not good for us as democracy. This is America's dilemma, both here in Egypt and in the broader Middle East. If it wants true democracy, it risks the rise of an Islamic government. If it wants stability, it risks more and more anger

and more and more converts to extremist Islam. So, in the meantime,

it is backing the gradual reform of Hosni Mubarak, and at the same time,

fostering the growth of a new political class. President Mubarak is promising change, including an end to emergency rule and opening up the state-run media. There's no doubt the President will be returned. But the Muslim Brotherhood has decided to encourage its followers to vote, rather than to boycott the election. There's no sign yet, though, that the President will be bringing the Muslim Brotherhood inside the political tent.

Do you think that if an Islamic organisation continues to be shut out of democracy, is there the risk in the future of violence against the ruling regime?

You will have to deal with them sooner or later because they are not going to disappear. They have been on the scene - something like the MB since 1928, so I'm talking now about nearly 80 years, and I am arguing to engage them,

and it is only engagement that will moderate them and will give democracy the kind of credibility it deserves. Today Dr Ibrahim and his wife, Barbara, are unpacking the past. The 67-year-old academic is moving into his new study. Here's one we've been looking for, right here - Nelson Mandela...

Here is the book I got in prison and there's illustrations... He cherishes the book Nelson Mandela sent him in prison. Egypt needs more Saad Eddin Ibrahims. I'm very proud of him and what he does, and, as I said,

I think he's inspiring now a lot of other people to take risks and that's what we need around here.

He acknowledges there's a fear of what democracy might deliver in Egypt. Of course, the fear is legitimate, but since when do we allow fear to paralyse us? If you allow fear to paralyse you and to stagnate and to keep the status quo, that means you are really helping dictators to remain in power.

Somebody like Hosni Mubarak will remain in power forever. I would rather take the risk than live with a dictator. TRADITIONAL MUSIC PLAYS By the end of his next presidential term, Hosni Mubarak will be 82. In the last few months,

he's been talking a lot about change and free and fair elections. By his actions, though, he will show how far the US can push democracy, not only in Egypt, but in the entire Middle East.

And finally tonight, saving the wild animals of Cambodia before they end up on the dinner plates of Asia. Reporter Evan Williams goes on a tiger hunt with a difference. RAINFOREST SOUNDS OF BIRDCALLS AND INSECTS

On a misty mountain top, weapons of war are being primed for a new battle - to save Cambodia's wildlife. This is what they're aiming to protect -

some of Asia's last wild tigers.

It's an urgent mission.

In Cambodia, the few remaining tigers are targets of a deadly trade that threatens to wipe them out. In the 18 months preceding our program, 37 elephants were killed and 12 tigers. There is so much demand from China that the farmers know very well they get a lot more money by selling wildlife. That's the problem. Suwanna Gauntlett heads a well-funded conservation group

called WildAid. Its mission - to take the fight for the environment to the poachers.

Rising 1,000m above Cambodia's humid plains, Bokor National Park is as breathtaking as it is unique. Dotted with the ruins of an old French hill-station, Bokor's forest is a vital rain catchment often covered in cloud. But that doesn't deter Australian ex-soldier Mark Bowman.

What we're going to do in the next couple of days is a bit of revision for the instructors.

He's funded by WildAid to arm and train these rangers. Recently we had a whole lot of rangers kidnapped by the military.

They've been shot at before, thrown grenades. If they went out there unarmed, everyone would just do what they wanted -

cut the trees down, destroy the forest because they'd say, "What are you going to do?" (Shouting) Stopping wildlife trade means targetting the traders and two years ago WildAid launched its Cambodia campaign with this raid.

DRUMS BEAT They found sun bears going crazy from thirst. And tiger cubs from the Cambodian jungle. WildAid's Cambodia director and major benefactor Suwanna Gauntlett

organised the raid. I conducted two underground investigations followed by two sting operations that netted seven tigers and two bears. TIGER GROWLS These are those same tiger cubs today - protected here at WildAid's sanctuary.

If she hadn't saved them, they would have had their bones crushed for medicine, their meat eaten and skins sold on a black market operating from Cambodia through neighbouring Vietnam to China. The saved tigers have even reproduced. This powerful cub is their offspring. He's a prime example of what is being lost to the poachers who are hunting for profit, not for food. If you have a population of 14 million people in Cambodia, 75% of which are doing hunting every night, you can easily see this is not sustainable and most of the hunting is for the wildlife trade because the wildlife trade is so big.

Other animals are targets, too. Rare wild cows, called gaurs, monkeys and sun bears are all in demand as pets or dinner. It's a trade in rare creatures protected by the powerful. The biggest problem in the wildlife trade is the involvement of government at highest levels who are helping the wildlife traders

establish a powerful network, oftentimes protected by the military and facilitated by foresters so that the wildlife can be kept in key government offices, protected by the military in military vehicles, controlled at the borders at the international checkpoints. To challenge habits, WildAid is going global with a campaign to reduce demand.

TV COMMERCIAL: There's only one way

a champion long jumper can clear an entire herd of elephants... Slick TV ads aim to shame and are soon to target Chinese consumers in the run-up to Beijing's Olympics. ..when they've been butchered for their ivory. Help put an end to the illegal wildlife trade before it's too late.

But in such vast areas of isolated forest, just finding out what's left in Cambodia is a challenge.

OK. So we did this section of evergreen forest

outside the park boundary there before. Tim Redford is a WildAid conservationist with a passion for big cats. So we know we got the leopard and tiger pictures from down here in the south-west... He's training rangers to survey the forest with camera traps and they're getting results. CAMERA FLASH CLICKS There are still wild animals out there... ..lots of them. A lot of people have written off parks in Cambodia saying there's too few tigers around, but we're getting quite a lot of signs of tigers and leopards which proves to us that the tigers aren't past saving here.

TRADITIONAL SONG PLAYS Getting the cameras out there requires a mission deep into Cambodia's north-east. It's an area rarely seen by outsiders, close to the frontiers of Vietnam and Laos.

All the parks in Cambodia have got tremendous hunting pressure. The people who live around the parks rely on the for forest products. But in some places, they are turning to poaching valuable wildlife like tigers because there is so much money to be earnt.

You know, the poacher who's selling it, perhaps to the middle man, might be getting more than $1,000, maybe $2,000, $3,000, and it will work up to there. Right up to - maybe if you take all the body parts - I'm sure more than $20,000 for a dead tiger. With that sort of money, in this sort of area, saving the last tigers is a battle of the bush and getting evidence they're here is the first step.

This is what the cameras have trapped.

Rare birds, wild cows, poachers, and then the prize -

an Asian leopard and a large Asian tiger - filmed just a few months ago. For a man who loves these animals, it was gold. There are tigers here. We'd been finding tiger tracks and things like that, but that was the first real tangible proof and it was a bit like scoring a goal in an FA Cup final - it was an amazing feeling. We're probably gonna find some deer meat, squirrels... The feelings are not so pleasant down at the local market. Tim Redford says wild animals are sold openly here, even though it is illegal. Amid the fresh fish and meat of domestic animals, a wild deer is gutted. The value of that deer meat is probably 50% more than the beef and chicken that we're seeing so it's not subsistence sale, it's poaching, and this is commercial business. To clamp down on consumers, mobile units are another new step. Backed by armed police, they target restaurants, markets and traders,

confiscating any wild products they find. Today they've found a few kilos of wild boar meat, a protected animal. Even these tiny birds, captured and released for good luck, are liberated in a campaign to change perceptions that wild creatures are money spinners. The mobile unit does find bigger fare. And this is what they are most worried about.

This raid on a private zoo in central Thailand saved a few listless tigers. And they had a more gruesome catch, the skin of an adult tiger and bears' paws -

already hacked off ready for dining as a Chinese specialty. At times, the bears are kept alive as each paw is hacked off,

so the meat is still fresh. Eating wildlife has been a habit for Cambodia for hundreds of years. When we arrived eating bears' paws after a golf tournament,

having tigers in your living room as a status symbol was a way of life.

But as we leave the north-east, we discover evidence of the other main threat to Cambodia's wildlife.

Protected forests are being cleared, and while some of it is small-scale, it all adds up and is fast destroying what's left of wild animal habitat.

Countrywide, it's enormous. I mean, what was contiguous forest, endless patches of forest, in all of north-eastern Cambodia is now turning into fragmented islands of forest and that's going to play havoc to the wildlife populations as well. This is what they're trying to protect. In Cambodia's south, the Cardamom mountain range, once home to Khmer Rouge patrols, lies in undisturbed beauty. Its ecotourism potential is enormous, and for WildAid's Delphine Vann Roe, it is in fact vital.

We don't have to go far before we find evidence of what she's talking about.

This is meant to be protected forest, but a well-connected local businessman has cleared it

in order to claim the land as his own. It's happening all over Cambodia right now, and it's happening fast. We also fly over areas of the park that have been cleared by poor farmers. WildAid is funding this experimental village

so small-scale land holders don't need to encroach on the forest. They are given money, seeds and most importantly, title over the land they occupy. Back over the forest we soon find an illegal logger -

small-scale, but targetting tropical hardwoods.

On the ground, the reality of stopping logging is brought in to sharp relief. 35-year-old father of two, Vy Than, says he can make about US $20 selling this log, and he badly needs the money

as drought has killed his animals and rice crop.

As it's a first offence, Vy Than is let off with a warning, but he's just one of thousands eating away at the park. OMINOUS DRUMBEATS Deep inside the forest, rangers continue to practise their anti-poaching drills. (Shouting)

We believe for wildlife, it's the last moment. There is no more time. Most of the wildlife has already disappeared from Cambodia. You walk in the countryside, you do not see deer anymore, you do not see elephants. DRUMBEATS CONTINUE Endangered animals versus the rights of poor farmers.

It's a delicate balancing act that must be perfected before time runs out for Cambodia's wildlife. And that's our program tonight. Hello. I'm Jane Hutcheon in Northern Ireland. CROWD CHANTS

Next week, from armed struggle to armed hold-ups. They are now probably

one of the richest terrorists organisations in Europe, if not the world. Is today's IRA just a crime gang?

Does criminality have any place in the republican struggle? No, it doesn't. IRA Incorporated. That's Foreign Correspondent, next Tuesday at 9:20pm straight after 'The Bill'. And don't forget, we'd love to hear from you. You can leave your comments on our website at:

Until next week, goodnight. Captions by Captioning and Subtitling International.