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Stateline (ACT) -

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(generated from captions) news team will back at 7:00pm Craig Allen and the Canberra tomorrow night. celebrations overnight in London We'll leave you now with to mark the Queen's 80th birthday. goodnight. Have a good weekend, International Pty Ltd Captioning and Subtitling Closed Captions provided by

Hello and welcome to

Stateline. I'm Philip Williams.

Later in the program we're

celebrateling a big Berkman for

Canberra's oldest worker and we

raise the curtain on a were

time secret. How many of you

were surprised by the news

Canberra was running low on

gas? Until a short while ago

ACTEW AGL was can asking us to

turn down the heat because

supplies were at risk.

Emergency services had been

preparing for the worst and

none of us needed reminding how

bitterly cold it's been. Were

we wrong? Do we need to get

used to restrictions on gas in

the same way as water? It

happened last night and the

night before. So cold it looked

like snow. But that's a

Canberra winter for you. It's

normal. What wasn't expected

was after years of being

encouraged to turn on to gas,

suddenly we're being asked to

turn it down or even off. I

think when you come home at

night and it's cold or first

thing in the morning you're

going to turn it on and you

have to koork hot meals so I

can't see they're going to

achieve it that way. I thought

gas would be unlimited. I do

agree some of the shopping

centres and businesses have

their places too hot. If they

heat with gas they could cut it

down a bit: Why should we have

to? If people need to be warm

they need to be warm. Like

water, we're cutting down and

they're charging us more and

we're using less. Come on, it's

their problem, not ours. If

those responses were typical,

the earlier plea to take the

pedal off the gas were not

enough and shortages could have

become shut downs. If the

system did need a stage shut

down, how would it work? We

have an emergency load management system which means

larger customers would be asked

to turn off their gas supply

first and if it fails to

alleviate the pressure problem

in the network, we start shutting problems down. The problem is there's not enough

gas getting through the two

pipelines despite an upgrade

adding the second pipeline a

couple of years ago. Canberra

is a cold place. The weather is

often this cold. It's no great

surprise. What would you say to people who say this should have

been built into the plans and

we should have been able to

anticipate this? We certainly

do anticipate cold weather in

Canberra. That's why we built a

second supply point into the

ACT. So in fact the production

of that additional lateral, has

alleviated the need to cut off

gas supply. None of which is

reassuring for Wanniassa mother

of three, Effie Alvanos. Like

90% of Canberrans she depends

on gas to keep her family

warm. I'm home with three

children all day. One has

pharyngitis and I have been

given medical advice to have

the heater on all day at 19 to

20 degrees. With a shortage and

a sick child it wouldn't go

down well in this house. So

rationing gas is really not an

option for us at this point in

time. I am a bit worried. It's

a bit scary to think this could

even be under consideration at

the moment. That's the problem

for many. We've been warned

about petrol shortages,

experienced rationing of

electricity and water but gas

we've been cooking with that

like there's no tomorrow.

ACTEW AGL has always been here

and always will be. Your

advertising encourages people

to switch to goose, that gas is

basically a good reliable source of energy. What would

you say to people who are

saying maybe it isn't?

Certainly the gas has continued

to be supplied in this

situation. We haven't cut any

customers off whatsoever. It is

a reliable source of energy.

Feeling reassured? How many

watching this now turned down

the heat or snuggled under a

doonah? Too many of the

elderly cut back already

according to the council of

aging. People who need the

heating can't afford it and

only have gas heating are the

ones it will impact on. I think

as a community we need to

actually consider those people

and see what others of us can

do to help them. ACTEW AGL

says it didn't want any

vulnerable people putting

themselves at risk but denied

major problems with the basic

infrastructure. Do we need

another pipeline? I don't

believe we need another

pipeline. We need to have a

look at that particular

pipeline and see if there's a

need for compressing on the

pipeline or increasing the flow

into that lateral. You may be

surprised to learn according to

ACTEW AGL there was no problem.

Has something gone wrong in the

delivery system or can't it

deliver enough? Nothing has

gonch wrong. It won't feel

that way if the gas stops.

100,000 homes could experience

the big chill and people like

Effie Alvanos may be left

wondering if gas is really the

secure source of winter warmth

we've come to expect. While the

prospect of a gas shortage

would be a problem for all of

us, spare a thought for the

city's displaced. This year's

cold snap has welfare workers

working hard for the homeless.

For those without a roof over

their head, every night is a

battle to find shelter. In temperatures to minus five

degrees, Rolf Gerritsen joined

two of Canberra's -- Katherine

Garrett joined two of

Canberra's outreach workers on

their nightly rounds. It's

below zero and as most

Canberrans head home on a

weekday evening, the job is

just starting for Sue Webeck

and Peter Schwartz. Tonight

their shift begins with a drive

along Limestone Avenue. In the

past few days they've

discovered young teenage girls

here selling drugs and their

bodies to pay off debts. I

noticed a young girl here

yesterday. Along here there

are a few cars parked along the

road, basically keeping an eye on the girls and checking out

what they're doing and who

they're talking to and if

they're actually selling and

that sort of stuff so it's a

bit dangerous and a bit too hard to stop and chat to them

along here. It's interesting up

here though, on this corner

over here is where I've been

seeing a lot of young girls.

That's right near a hotel and

in a very busy part of the

road. So that's quite unusual

as well. What's happening now

is they're being forced to pimp

themselves and sell their

bodies orn the street. Some of

the girls along liemp stone

avenue, are they standing on

the street most of the night?

In the trips I've been doing up

and down Limestone in the last

week and a half, you see the

same girls from 6:00 to 6:30 to

3:00 or 4:00 in the morning.

They're doing a long night.

And it's freezing. It's very

cold out there. Another haunt

for those without shelter and

Mount Ainslie. By day it's a

bleak picture of poverty.

Tonight it's too cold for even

the regular tent dwellers to

sleep. Usually up around here

is where we find people.

Particularly in the gullies,

just gives them a bit of

protection from people walking

past and stuff like that. It's

been raining so they're

probably packed up, possibly

moved to the koteder, maybe

even into Garema Place. For

the many young and forgotten

here, a dangerous way to live.

People don't have the options

anymore. They don't have

options for anything but to

live in a tent on the side of a

hill. I think the cost of

living and as I said, lack of

services and things like that

are making it very difficult

for some people. Mental health

issues really impact a lot on

people that are homeless. Sooms

to be one of the common

factors. And as there's less

and less services for mental

health there's obviously more

and more people in need of --

with mental health issues on

the streetsz. That's a whole

other issue as well? That's a

whole other issue. You have to

look at what service s are able

to cope with some of the

behavioural issues sometimes

and it's becoming more and more

common. Peter Schwartz and Sue

Webeck believe the explosion in

use of and easy access in

Canberra to the drug crystal

meth am phetamine or ice is a

major contributor to those with mental health problems on the

streets. Throw a domestic into

the mix with a couple with a

violent history and they're

completely high on ice, it

takes about 4.5 or 5 hours to

get any reasonable sort of

outcome where we feel safe

enough to leave them.

Traditionally people on heroin

were a lot quieter and not as

active so people taking drugs

like crystal meth and ice are

actually a lot more difficult

to deal with some of their

behaviours so getting them

access to housing or to sustain

housing is a lot more difficult

than what it was

previously. We're starting to

see younger faces and young

people with more complex issues

than we've seen before. Drug

and alcohol, domestic violence,

a product of the Canberra

system which are homeless and

cannot get in because they

don't fit the criteria. Private

renal market is very expensive

-- rental market is expensive

and hard to get into without

references or you're a young

person who has been living on

the streets. Centrelink

criteria is very hard. A young

person who is homeless aren't

carrying their birth

certificate or passport so how

do you get them into a

Centrelink payment? A

21-year-old girl on the street,

people go past and see a girl

there. It's really scary want

I tried stuff myself because I

couldn't handle it anymore. I

did really really bad things to

myself. When a young person's

homeless, and they've got no

income, I suppose you can only

imagine what they're gonna do

to get aroof over their head or

what they need to do to

survive. The people, drunk

people, drunk people even

straight people, you never know

when they just come behind you

and stab you with a knife.

Stuff like that, when they're

drunk and they don't think when

they're on alcohol, they just

go for it. They don't care how

old you are and who you are.

And both outreach workers

believe the ACT's homeless and

drug problems are getting

worse, while services are

eroded. Do you think the

average Canberran knows this is

going on in their city? I don't

think so. If the average

Canberran knew, I think there

would be a lot more going on to

stop it and help and support

the young people put in these

situations. I think a lot of Canberrans don't understand

sometimes it's not a choice for

a young person. For some who

don't have support and are too

afraid to seek Port, it's a

long road of -- seek support,

it's a long road of

desensitising and possibly

endsing up in brothels with

severe alcohol and other drug

issues, chonic homelessness. I

need to stay somewhere and have

my own privacy and keep myself

warm. That's all I want.

Shouldn't be too much to ask

should it really? It's 10 days

since the government's shock

announcement 39 Canberra

schools and preschools will

close and it's been a busy time

for teachers, parents and

students planning to fight theagication minister every

step of the way. A new save our

schools committee has been

formed and protests have been

held across the city. Andrew

Barr will meet with school

committees in the next few

weeks, beginning Monday at

Amaroo. Katherine Garrett spoke

with parents and citizens

President Jane Gorry about what

to expect on the other side of

the debate. We need an

extension on the consultation

period to the end of March with

no changes being put in place

until the ends of 2007, ready

for the start of the school

year 2008. We underf want a

full disclosure on all the

educational data. They have to

justify why they are wanting to

close any school so we need

that data out and available for

the public to consider. They

have caused havoc and huge

distress amongst parents and

children and the staff of the

Education Department as well.

The flow-on effect of this

announcement are just huge.

Yes, it's just very

irresponsible, I think, the way

this has been done. Do you think the government's announcement of the school

closures was a testing of the

water to gauge community

reaction? This is one of my

concerns, that it has been

slightly a bit of an ambit

claim because I understand Barr

has said he's prepared to

listen to some responses and

schools can argue their cases

and stuff, I don't agree with

that approach. As soon as

they've named their school,

they have put that school under enormous pressure in the future

in terms of being able to

attract and retain children.

Parents are under a lot of

stress anyway. You dont know

what's happening in people's

lives and for lots of parent

this is just, you know, kind of

the straw that can break the

camel's back. I've heard of

parents who have bought houses

in certain areas and have their

childcare arranged and

preschool enrolled and that's

pulled out from demed their

feet. Rivett Primary have put

a new autism unit in place.

Have you got any assurance from

the government that those

children will have a place to

go to? We haven't at this stage

but we haven't been able to ask

all those questions yet. These

are some of the issues we need

to sit down with. We need every

parent at every opportunity

they have to ask for those

assurances as well. We need

every parent to get out there and ask the questions because

we ourselves can't think of

every question. People know

their individual school and

individual needs. It's really

important every parent ask

those questions and I'd say to

direct them to the minister. He

needs to know the impact he's

causing. Andrew Barr will

front eight public meet ingedz

over the next fortnight to

discuss the closures with

parents. Do you think this is

enough of a response to him at

the moment? Our concern is this

will pass as kind of the

consultation - that this kind

of just information session

will pass as this is

consultation with only a few

more meetings. This isn't

consultation. This at the very

beginning is just information

giving. People do need the

information but they need to

have detailed information, good

information. Then people need

to be able to get together and

start thinking about, you know,

being able to analyse it,

discuss it and look at possible

alternatives or what other

strategies they may have. One

of the key questions is - are

the savings only going to be

there because they eventually

sell off the school land? That

would mean removing public land

from the use of the community

and giving it to a private

group. That's not what the

community wants. It would be an

interesting first meeting I'm

sure, on Monday. A new book has

revealed a stunning secret

war-time peace deal between

Australia and Japan. The

agreement was hammered out by

John Curtin. It appears he was

willing to trade iron ore for an iron clad guarantee

Australia would be protected if

Japan entered the war. It

didn't work out that way, as

Karen Berkman reports. It was

April 1941, a-John Curtin was

leader of the Federal

Opposition, a whisker away

fromp the Government. He

organised a meeting with the

Japanese ambassador, Tatsuo

Kawai. Australia was deeply

involved in wars in North

Africa and the last thing they

needed was war. When Tatsuo

Kawai came to Australia as

first ambassador from Japan,

Curtin was rather desperate to

engage in diplomacy. Brisbane

rather Bob Wurth is the first

historian to discover

documented proof that Curtin

made a deal with the Japanese

ambassador. That agreement was

Curtin would allow, and

encourage, Japanese access to

iron ore mining at Yampi Sound

if Japan would guarantee

Australia safety. Tatsuo Kawai

was a fascist and friend of the

Nazis but something about John

Curtin changed his mind and

possibly his heart. John

Curtin loves Kawaisan and

Kawaisan respect John Curtin

because they are friends above

their official positions.

John Curtin and my father spoke

more frankly than government

officers. I think this is the

reason why my father liked John

Curtin and my father got some

good impression from John

Curtin about Australia. But by

the time Curtin became Prime

Minister in October 1941 he

knew the deal was

unsustainable. He'd abandoned

appeasement and was fighting

Churchill to get Australian

troops back from Africa for the

battle he knew was coming.

Kawai warned that a battle was

imminent. Tatsuo Kawai goes to

Parliament House before Pearl

Harbor and meets Curtin. Curtin

says, "Is it to be war?" Kawai

replies, "I'm afraid the

momentum is too much." Tips off

John Curtin that war is

approaching rapidly. Curtin

passed on the warning to the US

but still they suffered

terrible losses at Pearl

Harbor. For the next year Kawai

was kept under house arrest in

Melbourne. When sent back to

Japan in '42 he worked to end

the war. Kawai had become a

pacifist. When he got to Japan

he told the Japanese they

shouldn't hate Australians -

this is in 1942 or 1943 - he

said they shouldn't hate

Australians because some day we

will be trading partners and

friends and neighbours. He was

banished by the militarists and

host ruicised and sent to his

coastal retreat where he spent

the rest of the war. It was

here that Bob Wurth found startling confirmation of

Kawai's deal with Curtin. There

was a document written in 1962

confirming all the details.

There I am in Japan in the

midst of this and I'm finding

these documents that have never

been revealed before that tell

a whole new story about Curtin

Curtin. You stand there and the

hand's shaking when you get the

translated words and you think

why hasn't this come out

before? Was it the fact that

Australians weren't ready to

hear this bizarre information?

Because it is bizarre. Maybe

some historians knew about this

and kept it quiet. I don't

know. Curtin died of heart

failure not long before the war

ended but Kawai stayed friends

with the family and visited

them in Cottesloe. He promoted

peace and trade and his son

worked for Mitsui, running the

company's iron ore mines in

WA. He didn't tell me why he

loved Australia, loved John

Curtin and loved Elsie Curtin.

Anyway, but he did.

Fascinating history. The person

you're about to meet was well

into her 30s by the time World

War II broke out. Elizabeth

Murphy was working as a

waitress in the 1920s in what

was the Hotel Canberra, now the

Hyatt. She came to Canberra

after moving from England at

the age of 21. She's seen two

world wars, countless prime

ministers and monarchs and she

now livers at Oznam Village

Hostel. She's just had a rather

special birthday, 100 years and

still full of life.

(All sing) # For she's a jolly

good felly... This is a

question you ask everybody that

turns 100 - what is the secret?

Well, living a good life.

Working very hard. It's like a

good wine now and again. When

you think of yourself, what age

do you imagine yourself at?

Well, in the 60s or 70s. That's

all I feel like. I don't feel

like 100. I feel quite healthy

only my legs won't carry me -

me body won't carry me legs

now. I've been through the war

too, I've been in the big war.

I used to have to make the

shells, have to make the shells

for bombs, which wasn't very

nice but you had to do it.

When you were born, Queen

Victoria had only passed away-

She died when I was young and

then the Queen used to come

through the streets to parade around the streets for everyone

to see. She was really lovely.

Now you've got a message

personally from the Queen.

Yes, it was lovely, wasn't it?

That you are celebrating your

100th birthday. My sincere

congratulations and best wishes

on this very special day. You've seen extraordinary

changes in the world, haven't

you? Yes, I've seen a lot of

changes and especially in

Canberra. It's amazing what

they have done to Canberra.

They've made it so beautiful.

Do you think young people these

days have got it easy? Well, I

don't know. Compared to what I

have. We had to live as best as

we could in the olden days but

I think the world is a lot

better than it was when I was

young. Do you? Yes, much more

alive now. There's more for

them. We had nt TV. We didn't

have TV. How did you survive

without TV? Just a gramophone.

An old gramophone. Sauning

sauning forever young

# I wanna be forever young #

And she does not look a day

over 70 and what an incredible

lady. Happy birthday from all

of us here at Stateline. That's

a program for the week. We live

you with a glimpse of Bangarra

dance company's performance

of'Clan', it's on at the

Canberra Theatre Friday and

Saturday. Until then, see you

next time. Captions provided by

Captioning and Subtitling

This program is not subtitled

Welcome to the show. I'm Andy Muirhead. And this is Collectors - the show that celebrates the passion, the obsession and the compulsion that is collecting. And to help us do that we have our passionate, obsessive and sometimes compulsive panel of experts.

Professor of Sociology and avid '50s collector Adrian Franklin. Museum curator and historian Niccole Warren. And, of course, antiques dealer and collector extraordinaire Gordon Brown. So let's see what's on the show tonight.