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Investigators probe Mumbai attacks

Investigators probe Mumbai attacks

Reporter: Maxine McKew

MAXINE McKEW, COMPERE: These scenes of chaos, fear and bloodshed are by now all too familiar.
Trains and passenger cars derailed and ripped apart, their human contents either obliterated,
broken or shaken to the core. Scenes like this first hit a stunned, global audience from Madrid in
Spain. Then from the stations of the London Underground and now from the subcontinent - Mumbai in
India. In this city of more 18 million, life can ebb away in cruel and appalling ways, well out of
sight. But this is different - an elaborate, coordinated bomb attack, a glaringly visible incident
that's underscored Mumbai on an infamous and growing hit list. Major cities struck by terrorism.
The former Bombay is one of the humming power stations of India's remarkable economic emergence. It
is still, though, a city known for its extremes - of rich and poor, comfort and squalor and,
unfortunately, it's no stranger to extremism. Since 2002, there have been four terror bombings in
Mumbai, but nothing on this scale. Huge explosions at eight points on the city's commuter rail
network during the evening peak. 183 confirmed dead, over 600 injured and emergency services
struggling to cope. As investigation and analysis intensifies, I spoke a short time ago to Dr
Samina Yasmeen, a Pakistani-born academic who now lectures in international relations at the
University of Western Australia. Her current research is focused on the agenda and techniques of
militant groups in Pakistan. I spoke to her from Perth. Dr Yasmeen, the hallmarks of this attack, a
large commercial capital, a peak-hour hit and maximum pain to the commuting public. At this stage,
what does the suggest to you?

DR SAMINA YASMEEN, POLITICAL SCIENCE & INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, UWA: Well, two different options
possibilities, one is that it could Pakistani-based militant groups that have traditionally tried
to undertake such acts in India with the purpose of communicating very clearly that they are not
happy with the Indian Government's policies vis a vis its Muslim population, whether in the Mumbai
area or even in Kashmir. For that, there are a whole number of groups. Lashkar-e-Toiba is quite
well known, but there's Jaish-e-Mohammed and small outfits that have operated from Pakistan. But
then there's another possibility, which is Al Qaeda because historically, Al Qaeda had more of a
globalised outlook when it talked about the struggle between Islam and the West. It talked about
American as Christians and Israelis as the Jewish state and the struggle of Muslims was directed
against Christians and the Jewish collusion. What we do see is since the last few years, but
especially since early this year, Al Qaeda has started talking about the collusion between
Christians, Jews and Hindus. Now, that's a very interesting change in the way they have looked at
their relationship with the broader world. It's very similar to what Lashkar-e-Toiba and
Jaish-e-Mohammed have done.

MAXINE MCKEW: Is it also appropriate to make a linkage to the most recent tape of Osama bin Laden
only back in April. He, in fact, made just this linkage you've said there adding to the
Christian-Zionist conspiracy, the Hindu conspiracy as well against Muslims. So do you see a linkage
between that and perhaps this joining up, if you like, of Lashkar-e-Toiba with Al Qaeda?

DR SAMINA YASMEEN: Definitely. If you look at the way the language has moved both for
Pakistani-based groups and Al Qaeda. Pakistani-based groups expanded their discussion of the area
in terms of not just simply India, but also Chechnya, Bosnia and other areas, including Afghanistan
and Iraq. But as Al Qaeda excluded India, now it has started including India in the list, which to
me suggests that given that Al Qaeda is present in Pakistan and given the fact that not all the
groups that were being supported by Pakistani Government are now being supported by the Government
so there's a lot of unhappiness amongst these groups. So there might be the possibility of some
overlap of interest, co-operation and understanding between the Pakistani-based groups and Al Qaeda
groups that are also partly in Pakistan but elsewhere as well.

MAXINE MCKEW: What about the joint agenda then, do you think, and particularly as it relates to
what has happened in Mumbai and I stress we're in the realm of the speculative here, but, of
course, we do know that this comes at a time of a thawing in relations between India and Pakistan
and at a time when both India and Pakistan are working much more closely with the United States.

DR SAMIRA YASMEEN: I think there's definitely an element of that because Pakistani-based groups
haven't been happy with the government's attempts to curb the activities. Al Qaeda, obviously, not
only operating in Pakistan, but in Afghanistan as well, has also not been happy with the fact that
Americans tried the strategy of forcing India and Pakistan to cooperate with each other so they
could focus on the Western front, which is Afghanistan. So there is mutuality of interests between
the militants groups in Pakistan and Al Qaeda.

MAXINE MCKEW: Clearly, there must be huge capacity because this has been quite a sophisticated
operation, I mean eight coordinated attacks?

DR SAMINA YASMEEN: Exactly nut that's where I think that's the breakaway militant group, plus the
cooperation with al-Qaeda elements. That together could create the possibility of what we've just
seen. But again another element we have the think about is some form of synchronised attacks is not
something that's happened only this time. In the past, there was some efforts, they weren't that
successful from the militants' point of view, but the way it's been orchestrated, how coordinated
the whole process is, does indicate these are more than just the Pakistani militant groups. That's
where I just think the possibilities are Pakistan groups, Al Qaeda, but not Al Qaeda, just purely
based in Pakistan. They have supporters outside the region as well.

MAXINE MCKEW: Just a final and an important point. What is this going to do to relations between
both Pakistan and India? I mean, Pakistan has certainly condemned these attacks today, but
inevitably India is going to be feeling that Pakistan is not doing enough to crack down on these
militants groups?

DR SAMINA YASMEEN: That's a very strong point because I think the Indian Government, if we were in
2002, would have reacted very negatively towards these attacks. It depends how the Indian
government looks at these attacks and how it relates to Pakistan. The signs really are they are
trying to take a very cautious approach and the Indian Government they've indicated it doesn't want
its citizens to take rumours seriously and that it's really investigating and then there will be
some final conclusion as to what happened. But I do think that despite the Indian careful response
and the Pakistani Government's response, both sides do have elements that are not happy with the
approach. So while at the moment India and Pakistan are managing very well, it may not happen for
too long. But I guess another point that we need to take into account is the American policy.
Americans have been very careful since 2002 to indicate to both India and Pakistan that they want
India and Pakistan to cooperate. So there's a whole set of movements that these people have made,
steps they have taken. I guess American government would again caution Indian government to be very
careful in not blowing it too much to an extent of implicating the Pakistan Government, but I'm
sure it will also put pressure on the Pakistani Government to make sure if there was any
involvement of Pakistani-based groups that it takes action against them.

MAXINE MCKEW: For your time tonight, Dr Yasmeen, thank you very much, indeed.

DR SAMINA YASMEEN: Pleasure.

Striking workers face new reality

Striking workers face new reality

Reporter: Hamish Fitzsimmons

MAXINE MCKEW: The individual charging of 107 workers from a Perth building site for going on strike
in February is shaping up as a seismic shift in industrial relations in Australia. The men were
charged for refusing an order to return to work and although they could be fined up to $28,000
each, they maintain they'd rather go to jail than pay. But if that eventuates, it certainly won't
be the end of the matter. The Office of the Australian Building and Construction Commissioner warns
more charges will be laid, a move that has drawn an angry response from the union movement. Hamish
Fitzsimmons reports.

JOHN PES, CONSTRUCTION WORKER: These are the documents I received last night. 106 people. I've now
officially got my papers. The 29th August, proceedings start in court.

HAMISH FITZSIMMONS: This is the radical new front of industrial relations. The first time
Australian workers have been individually charged with taking illegal strike action.

DR JOHN BUCHANAN, WORKPLACE RESEARCH CENTRE, SYDNEY UNIVERSITY: I think this will be very
intimidating for a lot of workers. Many of them have high mortgages. Many of them have uncertain
career trajectories and don't want to get bad reputations and it will make them far more docile in
wanting to cause any complaints and I've no doubt that that's one of the reasons that this action
is being taken, to send a very clear signal unless you play by the rules, you will pay personally.

JOHN LLOYD, BUILDING & CONSTRUCTION COMMISSIONER: This action indicates that employees, in fact
everybody in the industry, needs to be conscious of what their obligations and rights are and that
if they contravene the legislation and we think there's a case which will stand up, we will
initiate proceedings.

HAMISH FITZSIMMONS: Construction worker John Pes and 106 of his workmates, are being summonsed to
appear in Federal Court after they went on strike on the Perth Mandurah railway site in February.
The charges under section 127 of the Industrial Relations Act are for breaching an order to return
to work. The new workplace laws mean the workers face up to $28,000 each in fines if convicted.

JOHN LLOYD: Our role is to ensure that everybody in the industry, whether it is employer, union,
union official, contractor complies with the legislation. On this occasion, it's individual
employees who've contravened - we allege have contravened the legislation.

HAMISH FITZSIMMONS: This landmark dispute was sparked when the contractor Leighton Kumgai sacked a
shop steward for refusing to follow management directions.

KEVIN REYNOLDS, CONSTRUCTION UNION: I didn't think it would happen in the country. I never thought
I'd live to see the day.

HAMISH FITZSIMMONS: Despite warnings from the employer, the State Government, the union and the
Building Commission that any action would be illegal and could result in penalties, the workers
went on strike.

JOHN PES: For years it's been going on, for years so many different sites around Australia have
been given these 127 orders and for a long time it's all seemed to be, "Oh, well, you know, she'll
be right, mate."

JOHN LLOYD: What is different about this case is it's the first time we've used this particular
legislation against individual employees.

HAMISH FITZSIMMONS: The Office of the Australian Building and Contruction Commissioner was
established last year to enforce the law in an industry once plagued with work disputes. John
Lloyd, who heads the commission, says it's already having a major impact.

JOHN LLOYD: The taskforce in the ABCC together have initiated about 50 cases to date and the
information in the industry is that things are quieter this year.

HAMISH FITZSIMMONS: Industrial industrial analysts like John Buchanan believe there's a new
industrial relations landscape emerging.

DR JOHN BUCHANAN: What we are witnessing is a greater individualisation of employment relations and
in this case we are seeing the individualisation of the sanctions process. This is a dramatic
change but part of the steady evolution away from collective structures and higher focus on the
individual.

HAMISH FITZSIMMONS: The charging of the workers has already prompted an angry backlash from the
union movement. The head of the Construction Union in Western Australia says those who have been
charged won't be able to pay their fines if convicted.

KEVIN REYNOLDS: A lot of these workers don't have assets. A lot of these workers are labourers and
people who work week-to-week and if they don't pay with assets, they go to jail.

JOHN PES: I'm the father of four and I have an ill fiancee. I don't have any other options. I'm out
of options.

HAMISH FITZSIMMONS: The union fears these charges are only the tip of the iceberg because of
reports the ABCC is investigating further sites in Western Australia.

KEVIN REYNOLDS: They've been to numerous other jobs trying to dig up as much dirt as they can.

JOHN LLOYD: We have a number of investigations ongoing across the country and they are proceeding
in a number of states. So - but I can't give you an indication as to the future.

HAMISH FITZSIMMONS: And it's the future very much on the minds of John Pes and his co-workers as
they face the prospect of having to find $28,000. John Pes says it's already putting a massive
strain on his family.

JOHN PES: My kids are worrying. They've been gathering up all of their pocket money and came
forward the other night with a container and said, "Dad, here." I think they raised about $16. I
hit the ground...but we've got to fight. We've got to fight on.

Govt moves to address fish shortage

Govt moves to address fish shortage

Reporter: Jonathan Harley

MAXINE MCKEW: With its long and productive coastline, Australians have long assumed our seafood
supplies would be endless. But along the entire stretch of the Eastern Seaboard, it's now widely
acknowledged Australian waters have been overfished. The effect has been to leave hundreds of
fishing operators with struggling businesses and many marine ecosystems under severe strain. The
Federal Government has responded with a multimillion-dollar bail-out package, which will see many
unviable fishermen get out of the industry. The hope is that this will take pressure off fish
stocks. But will it work? Jonathan Harley reports.

JONATHAN HARLEY: An hour's sailing from their home port of Ulladulla on the NSW south coast and the
Lavalle Protestant brothers are casting the day's first nets into the darkness. It's the only work
Tony, Paul and Dominic Lavalle have ever known. The family business handed down from their father
and to him from his father.

PAUL LAVALLE, COMMERCIAL FISHERMAN: The thing with heritage is it means a lot. I've left school
early and this is me father's business, so I've basically left school and helped him run a family
business.

JONATHAN HARLEY: But that business has been steadily unraveling.

PAUL LAVELLE: What do I do? I go and educate myself? Do I go on the dole? I've never been on the
dole. I don't want to go on the dole. I want to work.

JONATHAN HARLEY: Today's first cash looks impressive, but it is only average. What is important is
not just the overall size of the catch, but the fish that can actually be sold. This will be a long
day and the Lavalles will need three good sweeps through the deep if they are to cover the
ever-rising costs.

TONY LAVALLE, COMMERCIAL FISHERMAN: Rising fuel prices and everything in general, you know. It's
gone up. Have to send the fish away, handling, commissions, everyone wants a piece of it and we've
got to give it to them, you know.

JONATHAN HARLEY: A lifeline of sorts is being thrown by the Federal Government. $220 million
package that would buy up the fishing licences of those small operators like the Lavalles who are
going broke.

SENATOR ERIC ABETZ, FISHERIES MINISTER: Clearly, there were too many fishermen chasing too few fish
and if we would have allowed the situation to continue as it's going at the moment, there would
have been a death of a thousand cuts.

JONATHAN HARLEY: The plan is designed to consolidate a struggling industry and in the process save
the oceans from overfishing.

ERIC ABETZ: This is the most generous offer ever given by an Australian government and I think it's
a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for the fishing industry to leave the industry with dignity, if
that's what people want to do.

JONATHAN HARLEY: An operation like this one might be worth between $100,000 and $200,000. Under the
scheme those fishermen who put the lowest price on their licences will be the first to be bought
out. It's a difficult calculation for a family business on the rocks.

TONY LAVALLE: Everyone makes money except us. You can only do it for so long and in the end nothing
changes. So, what are you forced to do?

JONATHAN HARLEY: While the Lavalles ponder life after fishing, 660 nautical miles to the north,
Brett Taylor is staying in the business.

BRETT TAYLOR, DIRECTOR, 4 SEAS PTY LTD: The main catch out of here are the Mooloolaba is the yellow
fin tuna and the big eye tuna and more recently we are targeting albacore tuna and also the
swordfish.

JONATHAN HARLEY: Taylor's 4 Seas boasts six long-line vessels and he's hopeful the industry changes
will mean fewer competitors.

BRETT TAYLOR: I definitely see an opportunity for those people who want to stay in and want to
continue to be in this fishery business.

JONATHAN HARLEY: While operators are crunching the numbers, the environmental cost of fishing is
also being tallied.

DAVID KREUTZ, SEANET OFFICER: The amount of cultural change I've seen in how fishermen view the
environment, how fishermen view their fish stocks, how fishermen view how the public at large views
what they do has changed dramatically.

JONATHAN HARLEY: This Commonwealth buyout will cut the number of licences by half leaving around
600 large operators. Their businesses will also be more profitable, but will the way they fish
these waters be any more sustainable?

CRAIG BOHM, AUSTRALIAN MARINE CONSERVATION SOCIETY: This plan, in our view, does not go far enough
to secure both the health of our oceans and the productivity of our fisheries in the long term.

JONATHAN HARLEY: Conservationists have long been warning that Australia's waters have been
overfished. One of them is the Australian Marine Conservation Societies Craig Bohm. He doesn't just
want fewer fishermen but wants them cordoned into strict areas called "fishing paddocks".

CRAIG BOHM: The overfishing will continue if we don't set aside large areas of the waters of
south-eastern Australia where the majority of this fishing impact at the moment is occurring into
no-tape fishing areas to ensure the health of those ecosystems and to help maximise their
productivity.

JONATHAN HARLEY: Top of Craig Bohm's list of ocean areas that need a rest from the nets is here,
the NSW south coast. As the Lavalles haul in their second catch for the day you can start to see
why fishing these waters can be cruel economically and ecologically.

TONY LAVALLE: Bad lot this one. Not much in it.

JONATHAN HARLEY: Tonnes of marine life crushed to death in the nets is returned to the deep. This
so-called bye-catch has no market value, leaving both the ocean and the Lavalles poorer for the
effort.

TONY LAVALLE: It feels that we have wasted fuel and time trying because we didn't get much out of
this one, you know. We could have been somewhere else. That's how it goes, you know what I mean?

JONATHAN HARLEY: Where are we going now?

TONY LAVALLE: We'll try a shot in the deep and see how we go there. Not knowing what is there,
there could be not much there either, but we are just trying where we think is the right spot.

JONATHAN HARLEY: You've got to try.

TONY LAVALLE: Yeah, that's it. Keep trying while the day is young.

JONATHAN HARLEY: And it is this sort of trawling, especially in deeper waters, which
conservationists want to see much more tightly restricted.

CRAIG BOHM: It's a very effective form of fishing and can catch a lot of fish, but also catches a
lot of bye-catch. We do not think this form of fishing to occur over such a wide area that it does
today should be allowed to continue.

JONATHAN HARLEY: It may not be to the extent that green groups would like, but the Government says
it's already quarantining large areas of ocean.

ERIC ABETZ: There are, if you like, safe havens for our fish stocks to be able to produce and breed
and that makes good sense. They are like national parks, but in the water.

JONATHAN HARLEY: For the Lavalles, it's the final catch of the day and it looks like the biggest so
far. To the seals and seabirds, it's a bonanza. But to these throw fishing brothers, it's another
net full of fish they can't sell.

PAUL LAVALLE: Beautiful fish. Very fresh. Just, there's a lot of other imports. We are competing
with imports. It doesn't make me feel good at all. It makes me a bit mad because we do a hard day's
work and we catch the fish and yet we still can't sell them.

JONATHAN HARLEY: Even if the Lavalles' licence is bought out by the Federal Government, that won't
be the end of their problems. They'll still have a vessel which will be hard to sell and even
harder is the question of how to make a new living.

TONY LAVALLE: I don't know where I am, what I've got to do and dunno where the future holds.Which
is not a good thing, not knowing what you are going to be doing a few months down the track or even
next year or next week. It's very sad to just watch it slip away like this.

Heide Museum to re-open

Heide Museum to re-open

Reporter: Heather Ewart

MAXINE McKEW: Now to one of Victoria's best-known artistic establishments, a place that was home to
some of the nation's best-known artists during the 1930s and '40s. The Heide Museum of Modern Art
in Melbourne is about to re-open after a significant makeover. The multi-million-dollar project,
funded by the Federal and State governments, is aimed at promoting the work of up-and-coming young
Australian artists, but also honours the past when Heide was a radical artist community that
fostered the likes of Sidney Nolan, Albert Tucker, Joy Hester and Mirka Mora. Heather Ewart
reports.

HEATHER EWART: It's the countdown to opening day of the revamped Heide Museum of Modern Art. A race
against time to finish hanging paintings by Australian artist Albert Tucker. His career was
nurtured in this place many decades earlier.

BARBARA TUCKER: I know if he was here, he would be absolutely delighted and, of course, this is
what worked towards for so long in leaving the paintings to Heide.

HEATHER EWART: Now his wife has donated 200 of his works and the new gallery is named in his and
Barbara Tucker's honour.

BARBARA TUCKER: To see them all together, it would have been a first to him as well. So I hope you
are looking down, Bert, and seeing it.

HEATHER EWART: Albert Tucker not only painted here back in the '40s, he also photographed the
lives, loves and art of many young painters at Heide who would go on to become famous. Their
patrons were John and Sunday Reed. The newly married couple had turned their backs on their wealthy
establishment backgrounds to create their own art community on a small farm on the Yarra River in
1934. They called it Heide.

MIRKA MORA, ARTIST: Everything was perfect. And of course the house was full of paintings,
beautiful paintings by Joy Hester, Albert Tucker galore. One of them was full of Albert Tucker. Of
course, beautiful Sidney Nolan.

JANINE BURKE, ART HISTORIAN: Almost as soon as they came here, the doors of this house were
literally thrown open to a young generation of artists. Radical, left-wing, articulate,
aggressively interested in discussing and changing the culture and here they felt this was the
place that this could happen. These discussions took place in this room.

MIRKA MORA: We all loved the same things, you know. We loved good food. We loved love. We loved
chagrin d'amour.

HEATHER EWART: There was a lot of grand passion at Heide and complex relationships. The Reeds
adopted the child of Albert Tucker and his wife, fellow artist Joy Hester, when the marriage broke
down. Sidney Nolan painted his Ned Kelly series in the dining room. Around the same time he was
having an affair with Sunday Reed.

JANINE BURKE: Sunday and Nolan were madly in love and had a 10-year relationship which was
extremely productive for Nolan's work.

MIRKA MORA: You could see that John and Sunday suffered terribly. You could see they suffered
terribly for love. There is nothing worse than the pain of love.

JANINE BURKE: Yes, it all ended in tears between Sunday and Nolan because Nolan went off and met up
with John Reed's sister, Cynthia, and married her and brought her back to Heide to meet with
everybody and great dramas erupted.

HEATHER EWART: For years, Nolan's Ned Kelly paintings were stored here in a shed at Heide until
Sunday Reed finally gave them to the Australian National Gallery in Canberra.

MIRKA MORA: Yeah, I know that shed. I think the Percival lived in there too, you know. You must
remember people had no money at all. Only John and Sunday had some money. So people had to court
John and Sunday.

HEATHER EWART: Artist Mirka Mora and her husband George Mora were great friends of the Reeds and
dined with them every weekend. It was an era when no-one was buying the work of young contemporary
artists except for the Reeds and a few other collectors.

MIRKA MORA: Modern art was taboo, it was unmentionable. You don't mention George Braque or Picasso
or Matisse. It was all bad.

HEATHER EWART: They dreamt of opening a museum of modern art in Melbourne. Eventually the Reeds
would go it alone with Heide. The house where so many of Australia's best-known artists painted is
now known as Heide 1 and is part of today's museum. In the 1960s, the Reeds took the radical step
of building a new architect-designed home on the grounds. This would become known as Heide 2.

JANINE BURKE: Really they were creating a museum for themselves to live in and they wanted to
bequeath that museum to Victoria, to Australia and say, "Well, here you are, this is what we want
the offer you."

LESLEY ALWAY, DIRECTOR, MUSEUM OF MODERN ART: And they commissioned this house to be a really
strong statement about modernist design and architecture.

HEATHER EWART: In 1980, John and Sunday Reed sold Heide 2 to the Victorian Government, fulfilling
their long-held ambition of leaving behind a museum of modern art as their legacy. They died in
1981 and would never see the next addition, Heide 3, which has just been re-developed to feature
the Albert and Barbara Tucker Gallery. It's a far cry from the first farmhouse.

LESLEY ALWAY: We were very conscious of commissioning the architects to make a really strong
contemporary statement about contemporary architecture, so that we are really building tomorrow's
heritage today.

HEATHER EWART: The aim is to rotate shows of today's young artists and Barbara Tucker thinks her
husband and his friends would have approved of that.

BARBARA TUCKER: Time doesn't stop, does it? And I'm sure that John and Sunday Reed would have been
delighted to see it as well.

HEATHER EWART: Most of Heide's original inhabitants and artists have long gone and for the few
left, while they welcome the museum, it's too painful to go back to visit, even for the grand
reopening.

MIRKA MORA: It's going back to so many emotions. It's going back to my youth to when I was a young
woman. John and Sunday are still there. If I go to Heide at 6 o'clock, I can just see John and
Sunday walking through the trees. I mean, John and Sunday still exist, we just can't see them. But
I can see them.

MAXINE McKEW: The ghosts of the past. Heide the museum reopens next Tuesday. Heather Ewart
reporting.