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Victory In The Pacific -

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(generated from captions) of the 46 in the series. The exhibition brings together 43 track down all the paintings The gallery has spent years trying to in the series, missing pictures remains unknown. but the whereabouts of the three is 'Metamorphosis', The title of this work sums up the whole Alice series. which in a way

is about change, The story of Alice who is essentially Barbara, and here you have Alice, who is essentially Charles Blackman. and you have the White Rabbit, and changing shapes and appearances. And they are metamorphosing disquietening. The story itself is at times quite

his 78th birthday yesterday. Charles Blackman celebrated Happy birthday, Charles. Lewis Carroll's book Mr Blackman has said that just as generations of children, has liberated the minds of

in a totally different style. so too it enabled him to paint

Alice in Wonderland' The exhibition 'Charles Blackman: runs until October 15 Ian Potter Centre at the National Gallery of Victoria's in Federation Square. Well, that's it for today. Next week, Virginia Trioli Barry Kosky... talks to acclaimed theatre director

on telling us We live in a world which is so set right, wrong, good, evil, are going to destroy us and these categories and definitions complexity of human existence. because we're losing a sense of the

And as promised two weeks back,

has become art. we find out how knitting follow the epic journey And next Sunday afternoon you can by artist Greg Johns of 13 monumental sculptures from their creation in Adelaide in Spain. to their eventual installation That's 'Returning Figures' at 3pm.

at 4:00. And we'll see you next Sunday Have a good week. outside to age The finished pieces were moved and his wife Arantxa. and were visited by Javier Moll (All exchange greetings) whether the guardian figures There is some discussion as to for their proposed position. may be too big that they have. It's the only concern It still may well work here. I think so. We are very happy with this. We love it really. be beautiful in our island, I'm sure that it will in our newspaper in Ibiza. their journey, Before the sculptures started an open day was held.

free-floating up the top. And then this looks as though it's is one of the bigger issues. And the transport side for this sculpture in Adelaide here In some ways, the making of the was quite easy. Relatively easy. over to Ibiza by sea Moving the sculpture was a logistic nightmare. in two pieces was not enough. Leaving the guardian figures to fit a ship's flat top. They were still too big into pieces They now had to be cut back before leaving Adelaide.

This program is not subtitled

'40S SWING MUSIC, CHEERING celebrated victory over the Nazis. MAN: In May 1945, US forces in Europe

Some would occupy Germany. Others would return home. for the invasion of Japan. Many would re-deploy to the Pacific SOMBRE MUSIC already begun pulling back to Japan Imperial Army troops in China had American invasion. to thwart the anticipated

MELANCHOLY MUSIC to plan the invasion. The Joint Chiefs of Staff met May 25 took the lead. Army Chief of Staff George Marshall SOMBRE MUSIC Marshall was an army man MAN: It wasn't only because that he pushed for an invasion. Marshall believed that a democracy a seven years war. really just couldn't fight American people could endure this. He didn't know how much longer the then it was imperative If that was the case, to end this war as soon as possible. was through an invasion of Japan. The most direct way to do that The Chiefs set a date - November 1. The island of Okinawa, once secure, for the invasion. would be a staging area after a month of fighting, In early May, Japan's main defensive line. US forces approached marines called "Sugar Loaf". There was a hill on it as "a pimple of a hill". One remembers it EXPLOSION RESOUNDS across that plain "You could have run the 600 yards he recalled, "in a few minutes." "and up Sugar Loaf Hill,"

of General Mitsuru Ushijima, The defences were so thorough, Japan's commander on Okinawa, 7 days and 14 attempts. it would take the 6th Marine Division the battle for Sugar Loaf Hill By some counts, anywhere in World War II. was the hardest for Americans up Sugar Loaf Hill, When we first went

shot in the back. we had a number of people Couldn't believe it.

when you're assaulting a hill? How do you get shot in the back But it was coming from all sides,

zeroing in on us. and the Japs were just Marines encountered fire the front of the hill... from positions dug into

the back of the hill, ..mortars lobbed from fire from neighbouring hills... almost a mile away. ..and artillery from Shuri Castle,

by tunnels. Sugar Loaf could be resupplied to all the supporting hills. They ran from Shuri Castle If Sugar Loaf fell, of defence would collapse. General Ushijima's main line it was not about to fall. Marines soon realised

We found out that Okinawa artillery range for over 50 years, had been used for a Japanese so they knew every inch of it, in your back pocket. and they could drop a shell going up that hill. So we were completely exposed The marines tried again. and when we got on the hill, MAN: We just went down there, and all this open ground behind us,

of people, wounded a lot of people, they shot us up and killed a lot at least one-third of our company. MELANCHOLY MUSIC They get repelled again and again. Sacrificial charges. get in a firefight with the Japanese They actually get to the summit, pushed off the hill. and get pushed off the rock, Sugar Loaf Hill. The marines kept assaulting 13 times! We took that hill 13 times - from the back of the hill, In the night they'd come back the hill, and they'd counterattack. from under the hill, from beside We suffered terrible casualties and we'd have to pull back a little bit. SOMBRE MUSIC Torrential rains and mud also hindered their advance. Night-time brought its own terrors. MILLER: These sneak attacks at night, it's psychological warfare. And it works in a lot of cases. It drove a lot of marines nuts. This one person, he was right next to me, and it was a trench that we were in, waiting for the word to move out. All of a sudden he started crying and pulling grass out and putting it in his mouth and stuff like that. More than 1,200 marines would leave the battle of Sugar Loaf Hill with what was called "combat fatigue". On the seventh day, the artillery fire that softened up Sugar Loaf Hill and its neighbouring hills was unusually heavy.

SOMBRE MUSIC Then the marines cleared out the side hills. Tanks encircled Sugar Loaf and attacked the backside caves. After seven days, the battle of Sugar Loaf Hill was over. Okinawa's main line of defence began to crumble. General Ushijima began to retreat. American casualties at Sugar Loaf Hill were more than 2,500. Emperor Hirohito wanted a final decisive battle. General Ushijima was trying to wage it. MILLER: The idea is to bleed the Americans. It's a dual strategy. You can't win the war, but you can bleed them to such an extent that we can get better peace terms. The longer we prolong it, the longer that fleet sits out there and is susceptible to Kamikaze air attack. They thought the combination of the two - a long war of savage attrition, taking casualties, and then the slaughter at sea - might convince the Americans that an invasion would be insanity.

(Speaks in Japanese) As the Imperial Army lost ground on Okinawa, Japan prepared for the final decisive battle on the main islands, Ketsu-Go. REFLECTIVE MUSIC The plan was to destroy troop ships before they reached the beaches.

Japan had more than 5,000 conventional warplanes to defend against an invasion... ..more than 5,000 Kamikazes... ..1,300 miniature suicide submarines... ..several hundred piloted bombs. It was really little more than a rocket with a man in it just to aim into a ship. The Japanese were gonna use suicide frogmen with explosives strapped around them to go and blow up landing craft. (Speaks in Japanese) The Imperial Army planned to counterattack the US forces that made it to land.

Civilians attached to military units were prepared to fight with sharpened bamboo spears. DREA: My Japanese professor was about 11 or 12 years old in 1945, and he told me they were taught to rush at an American tank with a satchel charge full of explosives, roll under the tank and set it off. I mean, he was actually being trained to do this. The Japanese had a substantial basis to believe that Ketsu-Go could deliver something to them better than unconditional surrender. General Korechika Anami became War Minister in April and the head of the pro-war faction in the government. He was a passionate defender of Ketsu-Go. General Anami was really the personification of a Japanese soldier's soldier. (Shouts) He was athletic. Anami was quite good at Japanese stick fighting, or kendo. He seemed to be the typical samurai who cared about his troops, who told staff officers, "Get the hell out of my way. "What are we doing for the troops?" Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo began to doubt if Japan could continue the war. A report he commissioned warned people were growing critical, even rebellious. The US blockade and firebombing had taken a toll.

MAN: I was about down to 44 pounds. And I remember writing to my mother about it, and she was so upset because that sounded like a complaint, that I was complaining about something. We were all undernourished, and all kind of skin diseases. I mean, lice were all over your hair. I mean, there was no sanitation. You would not want to turn these 10-year-olds into any kind of fighting soldiers.

They couldn't even fight the lice. DISTURBING MUSIC Togo warned the military Ketsu-Go would destroy Japan. "If we cannot fulfil our responsibility to the throne," replied a furious Anami, "we should offer our sincere apologies by committing harikiri." At an imperial conference on June 8, Anami argued that the entire nation should fight to the death. Then Baron Kiichiro Hiranuma, an advisor to the Emperor, presented the report Togo had commissioned. DREA: Hiranuma comes in and says, "Well, wait. "Our industries are wrecked. We're short of food. "If we have a poor harvest, the people will starve to death. "There's beginnings of popular unrest, the way this war has gone. "We've had a series of defeats." And everyone says, "Well, yes, but let's fight to the bitter end." The extremity of their situation actually propels them to seek a decisive battle before their condition becomes so hapless, they can't even do that. REFLECTIVE MUSIC The Emperor had hoped the final decisive battle would be on Okinawa. MACHINE-GUN FIRE

On Okinawa, the US Army and Marines were destroying the last line of Japanese resistance cave by cave. You'd get the interpreter up there, beg 'em to come out. And they wouldn't come out. They might send somebody out and shoot at you or something like that, so you'd just seal 'em up. A lot of them that were sealed, you'd get a bulldozer in there and just cover up the entrance to the cave.

The horrible thing about flame is, it doesn't have to hit you. It sucks out all the oxygen. And you'd see people in the caves - soldiers, Japanese - not a mark on them. They suffocated because there was no oxygen to breathe. It was gone. GRIM MUSIC

Marines learned not to trust those who surrendered, even civilians. Some people came out, and this old lady in a kimono. She looked old. And she pulled out a grenade from under her armpit and threw it at a corporal.

It was an American grenade. I don't know where she got it.

But she pulled the pin and threw it and blew him to kingdom come. And I saw her do it, and... So I shot her... ..and quite a few others.

Many civilians in the caves, like those on Saipan, preferred death before surrender. 46 student nurses shared a cave with the army. (Woman speaks in Japanese) TRANSLATION: Suddenly, I heard a call for surrender coming from above.

"Are there any soldiers or civilians in the cave? "Come out naked if you are a man, "and come out waving a handkerchief if you are a woman." He repeated the call again and again, but no-one responded. We had been told not to be captured. Captives would be despised as traitors, forever bringing shame to themselves and to their entire family.

We had also been told that the Americans would kill men instantly... ..and women would be raped and run over by tanks. Again, the voice said, "We are going to blow up this cave "if you don't come out!" Still no-one responded. Some Japanese soldiers started firing... ..and in response the American soldiers threw in a grenade. SOMBRE MUSIC I clung to the rugged rocks and raised my head, only to be choked.

Everybody started screaming, "Mother, help me!" "Father, help me!" "Teacher, help me!" "I can't breathe! Help! Help!" I don't remember waking up, but my friend told me later that I was buried under dead bodies. FLAMES CRACKLE Only 7 of the 46 student nurses survived. (Miyara sings in Japanese)

SONG CONTINUES ON RECORDING As Americans approached General Ushijima's cave, he retreated to its depths. For a general, death before surrender entailed a ritual. He knelt, facing north toward the Imperial Palace.

(Shouts indistinctly) SOMBRE MUSIC After 82 days, the Battle of Okinawa was over. More than 70,000 died trying to defend it. More than 12,000 died trying to take it. An additional 36,000 were wounded. Almost one-third of the invasion force were casualties. The survivors would invade Japan. Reporters are saying that the Japanese are the best cave and hill fighters in the world, and Okinawa was just an inkling of what's gonna come when we actually hit the main Japanese islands. The American people were anxious to end this thing. There's a sense of "over by '45". But nothing in the character of these battles gave any indication that the Japanese were going to surrender. How do you end this, on both sides? I mean, you have to achieve an understanding. Now, with the Nazis it was pretty easy. The understanding was, "We've walked over your entire country. "You surrendered." Well, Japan hadn't been walked over.

What was the understanding? What was the basis for war termination? 'Cause the Japanese wouldn't say 'surrender'. How do you end it? How do you end it quickly? How do you end it efficiently? These questions faced America's new President, Harry Truman, who succeeded Franklin Roosevelt after he died in April. Okinawa was Truman's first battle as commander-in-chief, and it weighed heavily on him. "Shall we invade Japan proper or shall we bomb and blockade?", he wrote in his diary on June 17. "That is my hardest decision to date." When he met with his advisors the next day, Truman was more concerned about casualties than a quick end to the war. Army Chief of Staff George Marshall was less concerned about casualties

than ending the war quickly.

He presented the invasion plan the Chiefs had agreed on. To establish air bases, the US would invade southern Kyushu with nine divisions. Intelligence predicted six Japanese divisions would have to defend the entire coastline. On beaches in the south, invaders would outnumber the defenders by three to one. The Kyushu bases would facilitate air support for an assault on Tokyo in 1946. GRIM MUSIC Truman never got a forthright answer on potential casualties. Marshall essentially evades giving a direct answer to that question. At one point Admiral Leahy, Truman's chief of staff, suggests it'll be like Okinawa - 35% of the committed forces. Since we're talking about using about 776,000 men on Kyushu, that works out to more than 200,000 casualties, but nobody works that out. This is really the 5-star general talking to the World War I captain, 10 weeks or so in office, still new and uneasy in the position,

and here's a older, seasoned warrior, a man who commands great respect, Marshall, and he lectures the President. And at one point he tells the President, basically, "Don't delay things and be irresolute. "It's important to make tough decisions and be a leader."

Hoping to avoid what he called

"an Okinawa from one end of Japan to the other", Truman approved only the Kyushu landing, and only after all the Chiefs endorsed it. He postponed a decision on invading Tokyo. OMINOUS MUSIC Only two weeks after committing himself to a fight to the finish, the Emperor summoned his war cabinet. It was June 22, the day Okinawa fell to the Americans. The Emperor's conference with this inner cabinet was, indeed, a critical moment and extremely unusual in the nature of Japanese politics because the Emperor, in fact, took the lead, indicated that he wanted the government to actively pursue a diplomatic option mediating an end to the war. Not surrendering - mediating an end to the war that would be acceptable to Japan. The diplomatic option also had to be acceptable both to General Anami, who led the military faction in the war cabinet... ..and to Foreign Minister Togo, who led an emerging peace faction. SOMBRE MUSIC The Emperor had been warned the Soviet Union might enter the war against Japan. Nonetheless, the war cabinet decided to ask the Soviet Union to mediate. MAN: For military, I think it is very important to keep Soviet out of the war. They were quite aware that they couldn't afford to have 2-front war, and Togo thought that Moscow approach, I think, is crucial to terminate the war. There was no decision on what peace terms Japan might offer. HORN BLARES, EXCITED HUBBUB

As Hirohito made overtures to the Soviets, Truman set off to meet their leader, Joseph Stalin.

He went to the Berlin suburb of Potsdam to discuss postwar Europe with Allied leaders... ..and to see that Stalin kept a promise to enter the war against Japan after Germany was defeated.

The Allies had promised Stalin territorial concessions if he entered the war. Stalin told Truman he would, on August 15. Truman's diary entry that night read, "Fini Japs when that comes about." In Potsdam, Truman received word from the director of the Manhattan Project. The atom bomb had been tested successfully at Alamogordo, New Mexico. "Believe Japs will fold up before Russia comes in," he wrote. "I am sure they will when Manhattan appears over their homeland." STATIC CRACKLES Within days after these optimistic diary entries, intelligence from intercepted Japanese military cables, called 'Ultra', was alarming. In June, the invasion planners projected three Japanese divisions in southern Kyushu. By July there was evidence of nine divisions, triple the number in just one month. Ultra told a startling story in July of 1945. Japanese units were moving into southern Kyushu at an alarming rate. It was as if the very invasion beaches were magnets

drawing the Japanese forces to those places where the Americans would have to land and fight their way ashore. It was very clear in the messages that the Japanese intended to fight to the bitter end. These intercepts were so secret that no-one who saw them, including the President, was supposed to write about them. There is some evidence Truman saw the intercept dated July 25.

With Truman, we have this extraordinary entry in his diary on 25 July 1945, where he talks about meeting in the morning with General Marshall and British Admiral Mountbatten, and they talked about the tactical and political situation. Well, there's no place in the world that US forces are engaged in a tactical battle on 25 July. It seems pretty clear to me that he must be talking about the intercepts, and what Truman is doing with that entry is leaving a cryptic message to us down through the years - "I saw, I saw, I saw." That happened to be the night Secretary of War Henry Stimson sent a wire authorising the use of the atomic bomb.

There was no reason not to do it. It made good sense, and it was not a weighty matter. In the framework of mid-1945, for Truman and those around him, the answer was self-evident. Nobody around him had any sustained and serious doubts about using the bomb. It was the implementation of a long-run assumption,

rooted in the FDR administration and sharing many of the same advisors. CRANE: There is no way that any American president, faced with the expenditures that's been put into the project, faced with the casualties in the Pacific, could not have used that bomb. What would have come out later if, all of a sudden, the invasion went in and had all these casualties, and the American public found out later that, well, but we didn't wanna use it we had this super bomb, kill too many Japanese? 'cause we thought we were gonna make that decision. They just couldn't take to get the Japanese to yield. Nobody knew for sure what it would everything we have been doing, We're going to do and we're going to add the bomb, and we're going to add the Soviets, and we're going to add the invasion

at some point in this process and hope that

the Japanese crack and surrender. he might save American lives Truman was advised for unconditional surrender if he dropped the demand to keep the Emperor. and allowed Japan The idea had originated with Joseph Grew, former ambassador to Japan, now the Under Secretary of State. Secretary of War Henry Stimson also favoured this conditional surrender. Truman had sailed to Europe with Stimson's draft of a warning the Allies would give Japan. He recommended the Emperor remain as a constitutional monarch like the King of England. But it was James Byrnes, the Secretary of State, who had Truman's ear aboard ship. The Nazis had surrendered unconditionally and, he believed, Americans would demand the same of Hirohito. politician in the administration. BERNSTEIN: Byrnes is the most savvy He was a leader of the Senate was really a junior senator. at the time that Truman He was a mentor to Truman. who worried about the electorate, Byrnes is the kind of person who worried about domestic politics. to read the polls of early June 1945 It didn't take great perception and discover that most Americans hated the Emperor system, hated the Emperor, of both Hirohito and the system, wanted the destruction responsible for the war. and saw this as Truman sided with Byrnes.

allowed Japan to keep the Emperor, If, at Potsdam, he had many historians have argued, Japan might have surrendered before the atomic bomb was dropped. Intercepts, codenamed 'Magic', of the exchange between Foreign Minister Togo in Tokyo and Japan's Ambassador in Moscow, Naotake Sato, tell a different story. DREA: Ambassador Sato is very clear.

The best you're gonna get out of this is what he calls unconditional surrender, and then he thinks better of that and refines it to mean, "Of course we would retain the imperial institution,

"but it would still be a surrender,

you're gonna get." "and this is the best in response to that is, "No, no, no. And all he gets back

like unconditional surrender, "We can't accept anything simply a modification "and certainly not of the imperial institution." "to provide for a guarantee

the name of the Japanese government. Foreign Minister Togo says that in

in black and white That's all enshrined of July 22, 1945. in the Magic diplomatic summary no reasonable room for doubt In my view, it leaves about the imperial institution that simply offering a promise would have secured the surrender of Japan. STIRRING MUSIC The Potsdam Declaration, issued July 26, 1945, was an ultimatum calling on Japan to surrender unconditionally and without delay or "risk prompt and utter destruction". It also offered various terms for Japan to rejoin the family of nations.

It was signed by the Allies in the war against Japan but not by the Soviet Union, which had not yet declared war. When the ultimatum arrived in Tokyo, Admiral Kantaro Suzuki said Japan's Prime Minister the government intended to ignore it. did not appear Since the Soviet Union's name signed the Potsdam Declaration, as one of the countries that had their final word why don't we wait for they can mediate? with regard to whether or not SOMBRE MUSIC Declaration was issued, FRANK: When the Potsdam of the Japanese government, within the inner sanctum even what we regard as the moderates a sign of weakening American will - deemed the Potsdam Declaration as all these terms that we had already offered was shed in the invasion. before the first drop of blood And they were fortified in the belief that they should just press on. The Potsdam Declaration had said, "We shall brook no delay." By August 5, after nine days, Japan had not officially responded. Hirohito did not press his government to accept it. Instead, he worried about how to preserve the imperial regalia,

emblems of the legitimacy of his rule. The sacred mirror, symbol of the sun goddess, was worshipped at the Grand Shrine at Ise. The sacred sword, symbol of bravery, in Nagoya City. was preserved at the Atsuta Shrine symbol of affection, The sacred curved jewel, was enshrined at the Imperial Palace. at the palace for protection. The Emperor wanted all of them Here's a man who ought to be as he called them, his people. thinking about his children, Instead, his insiders say and symbols of office... he was concerned about the insignia in a sense, sovereignty ..all the things that gave him, and invested him with power. the destruction of his power He was more concerned about than the destruction of his country. GRIM MUSIC EXPLOSION RESOUNDS EERIE MUSIC destroyed Hiroshima, On August 6, the day an atomic bomb for a response from Moscow. Hirohito was still waiting Sato had said would never come. It was a response that Ambassador people from utter destruction TRUMAN: It was to spare the Japanese

was issued at Potsdam. that the ultimatum of July 26 that ultimatum. Their leaders promptly rejected If they do not now accept our terms, a rain of ruin from the air they may expect been seen on this Earth. the like of which has never will follow sea and land forces Behind this air attack they have not yet seen, in such numbers and power as they are already well aware. and with the fighting skill of which invasion, was having second thoughts. General Marshall, the advocate of nine divisions protecting Kyushu. In July, the intercepts identified On August 6, they identified 13. a preview of hell. For Marshall, it was DISTURBING MUSIC had been costly, but successful. The landings at Normandy Marshall began to question would succeed. if the invasion plans for Japan who was to command the invasion, He asked General Douglas MacArthur, to northern Japan. to consider moving the landing Just imagine you're George Marshall, of the Normandy invasion and on the eve "Hey, don't invade Normandy. you suddenly tell Dwight Eisenhower, the whole thing and invade Norway, "Why don't we reschedule are weaker?" "where the German defences because of all of the work, Well, I mean, the mind boggles planning that's gone into this. all of the effort, all of the Yet this is really, in effect, in August of 1945. what Marshall is saying to MacArthur by his own intelligence officer, The warning had been raised

yet MacArthur downplayed it.

Douglas MacArthur was determined in the history of warfare. to lead the greatest invasion Marshall thought, One way to make an invasion possible, with atomic bombs. would be to destroy beach defences The Manhattan Project informed him by November 1. at least seven would be ready to use atomic bombs DREA: Marshall is now planning as tactical support weapons as...really, against the Japanese beach defences, by the American units to precede the landing almost as if it were naval gunfire support. FRANK: The scientists had calculated that anybody who'd be killed by radiation would have already been killed by a rock or blast or heat. You read the contemporary planning documents, and you see that there is no appreciation of the potential danger of immediate or lingering radiation. DREA: If this would have happened, the invaders of the land of the gods would have entered the world of the dead on both sides. STIRRING MUSIC Just before midnight on August 8, declared war on Japan. the Soviet Union would end the war before he entered, Fearing the atomic bomb Stalin advanced the date. land operation of the Pacific War The Red Army launched the largest against the Japanese in Manchuria. were readying a second atomic bomb. At the same time, US forces REFLECTIVE MUSIC after the Hiroshima bombing, For three days the Japanese government had not met. Soviet mediation shattered, With the hope for at 10:30am on August 9 the war cabinet gathered to discuss the Potsdam Declaration. led the peace faction, Foreign Minister Togo with one condition - urging acceptance preserving the Emperor, although stripped of his powers. What prompted "peace party" is a profound fear that the Soviet influence, if allowed to continue,

then that would lead to the end of monarchical system. "The inevitable has come," said General Anami, who feared a 2-front war. Yet Anami and the militarists, still confident in Ketsu-Go, favoured adding three additional conditions. There would be no occupation, the Japanese military would disarm itself, and the military would try its own war criminals. They really lacked reality picture. They... (Laughs) It's rather amazing that they were audacious enough to hammer out such unrealistic three conditions attached to the preservation of the imperial throne. ENGINE WHINES Anami told the war cabinet he was certain America only had one atomic bomb.

It was at that time, just before 1pm on August 9, that word reached the meeting a second bomb had hit Nagasaki. MELANCHOLY MUSIC

The war cabinet was divided over surrender. The full cabinet then met. It too was divided. Only the Emperor could break the deadlock. He met first with his principal advisor, Marquis Koichi Kido. And Kido had very important meeting with Emperor in that afternoon that lasted for a long time, unusually long time.

That meant they met substantial issues. Emperor resisted to accept Togo's narrowest definition and expanded it to include Emperor's political rule -

in other words, that one condition should not be merely preservation imperial house, but the preservation of Emperor's status within the national law. He wanted actual power. The Emperor wanted the powers he then enjoyed, the powers granted his grandfather under the constitution of 1868. When the Emperor's inner circle met with him that night Baron Hiranuma, a Shinto fundamentalist, tried to further solidify the Emperor's powers. DREA: Hiranuma's argument was the constitution was irrelevant. The imperial line predated the Meiji constitution of 1868. The origin of Japan was the origin of the imperial house, and that was a divine event because the imperial family descended from the gods long before any constitution existed. It was irrelevant to discuss the Emperor's prerogatives in terms of legal arrangements.

The Emperor transcended those worldly forms. He was a transcendent being. The Emperor broke the deadlock. Japan sent word to Washington it accepted the Potsdam Declaration with one condition - that it did not "prejudice the prerogatives of His Majesty "as a sovereign ruler". These prerogatives would give the Emperor the power to prevent the US from demilitarising and democratising Japan. This was not the powerless, symbolic emperor, like the King of England, that Togo and some of Truman's advisors had imagined. SOMBRE MUSIC Japan's response to the Potsdam Declaration arrived in Washington August 10. Even after two atomic bombs, no-one expected surrender so soon. Secretary of War Stimson dropped vacation plans to attend a cabinet meeting. Stimson took the lead. He urged Truman to accept the Japanese offer. Stimson told Truman that if we don't use the Emperor to obtain an organised capitulation of the Japanese armed forces, we could be facing a score of Iwo Jimas or Okinawas across the Asian continent, in South-East Asia and the Pacific, and that's an analogy to a casualty figure somewhere between 600,000 and almost 1 million. And Stimson isn't even talking about the home islands. Truman told his cabinet that telegrams he had already received were overwhelmingly against accepting Japan's offer.

To Secretary of State Byrnes, these expressions of public opinion mattered.

Byrnes said this will mean the crucifixion of the President. Wonderfully dramatic metaphor. That is, if the President accedes to retaining the imperial system, and presumably the Emperor

he, the President, is going to be destroyed at home. This is the fear of the backlash. SOMBRE MUSIC Byrnes got support from an unexpected quarter. Retaining the Emperor had been the idea of Under Secretary of State Joseph Grew and Japan experts in the State Department, including Joseph Ballantine. They were derided by some as "Emperor worshippers," but they knew what Baron Hiranuma meant by "imperial prerogatives". Ballantine - immediately he said, "Oh, this is bad news. "This is imperial prerogatives. "That means we are going to maintain the source of Japanese militarism." That would be in contradiction with the basic objectives of the United States. Byrnes was in a tough position. To reject Japan's offer might prolong the war and give the Soviets a foothold in Japan and a role in the occupation. The response Byrnes drafted for Truman sidestepped the fate of the Emperor, but made it clear he would not be in charge. "From the moment of surrender," it read, "the authority of the Emperor and the Japanese government "shall be subject to the Supreme Commander - Allied Powers." CRICKETS CHIRP When Byrnes's response arrived in Japan,

the war cabinet was once again split. For three rancorous days, General Anami led those opposing surrender. On August 14, the Emperor intervened once again and imposed his will. "It is my belief," he said with sadness, "that continuation of the war "promises nothing but additional destruction." Just before midnight, he recorded a surrender message. GUNSHOTS, GRIM MUSIC Within the hour junior officers launched a coup d'etat, with the murder of two leaders of the palace guard. The rebels ransacked the Imperial Palace, hoping to destroy the surrender message. They burned the homes of Prime Minister Suzuki and Baron Hiranuma, calling them "pro-American traitors". MELANCHOLY MUSIC General Anami never condemned the coup, but he never backed it. Without his support, it was doomed. Anami's last act was that of a proud Japanese warrior who had fought his battle and lost. Anami's ritual suicide, I think, was very, very important symbolic meaning, because this is the end of Imperial Army. So, that's a clean break. This is end of the army. MAN SPEAKS IN JAPANESE ON RADIO In a radio broadcast at noon on August 15, Japanese people heard something they had never heard before - their Emperor's voice. He never mentioned defeat or surrender. In essence, what the Emperor says is, "Things didn't quite go our way.

"The situation did not develop to our advantage." I mean, this is one of the classic understatements in world history, when he looks around at this ruined empire and says, "Well, it didn't quite go as we expected." Well, OK. It surely didn't. This is totally devoid of personal responsibility or responsibility of Japan causing that war. He also specifically singles out the atomic bomb as being a reason for the surrender, saying that the Americans are so unusually cruel and savage that, "To spare humanity from further such barbarities, "I will end the war." The Emperor, who had worried about a rebellion from his subjects, helped ensure his position by posing as their saviour. TRUMAN: I have received this afternoon a message from the Japanese government. I deem this reply a full acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration, which specifies the unconditional surrender of Japan. In the reply, there is no qualification. Word of the Japanese surrender would soon reach anxious American forces poised for the invasion.

You couldn't believe how happy we were. It was like getting a death sentence revoked, you know? It was wonderful.

The Emperor directed a special surrender message to his armed forces. He never mentioned the bomb, but stressed the Soviet entry into the war. From the standpoint of securing their compliance, Soviet intervention was a far, far more potent argument. The prospect of massive Soviet armies sweeping down across Asia and confronting them was a very real and intimidating prospect. I think the best explanation of why the Japanese surrender is it's because of a whole series of shocks that occur. Both bombs were important, and I think that the Russian invasion also is very important. Hard to weight which are more important, but I think it's worth saying that there's a certain equality there - that they are both very important. REFLECTIVE MUSIC In explaining Japan's defeat, Hirohito wrote to his son, "Our military men placed too much weight on spirit "and forgot about science." His wife, Empress Nagako, seemed to agree. A few days after the surrender, she wrote, "Every day from morning to night, B-29s, naval bombers, and fighters "freely fly over the palace, making an enormous noise. "As I sit at my desk writing and look up at the sky, "countless numbers are passing over. "Unfortunately," she added, "the B-29 is a splendid plane."

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