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The War -

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SOMBRE MUSIC February 23, 1942. these appalling pictures Out of Poland had come of German conquest. of the end product They show mass misery and death to an extreme, carried by German thoroughness rarely seen before in history. fighting foes of Nazism may expect They also show the kind of thing the

if they really lose the war. an emotional quality of sadism The methodical massacre takes on as applied by the Nazis to the Jews.

to walk out or use a railway, Herded in Polish ghettoes, forbidden machine gunned in their synagogues,

thrown by thousands into the rivers, and possessions - stripped of clothing and food literally dying out. the Jews of Poland are

These are the grim statistical facts. multiplied beyond the telling. The details of human agony are 'Life' magazine. At the start of 1942,

almost all the news was bad. the United States' new ally, The Soviet Union - from the Germans was under unceasing attack reached the outskirts of Moscow. who had encircled Leningrad and now taken Singapore - Japanese troops had and with it, all of Malaya. the Gibraltar of the east, and Burma and Hong Kong. They had seized Borneo and Wake Island, And they had taken Guam Makin and Tarawa. between Hawaii and the Philippines. There was not a single American base Prime Minister Winston Churchill But President Roosevelt and British agreed that for the time being, on the defensive in the Pacific. they would have to remain armies and mighty industrial machine Germany, they decided, with its vast was the greatest danger. Victory in Europe would require a generation of young men, not only the mobilisation of rounds of ammunition, but also billions of thousands of tanks and airplanes millions of guns, hundreds of bring them to battle. and fleets of ships to would take time. Producing all of that and the Soviet Union Meanwhile, the survival of Britain and fuel and weapons from America. depended on a steady stream of food in Theodore Judah School When I was seven years old refugee, came into our class. a boy from England, an English

Murgatroyd Buchanan. His name was William Royd Buchanan. We all called him Royd - And we developed a great friendship came over to my house and one day, Royd "Burt, Burt." and I was upstairs and he called, said, "Hi, Royd, what's going on?" And I looked out the window and I dirty German sub did to my father?" And Royd said, "Do you know what a And I said, "No, what?" He said, "It killed him." know how to deal with that. And...I don't...I didn't we sat down under the tree I went downstairs and and and talked awhile. I never had any experience with But it was still something that up until that time - one of my best friends telling me in the war. that his father was killed On the evening of January 13, 1942, stop the Japanese on Bataan, as American troops tried to silently off Manhattan. a German U-boat surfaced but gratified Its commander was astonished to see that more than a month on the United States, after Germany declared war still ablaze with lights. America's largest city was

its target, Using those lights to silhouette the side of an American oil tanker. he sent a torpedo hissing towards BLAST Then, slipped back beneath the sea of further prey. and moved south in search seven more unarmed vessels. Within 12 hours, he had sunk unprepared for this kind of war. The United States seemed totally BLASTS sink 25 tankers along the east coast By the end of January, U-boats would for supremacy of the seas, continuing a fierce struggle

called the Battle of the Atlantic,

America's allies. and threatening to choke off American beaches were black with oil. all on the shores of Mobile Bay, WOMAN: All along the Gulf coast and we could go sit on the beach, to light a fire but we were not allowed because of the U-boats. that ships were sunk We heard often in Mobile just as they went out of Mobile Bay and we know this to be true and the canned goods because the life preservers washed up on our beaches.

Jacksonville, Florida For a time, the waters from to Galveston, Texas were considered in the world. the most dangerous shipping lane one weary merchant seaman, The only safe run, said is from St Louis to Cincinnati.

BLAST MACHINE GUN FIRE for the good Old Glory. I really fought for a few days, You know, like everybody else, and we're gonna fight, you think, good old United States a matter of six months and so forth. we're gonna whip these Japanese in this was not a short situation But when it really hit me that and that they were hitting us hard, then I think I changed pretty much my fellow Americans. to protect myself and more to save my own life. And I think I was fighting and Filipino troops Nearly 80,000 American

the Japanese around Manila had managed to escape

on the Bataan Peninsula. and take up positions

planning had faulted. Once again, General MacArthur's Most suppliers had been left behind. Rations had to be cut in half. bred malarial mosquitoes. Bataan's humid forests Clean water was in short supply. There was little medicine on hand.

eight operating tables One field hospital had in need of surgery. and 1,200 battle casualties Still, the men struggled to hold on. after another. Fighting off one attack FIRING AND BLASTS

Then retreating halfway down the peninsula. For weeks, the men on Bataan rescuers were coming. continued to hope that had assured them of it. Again and again, MacArthur Help is on the way, he promised. one time I remember, FRAZIER: On the 'Voice of America',

we were getting shortwave radio. It said, "As far as the eye can see, coming to the Philippines." "there's ships and planes

we were getting reinforcements. We were told continuously that back into Bataan, We were told it when we retreated it will only be for a few weeks. had ever been despatched. But no troops, no planes

They could not have made it through anyway. The Japanese now controlled the South Pacific. "There are times," Secretary of War, Henry Stimson confided to his diary, "when men must die." By early March, three out of four of Bataan's defenders

were incapacitated in some way. Sick, exhausted, wounded, weak from hunger, suffering from beri-beri. At the end, close to the end, there was one can of salmon issued to 35 men and some rice - very little rice. So our situation was deteriorating,

getting worse every day. MacArthur managed to leave his quarters in Corregidor to visit his men on Bataan precisely once. They began calling him, 'Dug-out Doug'. The soldiers' bitterness intensified when acting under direct orders from the president, MacArthur, his wife, four-year-old son and 17 members of his staff slipped out of Corregidor in a PT boat. From Australia, he issued a brief statement. "I came through," he said, "and I shall return." When he left and went to Australia, that's what I call doomsday for Bataan because we knew then that we had to fight and he issued orders to fight to the last man and that's...we knew what our fate was going to be. On April 9, 1942, Major General Edward L King sent a soldier forward with a white flag. It was the largest surrender by the United States Army in its history. 78,000 American and Filipino troops. General King asked a Japanese officer just one question. Would his men be treated decently? "Yes," said the officer. "We are not barbarians." But Japanese tradition held that those who surrendered rather than die on the battlefield, were cowards, unworthy of respect. The prisoners were prodded northward, 300 at a time. They were to walk from Mariveles to San Fernando

then be loaded on to railroad cars for the journey to Camp O'Donnell in central Luzon. What followed would be remembered as the Bataan Death March. If we had known what was ahead of us at the beginning of the Bataan Death March, I would have taken death. It was very, very difficult for us to understand because we had had no contact with the Japanese whatsoever as to what these people are all about and what they're like. And they immediately started beating guys if they didn't stand right or if they were sitting down. We didn't know where we were going, we didn't know anything. And we were stopped on the way, some of us were, and searched and beat again and all our possessions were taken away from us. Some of them had rings, and they just cut the fingers off and take the rings. They poured the water out of my canteen to be sure I didn't have any water. I saw them buried alive when a guy was bayoneted or shot, lying in the road and the convoys were coming along. I saw trucks that would just go out of their way to run over a guy in the middle of the road. And by the time you have 15-20 trucks run over you, you look like a smashed tomato or something. And I saw people that had their throat cut because they would take their bayonets and stick it out through the corner of the truck at night and it would be just high enough to cut their throats. And beating with a rifle butt until there just was no more life in them. I saw Filipino women cut. Their stomachs were cut open and their throats were cut. I saw Filipinos and Americans beheaded just with one swipe of the sabre. I marched six days and seven nights, never stopped. I did not have one sip of water and no food. Now they say that you can't do this, but I did. When I got to the end of the march, the end of the entire march, we stopped to get on a train, they put us on a train. My tongue wouldn't even go back in my mouth

and as you look and talk to somebody about that, they'll tell you that's not close to death. It was. No one knows precisely how many men died on the Bataan Death March. Somewhere between 6 and 11 thousand Filipinos and Americans. And at the end of the march, Camp O'Donnell provided no relief. An unfinished Philippine army base surrounded by barbed wire and machine gun towers, with little water and little shelter from the sun, it would eventually hold nearly 60,000 miserable desperate men. Food was nothing but lugal - watery rice soup filled with weevils and worms. "It was best to try and swallow it after dark," one man recalled, "so as not to have to look at it." Some 16,000 more Filipinos and Americans would die at Camp O'Donnell. Of dehydration, malnutrition, malaria, beri-beri, scurvy, dysentery, hopelessness.

Their bodies went by in an endless column, one sergeant remembered. Day and night, they were carried to the cemetery. PHILLIPS: We had all been so distressed about leaving our boys in the Philippines. There was no way of rescuing and we know now. But at the time, we didn't know that there were no ships. Remember, they didn't tell us how much had been sunk at Pearl Harbor. And we kept thinking, why don't you go in there and get the boys out of the Philippines? One day, Glen Frazier volunteered for burial detail. FRAZIER: On some days, we buried 250 men. So I didn't know what one day might happen to me. So my idea was, I had two sets of dog tags, and I said to myself,

well, I think I'll just throw one of these sets of dog tags in the mass grave. So, if I'm alive when the war ends, there's no problem.

But if I'm missing or dead,

I wanted my family to know and have some kind of ending and so forth. So they would think that I was in this grave. BLASTS On May 6, 1942, Corregidor, the last American stronghold in the Philippines, fell to the Japanese. MAN: I went to Seattle in 1942. One memory is very clear and strong. It's a Saturday and I'm taking a bus into the centre of town and across the public square

in front of the town hall, I guess it is, and I see ahead of me, a line of people standing patiently by a bus stop and as I approach, I see that they're all Japanese. And that they're getting on to buses.

And I realised that these were the Japanese-American citizens of Seattle and the neighbourhood who are being sent off to Guatemala to a concentration camp.

And I think, those are my enemies. But they don't look like enemies, standing there in their American clothes, with their cardboard suitcases, waiting to be sent off into the desert. On February 19, 1942,

President Roosevelt had signed executive order 9066. Its tone was carefully neutral. It authorised the war department to designate military areas and then exclude anyone from them whom it felt to be a danger. But it had a specific target. The more than 110,000 people of Japanese ancestry living along the west coast. They were about to be forced from their homes and moved inland. Thousands of Germany and Italian aliens were also locked up. But millions of German- and Italian-American citizens remained free to live their lives as they always had. Only Japanese-Americans on the west coast were singled out. "A Jap's a Jap," said John L DeWitt of the west coast defence command. "It makes no difference whether he's an American citizen or not. "I don't want any of them." Almost no one protested the government's plan which also classified all Japanese-Americans as unfit for military service. MAN: 1A is physically fit, 4F is something's wrong with you. 4C means enemy alien and here I was, 17 years of age, I considered myself a good American, but made into an enemy. In Sacramento, soon after order 9066 was issued, hand-lettered signs went up all over town saying, 'Japs must go'. The orders to leave arrived in May.

Susumu Satow and his family could scarcely believe it. They were given one week's notice. It was middle of harvest but still, yeah, we had to... abandon it and leave. And so of course, we arrangement with our friends, "Hey, come and pick the strawberries because it's ready to be marketed." And so I imagine they did that. And so you put essentials in your suitcase. You know, first day, when we had to pack up our thing and go to the train, I really wondered what was going to happen to us. Asako Tokuno was still a freshman at Berkeley that spring. Her parents and her grandfather were evacuated first because they had been born in Japan. She and her sister were left behind for a time to close the family flower business. We all somehow gathered the flowers, bunched them and got them to the market, to the flower market in San Francisco, and so we were able to keep the business going.

And all those flowers didn't go to waste, you know, they were in the height of their beauty at that time of the year. Getting ready for Easter and all the holidays.

We were really kind of caught in the middle when the war happened although no question about our loyalty to our country and how we felt. This is our country and when this whole evacuation thing happened it was like, we had no country because we weren't from Japan and they took away our rights, actually. We couldn't protest, we weren't to protest because we had to do what the government told us to do. And so...I think, our parents realised of course they were not citizens. So they accepted the whole thing. For us I think it was a lot harder.

The fact that we had no rights. INTENSE FLUTE NOTE

NEWSREEL: This was the Russian front in 1942. The Germans advanced, looting, torturing, murdering as they went. The casualties ran into the millions. They had driven 1,000 miles deep into Russian territory. But Russia with her scorched earth policy, left nothing of value behind. Wheat which could not be harvested was set afire.

Bridges were blown up, dams, railroads, power plants. Although the German invasion of the Soviet Union had stalled outside Moscow, with both sides suffering unspeakable losses, a new Nazi offensive in the spring of 1942 had sent more than 225 divisions steadily advancing across Russia. Millions of civilians and soldiers died. Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin was demanding that the Allies immediately open a second front in the west to relieve the pressure on his beleaguered people. But there was as yet, not a single Allied soldier

fighting in western Europe.

And there would not be for a long time. They simply weren't ready. American planners had a straightforward idea

of how to beat the Germans. Invade France in the spring of 1943 and drive right for Berlin.

But the British were wary of moving too fast. A defeat on the French coast, Winston Churchill warned,

was the only way in which we could possibly lose this war. Instead, he favoured attacking German and Italian forces in North Africa. American commanders thought invading Africa would be a dangerous and wasteful diversion. But congressional elections were coming up. American voters were eager for more offensive action against the Axis.

President Roosevelt overruled his generals. The invasion of occupied France would be delayed. Instead, preparations were made for American troops to land in North Africa at the end of 1942. A bitter General George C Marshall, Army Chief of Staff, wrote privately that he and his fellow commanders had failed to see that the leader in a democracy has to keep the people entertained. MAN: I did notice repeatedly during the war that there would be a sense of pride in which you were a part of. You would feel the power of the military. You would feel the power of the convoy you were in, the warships that were surrounding you, the weapons that you were responsible for. It was a strange feeling. You knew you were in great danger but you somehow felt safe and that you are part of this great, powerful group. In early August of 1942, Private Sidney Phillips of Mobile, Alabama and the 19,000 men of the First Marine Division steamed out of Wellington, New Zealand in a large convoy including all three of America's carriers in the South Pacific. Their target was so remote, so obscure, that some of their officers had trouble saying its name. But that summer, Guadalcanal, a 90-mile-long island at the eastern end of the Solomon chain covered with dense jungles and coconut plantations had suddenly become one of the most strategically important spots in the Pacific. Two separate commands had the task of pushing back the Japanese. General Douglas MacArthur was in command of the south-western Pacific. Assigned to drive from New Guinea towards the Philippines and Formosa. Admiral Chester W Nimitz would use the marines to climb a ladder. Up the Solomons, the Gilberts, the Marshalls, the Marianas,

the Volcano Islands, the Ryukyus.

He would begin in the Solomons. The Japanese had made landings there and construction crews were hard at work on an air strip on Guadalcanal.

If they were allowed to complete it, Japanese war planes could choke off shipping lanes between the United States and Australia and make the Allied campaign impossible. The marines, including 17-year-old Sid Phillips, now a mortarman, had been sent to stop them. Their commander had assumed his green troops would receive another six months of training before they saw combat. They were armed with old, single-shot bolt action rifles. They had only 10 days worth of ammunition. And in order to get them into the fight as fast as possible, their supply stocks had been reduced from 90 days to 60. The men called it Operation Shoestring. At dawn on August 7, 1942,

American land forces went on the offensive for the first time in WWII. No one had any idea how long, how bloody and how consequential the battle for Guadalcanal would be. Sid Phillips' platoon was part of the second wave of marines to go ashore. "We had been repeatedly told

"this would be the first ship-to-shore landing," he remembered. "And nobody could more than guess if such an idea would be successful. "We braced ourselves and the craft slid up on the beach. "We charged out, ready to do or die," Phillips said. "And there was the first wave, sitting, laughing at us." There was virtually no opposition. The first American casualty on Guadalcanal was a marine who cut his hand with a machete trying to open a coconut. Americans seized the unfinished airstrip with little trouble and renamed it Henderson Field after a marine pilot who was killed during the Battle of Midway. They began to prepare it for American planes with signs that read, 'Under New Management'. Their orders were to hold the field at all cost. The enemy couldn't be allowed to retake it. Then the Japanese attacked. The American fleet offshore was their first target. PHILLIPS: The Japanese Navy came and sank all of our escorts. LOUD BLASTS Four heavy cruises were lost along with more than 1,800 American sailors. They could have sunk our supply ships too, but they didn't. It was at night and they didn't know how successful they'd been. But the next day, all of our supplies left and we were there without ever unloading even 10 days of supplies that we had brought in with us.

We would have starved to death if there hadn't been a big supply of Japanese rice there. The marines found themselves alone and began to wonder if they, like the men on Bataan, had simply been abandoned. With no support from the sea or the air, the men were strafed and bombed daily. Pounded by shells from Japanese ships offshore and under attack from enemy troops hidden in the jungle. We understood that we might be expendable. It had become sort of the established thing and we knew our country was not yet heavily armed and yes, we did feel that we might be expendable, we really did. Phillips was among those sent out to help recover the bodies of marines killed in an enemy ambush. I knew it was about five miles out to the ambush site where all the American bodies had been mutilated. They'd been beheaded and had their genitals stuffed in their mouths and... Our battalion never took a prisoner that I know of after that. I really don't remember that we ever took a prisoner. On the late afternoon of August 20, after 13 harrowing days on the island, Phillips heard the sound of approaching aircraft and took cover as usual. But this time, the planes were American. The marines cheered. They were no longer alone. It looked like Uncle Sam was gonna fight for that miserable place after all. But at 2am the next morning, just hours after the first American planes arrived, a Japanese commander sent 900 fresh troops against marine positions along the western bank of the twisting jungle creek. Its name was the Ilu River. But because the maps the marines had been issued had it wrong, the fierce firefight that followed would be remembered as the Battle of the Tenaru. At that time on Guadalcanal, almost every night, there would be some event that would arouse everyone, keep everyone awake. But this night, it was different. The whole world erupted and the lines became just a wall of fire. We knew it was the real event. The Japanese commander was so certain he could destroy the marines, that in his diary, he had filled in the entry for the day - "21 August, enjoy the fruits of victory." The Japanese kept coming all night. "Banzai", they screamed. "Marine, you die." The marines just kept shooting. MACHINE GUN FIRING We killed, I think over 900 Japanese and lost something like 34 marines. So it did our morale a great deal of good. For the first time, the supposedly invincible Imperial Army had been stopped. The humiliated commander who had predicted victory shot himself. But the Battle of the Tenaru settled nothing on Guadalcanal. Japanese reinforcements poured on to the island and the fighting just went on and on. A confusing, vicious war of ambush and counterattack.

A terrifying world where random Japanese shells would explode among the entrenched and embattled Americans. Some men could take it and some just physically could not take it.

The sheer terror of knowing that the next one is going to have your name on it when that goes on and on and on and on, you get a strange feeling in which you seem to become detached. And you just think well, this will end and maybe it won't. And maybe we'll all be blown up and maybe we won't. But who cares?

You learn to sort of live with it. It is just a matter of fate. You will either survive if the Lord is willing or you will not. So there's really nothing you can do. And you just take it. Private Sid Phillips turned 18 on September 2. The next day, he got his first letter form home since he'd sailed for Guadalcanal. It was, he wrote back, the best birthday present possible for me. In late September, some American reinforcements finally made it through. But nightly visits by fast moving Japanese ships the marines called the Tokyo Express, kept the enemy on the island supplied and reinforced as well. Twice, the Japanese, determined to retake Henderson Field,

mounted full-scale assaults on the airstrip. Twice, the marines beat them back. Thousands of Japanese were shot dead or blown to pieces. Week after week, the battle for Guadalcanal ground on. On November 12, the Japanese Navy mounted one last major offensive aimed at reinforcing their forces and dislodging the Americans on Guadalcanal. A much smaller number of American ships steamed in to try to stop them. The naval battle to follow went on for three days and three nights. You could see the salvos of the ships and you could see the naval shells going through the air like lightning bugs and you could see ships explode. We didn't know if they were American or Japanese.

We didn't know who's winning or who's losing. Sometimes when the ship would explode, it would...the concussion would actually flap your clothes miles and miles away. But we did know that our fate was being decided and we would...we would sit there, sort of mystified and horrified by what was going on because we knew thousands of sailors were dying on one side or the other. Some 5,000 American sailors lost their lives in the fighting off Guadalcanal. So many that the casualty figures were again, kept from the public. Among those who died, were five brothers from Fredericksburg, Iowa who all served on the cruiser, 'Juno'. Joseph, Francis, Albert, Madison and George Sullivan. But Japan lost two battleships,

23 other warships, 600 aircraft

and thousands of sailors and airmen. And most important to Sid Phillips and the men at Guadalcanal, the enemy was no longer able to re-supply its forces on the island. The Japanese continued to fight. But it was clear the Americans would eventually prevail. The last starving, desperate Japanese troops on the island would not be killed, captured or evacuated until February 1943. 21,000 Japanese soldiers were lost. Guadalcanal would prove a crucial victory. After six long months, the Americans were beginning to learn how to beat the Japanese. Not only in the air and on the sea,

but in the jungles, where over the next three years, the fighting would only get worse. Allied shipping lanes to Australia remained open. And there was more good news. American and Australian forces had also taken the most important Japanese strongholds on New Guinea. Japan's expansion had been stopped.

By the time we left Guadalcanal which was December 22, 1942, we'd been there since August 7, everybody had lost at least 25 pounds. Our clothes were in rags, we were covered with sores. And we nearly starved to death two or three times. KATHERINE: We did not realise how desperate the marines were on Guadalcanal because the news never told us. In fact it was not till years later when Sidney came home that we found that their food was down to fish heads and rice and that he was down to 125 pounds when they took him off of Guadalcanal. More than 1,700 Americans had died on Guadalcanal. Another 4,700 were wounded. And thousands more were seriously ill. Sid Phillips had survived. But this uncle, Charles Tucker, a navy pilot who had flown in and out of Henderson Field, had not.

When we lost Charlie, it made it very real to all of us. And by that time, we had started losing boys in the neighbourhood. The boy up here on the corner was a navy pilot - he was killed.

The boy down the street was an air force pilot and he was missing in action. We just...they started disappearing all around us. And my mother spent her time going to visit the other mothers consoling them, and it was a very, very fearful time. It really was.

You don't expect death among people your age. Old people die. And then you begin to see that it's your contemporaries are dying and therefore it is just conceivable that you might die too. Luverne, Minnesota had been lucky so far.

No local family had lost a son in the war. But in Sacramento, Mrs Lillian Cole had received news that her son, David, had perished on the USS 'Arizona' at Pearl Harbor. She had been asked by the government to keep secret for the present the name of the ship on which he served. Another Sacramento native, Airman Tom Burke, died on a training mission in Puerto Rico devastating his younger brother, Earl. In Waterbury, the family of Marine Private Albert Boulanger learned that he had been killed in Guadalcanal. Not far from where Sid Phillips of Mobile had been fighting. Glen Frazier was still a prisoner of the Japanese. But the girl he loved back in Alabama had changed her mind and was now waiting for him to come home to her. Closed Captions by CSI THEME MUSIC CHEESY VOICEOVER: You join us here live for the 53rd Jungle Olympics from Rainforest Stadium. Animal athletes from all over the world have come here to compete in what promises to be the sporting event of the decade. All heats to be played out here today.

In between track events, there'll be Premier Division Hide-and-Seek, Tree Climbing, Tree Breaking

and, er, Tree Log Jumping. Oh, and relay with more batons than you can shake a stick at - all in the hope of winning gold. Well, the Tree Chasing event has just started. We join the action down at the treeside. Susan? SUSAN: Thanks, Brian. Yes, it's really hotting up here.

It takes years of training to become a world-class tree chaser. Earlier, I caught up with the current world champion, Daley Chimpson. Honestly, the only reason I ran fast was because I got bitten by a snake. SUSAN: It's all action here at the Sloth Tree Climbing event. And he's off! And there he goes! Up...up. His technique here is quite astounding

and the name of the game here is speed...or lack of it. I spoke to the sloth earlier.

(Dopey voice) It's important to train to be a sloth - a lot of snoozing, a lot of moving very slowly, a lot of, er... SUSAN: More from the sloths later. Brian? Er, thank you, Susan. Now, here's the arrival of the baboon motor racing team. These boys are the world leaders in primate grand prix. And here's some scenes from yesterday's qualifying heats - frantic action there, I don't think. (Laughs) Oh, he's chewing the aerial! That is remarkable technique! And...I hope they can stay awake. All hopes, of course, rest on the young star Macaque Schumacher. Oooh, he's tired after a busy season on the bonnet. Back to you, Susan. Thanks, Brian. a very popular event this year, Yes, Leap Frog has been until it all went horribly wrong. and were left completely confused. The frogs got their legs tangled Hey, Pete, get off! Get your froggy bottom off my face!

Use your own. Get off. Those are my legs. at the Lizard Stadium. SUSAN: Over to Richie RICHIE: And he's lining up the shot. from this colourful player. Very impressive form He takes aim. And...oh, he's missed! CROWD MOANS I don't believe it! Oh, he's missed, Mum. He's missed. He only needs one insect to win. RICHIE: This is his last chance. If he doesn't get this, the medal goes to Sticky Tongue Steve from Madagascar. He's lined it up. Yes, he's got him! CROWD CHEERS 180 points and a new chameleon champion! He cheated. He had a tongue extension. SUSAN: We're four days into the Sloth Swimming and he's still only halfway through. Let's see how the Climbing's going. Nope, still at it. Well, Brian caught up with some other swimming events earlier today.

BRIAN: It is chaos at the pool today and the elephants can't swim because they've forgotten their trunks in case their spots run and the jaguars are refusing to go in have been disqualified and the monkeys can you believe?! for peeing in the pool, a few words to say on the swimming. Our sports pundit Nancy Skunk had

Oooh! (Farts) BRIAN: Oh, thank you for that, Nancy. the swimming stinks. (Coughs) You obviously think from where I'm standing. It certainly does For goodness sake, dear, (Female voice) better spectator seats! you could've got us These were all that were left. Sorry. But I can't see anything! You're a bat, darling. You're blind, remember? Now, try watching the Sloth Decathlon with your sonar. Oh, really! SUSAN: Drama here at the Tree Climbing, as the sloth has got absolutely nowhere in just over four hours. We'll be back to check how he's doing later. Now, over to the High Jump. BRIAN: Thanks, Susan. And next we have world champion high jumper Neil Sifaka and his challenger Ivan the Iguana. with the world's best? Ivan, how do you feel about competing (Laughs gleefully) How does that make you feel? Ivan, but no-one's ever beaten Neil. Ah, you just watch this. Ah, here we go. (Laughs)

BRIAN: Oooh, ugly scenes! still the world champion. Neil Sifaka, Nancy Skunk. Back to our sports pundit,

Any comment on the high jump? Thanks for that, Nancy. Susan? (Farts) is making his way up the tree. SUSAN: And still the sloth to be a time penalty here. This is ridiculous! There's sure Over to the racetrack. (Male voice) How many laps to go? Just keep going till they say stop. (Female voice) I don't know. And my shoes are muddy! Oh! I've got a stitch! Look at that! They're going fast! No wonder my feet hurt! You aren't wearing shoes! from Rainforest Stadium BRIAN: Well, that's it and the 53rd Jungle Olympics. And I'm Hairy Susan. I'm Brian Bluebum. (Yawns) Goodnight. BOTH: Goodnight. SPORTY MUSIC

Supertext Captions by the Australian Caption Centre

marked a triumph of the machine The First World War over the merely human. the machine guns, The high explosives, the tanks and planes, of humanity, exposed the fallibility of war had done. just as much as the folly When the war ended, more machinelike. people wanted to become Houses became "machines for living". "engineers of the human soul". Writers became like precision instruments. Chorus lines were fine-tuned took on the sheen and style And the rich and famous of sleek sports cars. He makes people look as though their faces are made of aluminium. You know, they become these, sort of, super-people, sleek, and metallic. In the age of the machine, photography was seen as a machinelike process, manufacturing objective truths, purged of subjectivity and emotion. I am a camera, with its shutter open. Quite passive, recording, not thinking. an organ of propaganda, Photography also became and techniques exploiting new technologies of things to come. to reveal the shape really fantastic. This is the bit that's origami-style... You have this amazing fold-out Our dear friend Stalin, of course. of the machine age But when the high hopes political realities of the day, collided with the brutal

with the human cost photographers were confronted of the utopias being proposed. who makes you pensive. Sand is a photographer

And that's what the Nazis couldn't stand about him. And it was only by drawing on its past that photography would find its future. Not as a tool that made humans more machinelike, but as a medium that, in troubled times, documented what it meant to be human. I sometimes feel that this woman is saying to me, "There's nothing you can do to help me. "There's nothing you can do." THEME MUSIC