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Virginia, rain's not so good for for doing the clothes washing but flowers like this Gardenia love
plenty of moisture.

Thanks Mark. The rain is not so good for outdoor parties either. Never minds. That's the news for
now. Stay with us for '7:30' with Chris Uhlmann and we will leave you with a trio of dare devils
flying high over Sydney. From me for now, goodnight.

Closed Captions by CSI This Program is Captioned Live.

Welcome to 7:30, I'm Chris Uhlmann. Tonight - Australia's school for killers. The finishing school
for some of the country's most notorious criminalings.

Tamworth boys home was known as the toughest institution in the whole of Australia.

Kill or be killed, everyone came out there same.

And one year on, the legacy of the Christmas Island tragedy that shocked the nation.

A lot of people on the island who say island who say that day Christmas Island lost its innocence.
TRANSLATION: However much you want to live in another country

Shorten confronted by wharf dispute

Shorten confronted by wharf dispute

Broadcast: 14/12/2011

Reporter: Hayden Cooper

New Federal Workplace Minister Bill Shorten has been confronted with a dispute between wharf
workers and a major stevedores company.


CHRIS UHLMANN, PRESENTER: The first test for Australia's new Workplace minister arrived before he
was sworn into the job. Bill Shorten spent today working the phones to try and solve an industrial
brawl on the wharves, where a major stevedoring company locked out some of its workers. Late this
afternoon, the union agreed to a month-long pause in hostilities, but business thinks this is
another sign of deep problems with the law. Hayden Cooper reports.

HAYDEN COOPER, REPORTER: Scenes of chaos on the waterfront will long be remembered as among the
worst industrial disputes this nation has seen. And to this day, a deep distrust lingers between
workers and bosses.

LLEW RUSSELL, SHIPPING AUSTRALIA: The timing of these strikes are not by accident; just before the
Christmas break, one can see that, you know, it's - the strikes have been planned to have maximum

WARREN SMITH, MARITIME UNION OF AUSTRALIA: We've hit them with the feather duster and they've come
back and hit us with a sledgehammer, and it's a completely disproportionate response.

HAYDEN COOPER: This is a dispute that stretches across the continent, from Port Kembla on the east
coast to Fremantle and Bunbury in the west and it has a certain ring to it because at its core is a
man who's seen it all before. Chris Corrigan, the former Patrick Stevedores boss who took on the
unions a decade ago is now the chairman of POAGS Stevedores, a company that's just locked out
workers at three sites.

ANDREW STEWART, LAW, UNI. OF ADELAIDE: Oh, I don't think it's a surprise that we've got another
industrial dispute on the wharves. It's an industry which over the years has generated a lot of
industrial conflict, and of course Chris Corrigan has been part of some of the most famous
instances of disputation we've seen in that particular industry.

HAYDEN COOPER: This was the tipping point in the dispute at Port Kembla: a helicopter flies in
non-union management to unload a steamer full of cars, breaking the union picket line.

ARTHUR MORRIS, SOUTH COAST LABOUR COUNCIL: To use a B-grade stunt like choppers coming in like some
B-grade Hollywood movie didn't impress anyone. The only points he scored here are frequent flyers,
and he's lucky to get those. They're not the way that we do things in Port Kembla. We'd like to do
things around a negotiating table.

HAYDEN COOPER: At Port Kembla, workers were let back in this morning, but in Western Australia, the
company-imposed lockout continued, as did the protests.

WARREN SMITH: In Fremantle and Bunbury we've seen a completely different set of circumstances where
the company have taken an extremely aggressive action and locked us out in both those areas
regardless of whether or not we're taking industrial action or not.

HAYDEN COOPER: The company says the industrial action is costing millions and it wants Fair Work
Australia to intervene.

DON SMITHWICK, POAGS STEVEDORING: We've been contacted by Fair Work Australia and we have now
lodged an application by - with Fair Work Australia to try and have the matter conciliated.

HAYDEN COOPER: But is this latest dispute a reflection of the times? The Qantas lockout will be
remembered as one of the biggest stories of the year. Is the shipping industry now adopting similar

LLEW RUSSELL: I think there are massive differences because - between aviation and maritime, but it
is interesting how quickly the Government did react once the - once Qantas took the action that it
did. And we would be urging the current government to act similarly in relation to these damaging

ANDREW STEWART: There's no doubt that the Qantas dispute has highlighted the availability to
employers of the lockout as a form of industrial action, but that's something that's been available
for many years. We've seen lockouts before, we've seen them in this industry before and we'll see
them again.

HAYDEN COOPER: Professor Andrew Stewart lectures in industrial relations at the University of
Adelaide. He rejects the industry claim that workplace disputes are on the rise.

ANDREW STEWART: We've got a number of agreements coming up for renewal at the moment; it's no
surprise to see that we're having some disputation. But if we look at the figures on industrial
action, they're pretty clear: we're still operating at pretty much record lows.

HAYDEN COOPER: It doesn't make this man's new job any easier. Bill Shorten's most important task in
the next year will be handling a review of the Fair Work Act. The waterfront dispute forced him to
hit the ground running.

BILL SHORTEN, WORKPLACE RELATIONS MINISTER: I've been in touch with all of the players and I
believe it is reasonably possible that parties will step back and seek conciliation rather than
continuing the heavier - heavy duty industrial action. That is not yet decided. That's up to the
parties involved, but I've certainly hit the phones hard since this morning to see if we can't get
everyone back around the table, talking as I know these intelligent representatives can do.

TONY ABBOTT, OPPOSITION LEADER: This is obviously an issue for the Government, it's happening on
the Government's watch, it's happening under the Government's legislation and I think that it's up
to the Government to explain how it can possibly be in Australia's national interest at a very
difficult economic time for these kind of disputes to be happening.

HAYDEN COOPER: Late today, a short-term breakthrough was made. The union has agreed to cease all
industrial action for four weeks - another chance to resolve a fractious dispute.

CHRIS UHLMANN: Hayden Cooper reporting.

Boys home linked to violent deaths

Boys home linked to violent deaths

Broadcast: 14/12/2011

Reporter: Geoff Thompson

A notorious home for boys located at Tamworth in country New South Wales produced criminals such as
George Freeman, Arthur Neddy Smith and William Munday.


CHRIS UHLMANN, PRESENTER: An ABC investigation has confirmed that more than 35 violent deaths in
Australia are linked to men who spent their teens in the same notorious boys home. The Institution
for Boys, Tamworth was opened in 1947 and quickly gained a reputation as the most feared prison in
the land. Some of its alumni include the nation's most infamous killers and criminals: Arthur
Stanley "Neddy" Smith, George Freeman and William Munday. Geoff Thompson reports.

DES DRURY, FORMER PRISON OFFICER: Tamworth Boys Home was known as the toughest institution probably
in the whole of Australia.

KEITH KELLY, FORMER TAMWORTH INMATE: When you got to Tamworth, you were beaten as soon as you got
in the door, you were starved, you were tortured and you were just degraded.

BOB MCCLULAND, FORMER TAMWORTH INMATE: Used to have that attitude: kill or be killed. Everyone come
out there the same. That's why there's so many bloody murders.

GEOFF THOMPSON, REPORTER: Faced with a problem of absconding youths, the NSW Child Welfare
Department established the Institution for Boys, Tamworth in 1947. The cold and closed brick walls
of the former colonial prison were chosen as the place to punish young men aged 15 to 18 who were
already living in the state's boys' homes. Those who badly misbehaved or tried to escape were
packed off to Tamworth to be strictly disciplined. It was an experience they would never forget.

KEITH KELLY: You're never the same when you go to Tamworth. When you go to Tamworth and you come
out, you're never the same.

GEOFF THOMPSON: Now 67 and living on the Gold Coast, Keith Kelly was sent to Tamworth when he was
just 16. The institution's draconian discipline and alleged regular beatings still define his life.

KEITH KELLY: You're not allowed to talk to another inmate. You've got to be six foot away from
another inmate. You can't look at another inmate. If you turn your head a little bit, they'll put a
box on your head with two pin holes in it, and you were forced to march around all day with that
box on your head. Starvation was the main punishment; apart from solitary confinement.

GEOFF THOMPSON: Keith Kelly claims he was twice beaten because he refused the sexual demands of a
Tamworth guard.

KEITH KELLY: The only difference between Tamworth, Norfolk Island and Port Arthur was that
Tamworth, you never got the cat o' nine tails.

GEOFF THOMPSON: Following a Freedom of Information request to the Department of Family and
Community Services, 7.30 has obtained a comprehensive list of men who were sent to Tamworth Boys'
Home as teenagers. Because of privacy concerns, surnames were redacted. But a process of
cross-checking Christian names with dates of birth has revealed that many of Australia's most
notorious killers and criminals went through Tamworth's gates.

They include Arthur Stanley "Neddy" Smith, who was charged with eight murders and convicted of two.
James Finch, who lit the 1973 Whiskey A-Go-Go fire which killed 15 people, which at the time was
Australia's worst mass murder.

The alleged Sydney crime lord George Freeman was another graduate of the place he dubbed "the
ultimate finishing school for crims".

Kevin Crump, whose file has been stamped "never to be released" for his depraved killing of
Virginia Morse.

Serial killer Archibald Rafferty, who randomly killed three men in the street and later another man
in prison.

Notorious rapist Billy Munday was another Tamworth boy who wrote in his autobiography that, "When I
take time to reflect now on my days in Tamworth and what they did to me, I can almost lay blame
there for what I've done."

DES DRURY: It's about time these people got looked after - even the old ones, because every one of
'em would still be screwed up. I feel it. I'm 67; I feel it. I don't like to talk about it.

GEOFF THOMPSON: Des Drury also grew up in boys' homes, but never made it to Tamworth. He went on to
spend 18 years working as an officer in adult prisons where he says Tamworth's reputation still
ricochets around the walls.

DES DRURY: This is some of the reason why a lot of these blokes went the way they went. I s'pose if
you knock around with violence long enough, you become violent yourself. Every form of torture that
could be possibly done without using implements was done. Neddy Smith was a very, very tough man,
as I think that everyone knows. He's also a very violent man, I think as also everybody knows. But,
the only place he ever commented on was Tamworth Boys' Home.

GEOFF THOMPSON: Former inmates speak of being forced to hold stress positions and while in solitary
run iron bars continually against the bars of their cell. All talk of being forced to push large
sandstone blocks across the floor.

BOB MCCLULAND: You were put on holly stones, big stones, bloody rubbing 'em backward and forwards
on a board floor, just starved and just the way you were treated.

GEOFF THOMPSON: Despite his experiences at the institution, Bob McClulland later befriended some of
the guards.

BOB MCCLULAND: You never forget it. I've talked to, you know, the screws from up there and they
reckon they had nightmares working there even, because they had a job to do, I s'pose. But, they
didn't like what they'd done, but they had to do it, I s'pose.

BOB CONNARE, FORMER TAMWORTH INMATE: You were getting bashed by men, kneed and kicked. You couldn't
fight back because that'd be the last thing in the world you'd want to do.

GEOFF THOMPSON: Bob Connare was sent to Tamworth when he was 16 and was later jailed for assault
and robbery.

BOB CONNARE: Nobody knows whether it led me to a life of crime, but it certainly never helped. As
you'll see now talking to me, going back there, it's pretty scary. I couldn't go through it again,
in any situation.

GEOFF THOMPSON: Senior forensic psychologist Dr Michael Daffern says that it is difficult to blame
specific acts of violence on any one experience.

MICHAEL DAFFERN, AUST. PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY: What we can say here is that exposing individuals to
a punitive or abusive environment or any sort of abusive treatment where they're exposed to
violence from an early age, where they learn that violence is an acceptable way of solving problems
is going to be problematic and it's only going to help them learn or consolidate a violent

DES DRURY: One day I was gonna get an inmate that was beside me. As I said, you had to sit like
that at the table. I was gonna grab him and to get my fork or knife, I was gonna whoosh into him,
try to do as much damage as I could. I didn't care if I killed him.

GEOFF THOMPSON: What do you think it did to young men?

BOB MCCLULAND: Turned 'em into killers.

GEOFF THOMPSON: Do you think there was a chance that they were killers before they went there?

BOB MCCLULAND: No, not - not that many. No. It changed your attitude altogether when you'd been in

CHRIS UHLMANN: And a clarification: the Endeavour House mentioned has no association with
not-for-profit organisation the Endeavour Foundation.

Geoff Thompson with that report.

Asylum boat arrives on eve of anniversary

Asylum boat arrives on eve of anniversary

Broadcast: 14/12/2011

Reporter: Heather Ewart

A boat carrying asylum seekers has been intercepted near Christmas Island off Western Australia, on
the eve of the anniversary of the 2010 disaster, when 50 lives were lost.


CHRIS UHLMANN, PRESENTER: With the collapse of the Government's Malaysia solution, the tide of
irregular boat arrivals is rising. Eight, carrying more than 600 asylum seekers, have arrived on
Christmas Island in the past fortnight alone. Another was intercepted today on the eve of the
anniversary of last year's disaster when 50 people drowned as their boat crashed on the island's
ragged cliffs. Political editor Heather Ewart reports.

HEATHER EWART, REPORTER: It's a harsh and uncompromising coastline. On a good day on the shores of
Christmas Island there are scenes of tranquillity and great beauty. On a bad day during the swell
season the seas can be dangerous and deadly.

And so it was one year ago for asylum seekers onboard the Indonesian fishing boat SIEV-221. 50 of
them drowned after their boat struck the cliff and horrified locals watched a catastrophe unfold.

As the anniversary approaches, it's revived memories for everyone involved on that terrible day.

CHRIS BOWEN, IMMIGRATION MINISTER: Just utter devastation, just imagining as much as anyone can
what those people would have been going through, looking for their children, the children
themselves. I mean, what can you say? Just utter devastation.

BRIAN LACY, CHRISTMAS ISLAND ADMINISTRATOR: I mean, there are a lot of people on the island who say
that day Christmas Island lost its innocence.

CHRIS BOWEN: I'll certainly always remember the raw emotions going through all of us on that day.
I'll certainly always remember my reaction and the reaction of those around me.

BRIAN LACY: It was quite horrific. By the same token I saw some of the most courageous acts that
I've ever seen in my life performed by residents of Christmas Island.

HEATHER EWART: Is it hard to try to put the accident behind you?

SAFIEH (voiceover translation): There's not a moment that we don't think about it, especially
through the nights. I think about my husband until the morning. It is terrifying.

HEATHER EWART: It was a tragedy that stunned the nation. For many of the survivors and those who
tried to save them and their loved ones, it's left permanent scars.

Some have tried to deal with personal loss by painting. Others cling to the miracle of having any
family left at all.

Like this Iranian group now making a new life together in outer Melbourne. Safieh lost her husband
in the crash. She and her daughter survived along with her sister and brother-in-law and their
daughter. They're thankful to have refugee status, but Safieh still misses her husband desperately.

SAFIEH (voiceover translation): Very much. We all know that he is in a good place. He is a very
good man. He was kind to other people. All of our family loved him. ... I miss him so much, but we
all believe he is in a good place now.

HEATHER EWART: On the island itself 12 months on, residents remember the disaster like it was
yesterday. The local administrator had the grim task of meeting survivors soon after their rescue.

BRIAN LACY: They were in a terrible state of shock. My wife and I went to visit them in the
detention centre and it was just terrible to hear the way they were pleading for people to find
their babies or their husband and to see them. They were in a - like I say, they were living in a
dream and couldn't believe - a nightmare, I should say - couldn't believe what had happened.

CHRIS BOWEN: I must say I think the hardest part actually came the next day when I got the
information that babies had died, a two-month old and an eight-month old, and I had to tell the
Prime Minister that, and that was obviously hard for her and a hard conversation for anybody to
have to be outlining just the full devastation that we were dealing with.

HEATHER EWART: Of course no-one has suffered more than the survivors. This family we met for
afternoon tea is trying hard to settle into the Melbourne community. While they mourn the loss of
Safieh's husband, whose body was never recovered, they know they may not be alive today if it
weren't for the people of Christmas Island.

SAFIEH (voiceover translation): We are very grateful. The people of Christmas Island were very kind
to us.

ABBAS SOLTANI (voiceover translation): They helped us a lot at the first moment we crashed. The
people tried to save our lives by themselves. They threw life jackets and they threw a rope from
the rocks to the sea. They called the police and they tried very hard to help us.

HEATHER EWART: So they saved your life?

ABBAS SOLTANI (voiceover translation): I owe my life to the people of Christmas Island, yes.

CHRIS BOWEN: Nobody was thinking about whether these people were refugees or asylum seekers or what
they thought about border protection policy. They were getting in and saving human lives.

BRIAN LACY: I think it did bring about a change in the attitude of some of the people on the island
about refugees and about asylum seekers and what they're prepared to go through to try to come to a
better life.

HEATHER EWART: It's also raised fears on the island of another disaster, especially as the boats
keep on coming.

BRIAN LACY: As the swell season approaches in particular - and it is approaching now - there would
be, I imagine, that fear of a repeat of that sort of thing happening again, and particularly as we
see boats that come in without being detected until they're getting close to Christmas Island.

HEATHER EWART: What would you say to other people who are thinking of getting boats to Christmas
Island or to Australia after what happened?

SAFIEH (voiceover translation): It's not worth all of the problems. It's not worth to lose someone
you love. However much you want to live in another country, it's not worth it to lose somebody.

HEATHER EWART: When Safieh, her husband and young daughter fled Iran to board the ill-fated
SIEV-221, they left behind her 18-year-old son. He planned to join them when they were settled in
Australia. Now she's anxious to see that happen as soon as possible.

SAFIEH (voiceover translation): Considering the horrible tragedy that happened to me, I haven't
been able to see my son. ... I understand that every country has its own laws, but, considering my
position, I think they should treat our case as urgent.

CHRIS BOWEN: No matter what the Australian people - individuals might think about border protection
or refugee policy, I think people would understand that cases like this need to be dealt with
flexibly and compassionately.

HEATHER EWART: With plans underway for a memorial service on Christmas Island tomorrow, some
residents and survivors have already flagged that it's too painful to attend. Others welcome it as
part of the healing process. One way or another, this tragedy has changed all of those involved.

CHRIS BOWEN: There happened to be TV cameras there to capture this tragedy and show the Australian
people about it. This will inevitably happen on the high seas and we may or may not even know that
there was a boat on the water. We may or may not even know that people lost their lives. It may
have happened since Christmas Island and we don't know about it. And that's what's really
confronting about this and really - really does worry me. And that's what drives me and I think
drives the Government to keep us focused on trying to discourage boat journeys to Australia.

HEATHER EWART: For the residents, there's a desire to be better prepared.

BRIAN LACY: There is an ongoing planning strategy to try to find ways to ensure that if it did
happen again there will be some greater capacity to be able to help rescue the people that might be
washed out of the boats or actually hanging onto the cliffs.

HEATHER EWART: And for one survivor who lost so much, there's a determination to look to the

SAFIEH (voiceover translation): I hope to be able to find my old self very soon. I like to finish
English and after that I hope to find a job. ... Because the kids need me, when I look at them and
I see that I have two children, then I tell myself that I have to be strong. The pain of this
tragedy hasn't broken me yet.

CHRIS UHLMANN: Heather Ewart reporting.

Murray-Darling plan tours Griffith

Murray-Darling plan tours Griffith

Broadcast: 14/12/2011

Reporter: Mike Sexton

Some irrigators along the Murray-Darling Basin believe proposed cuts to water allocation threaten
their farms, while others argue more water is vital for rivers and wetlands. The issue will be
debated at Griffith in central New South Wales, as Water Minister Tony Burke fronts residents.


CHRIS UHLMANN, PRESENTER: Two weeks after releasing the Murray-Darling Basin plan, the Government
is still busy selling it. Tomorrow, Water Minister Tony Burke and authority chair Craig Knowles
will be in Griffith, where copies of the Basin guide were burned last year.

Irrigators believe cuts to water allocations threaten their farms, but others argue more water is
vital for rivers and wetlands.

Mike Sexton has reported from irrigation communities and tonight looks at the other side of the

PETER CALE, ECOLOGIST: It's been an absolutely amazing change in those processes. A lot of those
trees that I thought were dead are actually regenerating and producing leaf and hopefully will
recover to a certain degree.

MIKE SEXTON, REPORTER: All year Peter Cale has been documenting the transformation of his part of
the Murray-Darling Basin, watching what happens when drought turns to flood.

This is Lake Merreti on Calperum Station, an old pastoral lease 20 minutes north of Renmark, near
where South Australia meets NSW and Victoria. But the ecologist doesn't see it as a lake so much as
a filter.

PETER CALE: All of these environmental components hold the salt back, they actually filter out the
debris, etc. from the water and give us much cleaner and higher quality water for all other
activities, both recreation, irrigation and for the environment itself.

MIKE SEXTON: As the winter floodwater recedes, it's leaving behind a tiny future forest of red gums
and new growth in old black box trees.

PETER CALE: As you can see, it's flowering at the moment. It's also got quite a bit of new growth,
which is all induced by the flooding.

MIKE SEXTON: But amid the new growth are the remnants of a grim past. These trees went the best
part of a decade without a drink. Without water flows to keep it moving, so much salt has
accumulated here that the ground water is twice as salty as the ocean. Peter Cale says this saline
cancer will spread unless regular environmental flows of water wash the salt downstream and out to

PETER CALE: If we don't start dealing with these issues, this whole system will eventually go the
same way and the consequences of that for South Australia will be devastating because we'll have a
very salty system.

MIKE SEXTON: One of the benchmarks set by Water Minister Tony Burke for the Murray-Darling Basin
plan is that the Murray mouth be open nine years out of 10. It's often argued, particularly by
upstream irrigators, that it's a waste to let water go out to sea. But in the saltier parts of the
system, they say it's simple hydrology: you can't clean out a dirty bath while the plug is in.

BEN HASLETT, SA RIVER COMMUNITIES: Do you know what?: I don't think environmentalists and
irrigators have a position that's really disparate. We're all after a healthy river, and we live on
the river, we know we need a healthy river for our families and farming families and food producers
to survive. So what we want's not that different.

MIKE SEXTON: South Australia's response to the Basin plan involved bringing together all river
users at Parliament House where the Premier Jay Weatherill sought a united front.

JAY WEATHERILL, SA PREMIER: We had environmentalists and irrigators here as well as local
government representatives, people that are worried about the local communities in South Australia
all really saying very much the same thing. We want a healthy river, we want it based on science.

MIKE SEXTON: The inclusion of local government is significant because tourism is a serious economic
source for river towns, as the river is a playground for those who like to boat and fish.

50-year-old blokes sitting on a river bank, drowning worms and sinking a couple of tinnies. This is
big business.

MIKE SEXTON: The connection between river flows and fishing is a tight line. When the drought
ended, the floods washed tonnes of stored up salt and leaf litter from wetlands into the main river
channel, creating over 1,000 kilometres of what's known as black water, where the water discolours
and there's little oxygen.

PETER TEAKLE, SA RECREATIONAL FISHERY COUNCIL: First time I've experienced it in my life, it was
nothing but a sticking, rotten cesspool. There was no bird life, there was nothing; it was just
dead, black water.

MIKE SEXTON: But as with the flood plains, the fresh water flows brought regeneration as the native
species responded.

PETER TEAKLE: The moment that the flow went through, up come all the yabbies, and I have never,
ever witnessed a run of yabbies like that in all any life.

MIKE SEXTON: A report by Ernst & Young concluded that recreational fishing is worth $1.3 billion
annually to the Basin, as each person spends an average of $262 per trip.

CHRISTOPHER COLLINS: Everybody benefits from it; not only the bloke that runs the tackle store, but
also the bloke that has the local corner store selling a milkshake or a pie, the person selling
petrol down at the servo, the caravan park - everybody benefits.

MIKE SEXTON: The recreational fishers say fishing on the rivers have never been better than over
the past 18 months, but acknowledged their members will go to where the fish are, meaning without
environmental flows to encourage fish stocks, the Basin communities will lose their business.

CHRISTOPHER COLLINS: So what we want them to think about, we want the Murray-Darling Basin plan to
address is issues involved with environmental flows that will benefit the fish.

MIKE SEXTON: Back on the Calperum floodplain, Peter Cale is hopeful the Basin plan will deliver
regular flows to avoid the disasters of the past drought. He cites the mighty eucalypts as an
example of nature's resilience, but warns even these trees have a limit to what they can endure.

PETER CALE: With both the black box and the red gum, the flooding actually induces the flowering
and then a massive production of seed and that prepares it for the next flood that'll come along.
And it can last for quite a number of years, but it's certainly not an indefinite supply that can
last forever.

CHRIS UHLMANN: Mike Sexton reporting.

Mike Sexton reporting and that's it for tonight. We'll be back at the same time tomorrow but for
now, goodnight.

Closed Captions by CSI