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Yellow} Make sure it's secure and walk away. An enhancement of Australians will improve our
capability quite considerably. Tonight - forward scout in Iraq. We take you to Australia's next
destination. When the Australians arrive here, they'll find a community more racked by poverty than
insurgency. On patrol with the British in the so-called province of peace. But evidence reveals
hostilities and danger lurk. And - sundown on the greats. You look at them in the eye like I'm
doing to you and there's somebody there looking at back at you and that's a being. Apes and humans
may be a relatively short leap but we're also the enemy pushing them to the brink in the wild.
What's the clock saying now? 5 to 10 years. This program is captioned live. Welcome to the program.
First tonight, a close-up view of the Iraqi province that will soon be the base for 450 Australian
troops. Al-Muthanna, in Iraq's south, has been dubbed 'the province of peace' because it is
relatively quiet compared to the rest of the country. But the 7.30 Report has obtained Dutch
military figures showing that Dutch troops in the province have found thousands of rockets, mortars
and mines in the past four months alone. In the same period, they have confronted about 30
incidents involving weapons ranging from gunfire to car bombs. The British commander who has just
taken over from the Dutch says he could maintain a holding pattern in the province without the
Australian troops being sent there, but it would be 'very difficult'. ABC Middle East correspondent
Matt Brown has been in Al-Muthanna province for the past week with British and Dutch troops as well
as the Japanese force the Australians will be protecting. . The British army has taken control of
al-Muthanna province in Iraq's south with just 600 men. With a magazine of 30 rounds, load. Shake
it, make sure its secure, walk away. 450 Australians will soon join the British in what's been
dubbed the province of peace. But clearly, there are still dangers to be reckoned with. The
Australians will be helping the British secure a province that's mostly desolate and unforgiving.
An enhancement of Australians will improve our capability quite considerably. In the north, near
the Euphrates and Tigris rivers lies the provincial centre of al-Muthanna province. A Dutch soldier
was killed here last year when his convoy was attacked. A motorcyclist beneath the bridge threw a
grenade up. One of the sergeants, whose name I think was Sesbah, was killed in that incident.
Australia is sending 40 light armoured vehicles to al-Muthanna to match the 40 the British have
brought in. But the protection they offer can be a double-edged sword. Because it is more benign
here, it's more benign than a lot of the other provinces, and I think that if you were to operate
with armoured vehicles on a daily basis, it would be potentially fairly inflammatory. While the
Australian contingent will provide an important boost, the bottom line is their presence is
designed to improve security in the province, and it's not absolutely crucial to maintaining it.
Well, I mean ostensibly we will be handling it ourselves. I've just taken over from the Dutch and
we are, for the next month, until such time as the Australians come an board, we will be handling
it ourselves. Could you sustain that, though? I think it would be possible to sustain, but it would
be very difficult to sustain, because the Dutch have moved from a force of about 1300 and we're
suddenly moving down to about 600 or so. Which makes it easy enough to sustain, but it doesn't
necessarily make it easy to actually sort of really move the whole thing forward. Dutch troops have
used six of their own well-armed Apache helicopters to deter attacks and conduct surveillance,
where and when they need it. They can be present all over the province quite fast, and all the
people on the ground, also the civilians, know what the helicopter can do and they are quite scared
about them. If you can rely on your own assets such as air support by helicopters it's quite
useful. But British and Australian troops will have to rely on other coalition allies for this kind
of help - help the Brit British commander says can be delivered fairly quickly. I can guarantee
that the process, we would go through the process to try to make sure we can have that. You can
never absolutely guarantee anything in terms of military support. The Dutch have had these attack
helicopter, Australians don't. helicopter, Australians don't. helicopter, Australia No, and we
don't have them either but what we do have is air power here, which we can call on via the
Americans and the like. In the past four months alone, the Apaches flew 54 missions carrying the
Dutch quick response force and 300 missions just to make a show of force in the air. But the
helicopters are not a cure-all. Earlier last year, another Dutch soldier lost his life in an
ambush. There was an ambush by I think 40 to 50 people and it happened during the night. There you
are having an ambush in the city, it's quite difficult to relay on your Apache helicopters because
air support in urban warfare is quite difficult. In just the past four month, in the so-called
province of peace, the Dutch encountered 10 incidents of small-arms fire, four explosions, six hand
grenades, three mortar or rocket attacks, six home-made bombs and one car bomb. And Dutch troops
seized more than 200 anti-personnel mines, more than 2,000 rockets, and more than 450 mortars. Many
of the people in this province are desperately poor. The stench from the slums of Samawa city can
be smelt kilometres away. The sewers are open, the front yards consist of mud and pools of putrid
water. When the Australians arrive here, they'll find a community more racked by poverty than
insurgency, a group of people hoping that they too will soon from the basics of life. Indeed, the
call for soldiers to provide a better life is a constant refrain. A Japanese force has been sent to
the province to try and rebuild it. Australian troops will soon be providing security in the
general vicinity of the Japanese force. But the Japanese do have the ability to defend themselves,
and their commander says, based on purely military considerations, he'd be prepared to stay in
al-Muthanna without the assistance of others. Even if there is no British and Australian
overarching security? Yes, I think so. The Japanese are, however, prevented by law from attacking
another force and their rules of engagement mean they have to act more like police than soldiers.
And the Japanese camp itself has been attacked. The mortar fell outside the camp perimeter, but the
rocket attack on this force, the force Australian soldiers have been sent to protect, occurred less
than eight weeks ago. The rocket landed inside the Japanese camp, but did not explode. The ultimate
goal of the Australian mission is to hand over responsibility for security in al-Muthanna province
to Iraqi forces, and the Australian military wants to do that within a year. Would they be ready
within a year to work without the assistance you're rofrg them now? It's very difficult to put an
absolute time line on it. I mean, of course, the next sort of critical juncture is the next set of
elections at the end of December. And I suspect at that stage, there may well be a time to make the
decision as to just how much longer a multi national force will remain. A year from now, Australian
troops will be well-known faces in al-Muthanna, and based on recent events, they'll have also
experienced some direct danger. Matt Brown reporting from Iraq. Victorian health authorities have
issued a warning to people living in or visiting a popular holiday area to be aware of the
continuing outbreak of a dangerous tropical disease. Knwon locally as Bairnsdale ulcer, the disease
is often more colourfully described as the flesh-eating bug, as the 7.30 Report revealed in July
last year when we looked at the outbreak in the coastal resort of Point Lonsdale. Since then, more
cases have been reported and scientists have been searching for clues as to how the disease is
spread. Now the preliminary results of that research are pointing to a familiar culprit - the
mosquito - and residents are being warned to take the appropriate precautions to avoid being
bitten. Left untreated, Bairnsdale ulcer - or, as it's known in Africa, Buruli ulcer - causes
ghastly injuries and we warn that viewers may find some of the images in this report disturbing.
Mick Bunworth reports. I personally don't use the word flesh-eating bug. We try to avoid terms like
flesh-eating bug. Understandably, perhaps, health officials are wary of such tabloid terms, but
"eat flesh" is exactly what this ulcer does if left untreated. Last July, the 7.30 Report brought
you the story of the Victorian seaside town of Point Lonsdale, where some residents had contracted
Bairnsdale ulcer, so named after the town with the first recorded outbreak , in 1948. Nationally,
35 people were diagnosed with the ulcer last year, but more than half of those had visited or lived
in Point Lonsdale, and the surrounding Ballareen peninsula, 150 kilometres south-west of Melbourne.
Transmission of this ulcer occurs relatively commonly in far north Queensland in a very small area,
north of Mossman. There has been a case this year in Darwin and another case last year. There has
been a couple of cases in Rockhampton and along the tropical north of Queensland. But much less
common at the moment than we're seeing down here in Victoria. For inexplicable reasons, it's not
showing up in New South Wales or South Australia, although things could change. Dr Paul Johnson is
with Austin Health's infectious diseases department in Melbourne. He's a world renowned authority
on this type of ulcer and helped to develop a diagnostic test. He has also written a man fuel for
those working with the disease in Africa, where it's known as Buruli ulcer and can cripple
sufferers if left untreatsed. In an effort to pin down the cause of the disease, Dr Johnson's
research team is monitoring the Bellereen peninsula's mosquito population. He believes they may
just made a key discovery. This is the first time that adult mosquitoes have been shown to have any
trace of this or ganism on them. But that doesn't mean that's how you get infected. We have to make
sure we consider all other oops options. His research has been enough for health authorities to
issue a warning to Bellereen peninsula residents and visitors We have new information to suggest
that it has been found in mosquitoes. We don't know what part they play in the actual transmission,
but it would be prudent to try to avoid mosquito bites as far as possible. One of the Bairnsdale
ulcer's highest profile victims was former AFL player, coach and now commentator David Parkin,
whose family has owned a beach house in Point Lonsdale for 30 years. When the 7.30 Report
interviewed him last year, he was recovering from a minor skin graft to repair damage caused by an
ulcer behind his knee. Mine was a very small hole that you could put the end of your little finger
in. 15 stitches in the back to take out a fair swag of stuff last Friday, but it's not something
you might think was a spider bite or a mosquito bite and take no notice of. On hearing today's news
of a possible link with mosquitoes, David Parkin was just grateful that research into Bairnsdale
ulcer is continuing. I just want to alert people that use my house and my grandchildren and kids
that we should be careful at least when in the outdoors and if there is some - even small and not
yet confirmed relationship between march flies or mosquitoes or whatever, we should be aware of
that and make sure we're as well protected as we can be when in that environment. Dr Johnson will
take his findings to a World Health Organisation Buruli ulcer conference in Geneva next month. He
expects scepticism from other researchers. Our finding, it will be challenged because that's how
science works. You have to be able to defend your findings, but it opens new possibilities, because
there's still this mystery, even in Africa, where we know that some large biting water bugs have
this or ganism in that salivary glands but that doesn't explain how people nearby but not actually
in the water become infected. It may be what happens in Victoria is quite different from west
Africa but it would certainly open people's minds and perhaps some more mosquitoes will be trapped
over there and the same experiments done. He says more research will establish whether mosquitoes
carry the bacteria in their system, rather than just on their bodies. It's in the mouth parts or in
the salivary glands, that would increase the likelihood that it really is transmitting the
infection, but the key experiment will be to see whether we can get at officially infected
mosquitoes under laboratory conditions to actually infect an animal such as a mouse. Victoria
health authorities say they're determined to solve the mystery of the Bairnsdale ulcer. Is it fair
to say that the department won't rest until the mode of transmission is found? Certainly, that is
the ultimate goal, is to try and find the mode of transmission, and also then, what can we do about
it? Because once you've found the mode of transmission, you then have to try to determine what
public health actions can be recommended to the public in trying to reduce the risks of
transmission. There's been some conscientious work done by some very good people. I think in
big-picture stuff, in the finish, it will help people like me in this country but it will certainly
be something that we can make - on the world scene, certainly, in Africa, where the problem is
quite severe. And with mosquito numbers booming after recent record rains, the people of the
Bellereen peninsula will need little encouragement to cover up. You might wonder what a frop Sal
ulcer is doing in southern Victoria, ulcer is doing in southern Victoria,, but there it is. That
report from Mick Bunworth. Very few people fail to be fascinated by the great apes - genetically
mankind's closest living relatives. Yet these extraordinary creatures - gorillas, orangutangs,
chimpanzees and bonobos - are drifting into a tragic twilight as their human cousins push them to
the verge of extinction. Two of the world's leading primate experts have arrived here for a
national tour to prick the public conscience over the great apes' desperate plight. Birute Galdikas
has studied the orangutang in the wilds of Borneo for more than 30 years. Ian Redmond famously
taught Sigourney Weaver how to grunt like a gorilla in the 1980s Hollywood feature 'Gorillas in the
Mist'. They spoke to Mick O'Donnell in Perth. Back in the '80s, the Hollywood film 'Gorillas in the
Mist' introduced the majesty and might of the mountain gorilla to a world audience. tropical ulcer
is doing in southern Victoria,, but there it is. What does the book say to do when a gorilla
charges? It says "never But through Hollywood's ideal, we saw that humans could reconcile with
their closest primate relatives... They're beautiful. Ian Redmond is the United Nations' consultant
You look at them in the eye and there's somebody there looking back at you, and that's a being. I
think almost anyone who's had that experience would not want to see them destroyed. But now, the
great apes are on the final run from their human cousins, from the orangutan of Sumatra and
Borneo... I think the future of orangutans as populations in the wild is very bleak. What's the
clock saying now? Five to 10 years, five to 10 years. ..to the gorillas of central Africa... We're
not talking about some future generations; we're talking about us explaining to our kids or our
grandchildren that we heard this was happening but we couldn't quite get it together to stop it.
..even Africa's once-numerous chimpanzee. 10 years ago, people did not think it likely that
chimpanzees could go extinct in the wild, that lowland gorillas could go extinct in the wild. For
more than 30 years, Birute Galdikas has lived and worked with the orangutan of Borneo. I just have
a passion for them. As long as I remember I've been fascinated by them. Her studies of orangutan,
which translates as "man of the forest", have shown they have sophisticated behaviour, sometimes
uncannily human. This is Sishwe showing off. She's gonna use it as a pivot. She just understands
the relationships among the different components. Birute Galdikas runs the Leaky Centre, which
rescues orphaned young orangutan. Her pioneering work found they could be reintroduced into the
wild. Is there any going back once creatures like this have been in captivity? Oh, absolutely.
They're smart, they're opportunistic. The main thing that prevents them going back is humans, the
fact that humans will kill them. The loss of habitat in these Indonesian and Malaysian provinces is
from illegal gold mining and logging, reducing tropical rainforest to stark moonscapes incapable of
returning to the diverse ecosystems which once supported the apes. Illegal timber is sold outside
of Indonesia, but are they sponsored by large corporations that you can point a finger at? No.
They're sponsored by semi-criminal syndicates that smuggle the logs and timber out of Indonesia.
Birute Galdikas is heartened by Indonesian provincial government support to protect the national
parks. We asked the police to come in and start patrolling, and once they realised we had the
support of the local community, they came in with guns. They were very polite but they evicted
illegal loggers and goldminers. Ian Redmond's affinity with the ape world is only too plain. He
soon gained the trust of this chimp on a visit to a refuge in Cameroon last month. Through his
decades in the wilds of Rwanda and Uganda, he has befriended many of the mountain gorillas. And if
you approach a group of gorillas and say "hhhmmmmam", then you may well get a response. Through his
decades in the wilds of Rwanda and Uganda, he has befriended many of the mountain gorillas. He
famously taught Sigourney Weaver a bit of gorilla language for her film role. When they're
travelling through dense vegetation they can't really see each other so they keep in touch with a
call that's sort of "hhhmmmam". So if a gorilla chooses to come and sit by you and not do much,
just kind of hang out together, then you have a friendship? And then you have their trust, but you
also have a very heavy responsibility because if you make them trust you, you also have to make
sure that bad people with guns and spears don't come and abuse that trust. Ian Redmond's
investigations have revealed a rapid decline in gorilla numbers in Central Africa, partly due to
the bush meat trade - the hunting of gorillas for prestige food. Even if you're only taking 1% of
the population through hunting, that will cause a decline, and if you're taking several per cent,
the decline becomes more rapid. He's pushing programs in Central African villages which would see
the eating of gorilla meat replaced by the farming of cane rats for food. But in Rwanda and the
Congo, as well as illegal logging, an increasing threat to gorilla habitat is the unregulated
mining of coltan, an ore which produces titanium for our mobile phones and computers. It's that
world market for computers and PlayStations and that sort of thing which has led to, we fear,
something like 70 or 80% of the eastern lowland gorilla population gone. She's very jealous. She
likes him too much. Here in Australia, Birute Galdikas and Ian Redmond have joined forces with
Perth Zoo orangutan curator Leif Cocks, who runs one of the world's most successful captivity
breeding programs. How long have you known her? Oh, about 18 years. During all that time working
with the orangutan here and in Asia, Leif Cocks remains determined to maintain the genetic
diversity of this threatened ape. I've always been there. In the birthing process, there's an
interesting thing the mothers do. They take the newborn baby's hand and get them to clutch my
finger, Dinar, a proud male newly arrived from a Canadian zoo, is taking the credit for the
pregnancy of Sekara - a rare event among creatures notoriously slow to breed. One lady, Sekara, is
already pregnant. We're expecting a birth in June. He's in with Poonya to make sure the babies
continue here. I think he knows what we're talking about - he's showing off in the background.
Well, orangutans are as intelligent as a 5 or 6-year-old child. The Federal Government is currently
considering funding Asian projects of Leif Cocks' Australian Orangutan Foundation which are
ultimately aimed at returning apes to the wild.

Safety concerns for Iraq troops

Safety concerns for Iraq troops

Reporter: Matt Brown

MATT BROWN: The British army has taken control of Muthanna province in Iraq's south with just 600
men.

SOLDIER: With a magazine of 30 rounds, load. Safety catch, check the top two rounds, press the
magazine housing in, shake it, make sure its secure, walk away.

MATT BROWN: 450 Australians will soon join the British in what's been dubbed "the province of
peace". But clearly, there are still dangers to be reckoned with. The Australians will be helping
the British secure a province that's mostly desolate and unforgiving.

LT-COL. TIM WILSON, TASK FORCE EAGLE COMMANDER, BRITISH ARMY: So an enhancement of Australians will
improve our capability quite considerably.

MATT BROWN: In the north, near the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, lies Samawah city, the provincial
centre of Al-Muthanna province. A Dutch soldier was killed here last year when his convoy was
attacked.

LT. RORY FERGUSON, TROOP LEADER, BRITISH ARMY: As it was crossing the bridge a motorcyclist
beneath, on the road that runs underneath, threw a grenade up. Unfortunately, one of the sergeants,
whose name I think was Sesbah, was killed in that incident.

MATT BROWN: Australia is sending 40 light-armoured vehicles to Al-Muthanna to match the 40 the
British have brought in. But the protection they offer can be a double-edged sword.

LT-COL. TIM WILSON: Because it is more benign here, it's more benign than a lot of the other
provinces, and I think that if you were to operate with armoured vehicles on a daily basis, it
would be potentially fairly inflammatory.

MATT BROWN: While the Australian contingent will provide an important boost, the bottom line is
their presence is designed to improve security in the province, and it's not absolutely crucial to
maintaining it.

LT-COL. TIM WILSON: Well, I mean, ostensibly we are going to be handling it ourselves. I've just
taken over from the Dutch and we are, certainly for the next couple of months, until such time as
the Australians come on board, we are going to be, sort of, handling it ourselves.

MATT BROWN: Could you sustain that, though?

LT-COL. TIM WILSON: I think it would be possible to sustain, but it would be very difficult to
sustain, because the Dutch have moved from a force of about 1,300 and we're suddenly moving down to
about 600 or so. Which makes it easy enough to sustain, but it doesn't necessarily make it easy to
actually sort of really move the whole thing forward.

MATT BROWN: Dutch troops have used six of their own well-armed Apache helicopters to deter attacks
and conduct surveillance, where and when they need it.

LT-COL. FRITZ VAN DOOREN, COMMANDER, NETHERLANDS BATTLE GROUP: They can be present all over the
province quite fast, and all the people on the ground, also the civilians, know what the Apache
can, and they are quite scared about them. If you can rely on your own assets, such as air support
by Apache helicopters, it's quite useful.

MATT BROWN: But British and Australian troops will have to rely on other coalition allies for this
kind of help - help the British Commander says can be delivered fairly quickly.

LT-COL. TIM WILSON: I can guarantee that the process, we would go through the process to try to
make sure that we can have that. You can never absolutely guarantee anything in terms of military
support.

MATT BROWN: Because the Dutch have had Apache attack helicopters; Australians don't.

LT-COL. TIM WILSON: Dutch have Apache. No, and we haven't got Apache either, but what we do have is
air power here, which we can call on via the Americans and the like.

MATT BROWN: In the past four months alone, the Apaches flew 54 missions carrying the Dutch Quick
Response Force and 300 missions just to make a show of force in the air. But the Apaches are not a
cure-all. Earlier last year, another Dutch soldier lost his life in an ambush - this time in the
town of Orumitha.

LT-COL. FRITZ VAN DOOREN: There was an ambush by, I think, 40 to 50 people and it happened during
the night. There you are having an ambush in the city, it's quite difficult to relay on your Apache
helicopters because air support in urban warfare is quite difficult.

MATT BROWN: In just the past four months, in the so-called province of peace, the Dutch encountered
10 incidents of small-arms fire, four explosions, six hand grenades, three mortar or rocket
attacks, six home-made bombs and one car bomb. And Dutch troops seized more than 200 anti-personnel
mines, more than 2,000 rockets, and more than 450 mortars. Many of the people in Muthanna province
are desperately poor. The stench from the slums of Samawah city can be smelt kilometres away. The
sewers are open, the front yards consist of mud and pools of putrid water. When the Australians
arrive here in Samawah, they'll find a community more racked by poverty than insurgency, a group of
people hoping that they too will soon have the basics of life. Indeed, the call for soldiers to
provide a better life is a constant refrain. (Translation): Australian troops must keep control of
security in Samawah. They must also fix our electricity and water.

(Translation): We need the troops to give us jobs then security will improve.

MATT BROWN: A Japanese force has been sent to the province to try and rebuild it. Australian troops
will soon be providing security in the general vicinity of the Japanese force. But the Japanese do
have the ability to defend themselves, and their commander says, based on purely military
considerations, he'd be prepared to stay in Muthanna without the assistance of others.

COL. KIYOHIKO OTA, JAPAN RECONSTRUCTION GROUP: I don't pull your army forces to Muthanna province.
I think each government will decide. If the Japanese government say, "You should go to Iraq to
rehabilitate the Iraqi people", anytime we say "yes, sir".

MATT BROWN: Even if there is no British and Australian overarching security?

COL. KIYOHIKO OTA: Yes, I think so.

MATT BROWN: The Japanese are, however, prevented by law from attacking another force and their
rules of engagement mean they have to act more like police than soldiers.

COL. KIYOHIKO OTA: That's why we need close coordination and close cooperation with Australian Army
forces.

MATT BROWN: And the Japanese camp itself has been attacked.

COL. KIYOHIKO OTA: Mortar attack and rocket attack -

MATT BROWN: Mortar and rocket?

COL. KIYOHIKO OTA: Mortar and rocket, but fortunately no casualties.

MATT BROWN: The mortar fell outside the camp perimeter, but the rocket attack on this force, the
force Australian soldiers are being sent to protect, occurred less than eight weeks ago.

COL. KIYOHIKO OTA: The latest attack in January this year, that is rocket attack.

MATT BROWN: The rocket landed inside the Japanese camp, but did not explode. The ultimate goal of
the Australian mission is to hand over responsibility for security in Muthanna province to Iraqi
forces, and the Australian military wants to do that within a year. Would they be ready within a
year to work without the assistance you're offering them now?

LT-COL. TIM WILSON: It's very difficult to put an absolute timeline on it. I mean, of course, the
next sort of critical juncture is the next set of elections at the end of December. And I suspect
at that stage, there may well be a time to make the decision as to just how much longer a
multi-national force will remain.

MATT BROWN: A year from now, Australian troops will be well-known faces in al-Muthanna and, based
on recent events, they'll have also experienced some direct danger.

Flesh-eating bug prompts health warning

Flesh-eating bug prompts health warning

Reporter: Mick Bunworth

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR PAUL JOHNSON, AUSTIN HEALTH INFECTIOUS DISEASES: I personally don't use the
word flesh-eating bug.

DR JOHN CARNIE, VIC DEPUTY CHIEF HEALTH OFFICER: We try to avoid terms like flesh-eating bug.

MICK BUNWORTH: Understandably, perhaps, health officials are wary of such tabloid terms, but "eat
flesh" is exactly what Mycobacterium ulcerans, or Bairnsdale ulcer, does if left untreated. Last
July, the 7:30 Report brought you the story of the Victorian seaside town of Point Lonsdale, where
some residents had contracted Bairnsdale ulcer, so named after the town with the first recorded
outbreak , in 1948. Nationally, 35 people were diagnosed with the ulcer last year, but more than
half of those had visited or lived in Point Lonsdale, and the surrounding Bellarine Peninsula, 150
south-west of Melbourne.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR PAUL JOHNSON: Transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans occurs relatively commonly
in Far North Queensland in a very small area, north of Mossman. There has been a case this year in
Darwin and another case last year. There has been a couple of cases in Rockhampton and along the
tropical north of Queensland. But much less common at the moment than we're seeing down here in
Victoria. For inexplicable reasons, it's not showing up in New South Wales or South Australia,
although things could change.

MICK BUNWORTH: Dr Paul Johnson is with Austin Health's infectious diseases department in Melbourne.
He's a world renowned authority on Mycobacterium ulcerans and helped to develop a diagnostic test.
Dr Johnson has also written a manual for those working with the disease in Africa, where it's known
as Buruli ulcer and can cripple sufferers if left untreated. In an effort to pin down the cause of
the disease, Dr Johnson's research team is monitoring the Bellarine Peninsula's mosquito
population. He believes they may just made a key discovery.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR PAUL JOHNSON: This is really the first time that adult mosquitoes have been
shown to have any trace of this organism on them. But that doesn't mean that it's how you get
infected. We have to keep our eye on the ball and make sure we consider all other options.

MICK BUNWORTH: Dr Johnson's research has been enough for health authorities to issue a warning to
Bellarine Peninsula residents and visitors.

DR JOHN CARNIE: We have new information to suggest that it has been found in mosquitoes. We don't
know what part mosquitoes play in the actual transmission, but it would be prudent to try to avoid
mosquito bites as far as possible.

MICK BUNWORTH: One of the Bairnsdale ulcer's highest-profile victims was former AFL player, coach
and now commentator David Parkin, whose family has owned a beach house in Point Lonsdale for 30
years. When the 7:30 Report interviewed him last year, he was recovering from a minor skin graft to
repair damage caused by an ulcer behind his knee.

DAVID PARKIN, AFL COMMENTATOR: Mine was a very small hole that you could put the end of your little
finger in. 15 stitches in the back to take out a fair swag of stuff last Friday, but the reality is
it's not something that you might think was a spider bite or a mosquito bite and take no notice of.

MICK BUNWORTH: On hearing today's news of a possible link with mosquitoes, David Parkin was just
grateful that research into Bairnsdale ulcer is continuing.

DAVID PARKIN: I'm not in the position of panicking people, but just alerting people that use my
house, and my grandchildren and kids. etc., that we should be careful, at least when we're in the
outdoors and if there is some - even small and not yet confirmed - relationship between march flies
or mosquitoes or whatever, then we should be aware of that and make sure we're as well protected as
we can be when we're in that environment.

MICK BUNWORTH: Dr Johnson will take his findings to a World Health Organisation Buruli ulcer
conference in Geneva next month. He expects skepticism from other researchers.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR PAUL JOHNSON: Our finding, it will be challenged because that's how science
works. You have to be able to defend your findings, but it opens new possibilities, because there's
still this mystery, even in Africa, where we know that some large biting water bugs have this
organism in their salivary glands but that don't explain how people nearby, but not in the water,
actually become infected. So it may be what happens in Victoria is quite different from west
Africa, but it would certainly open people's minds and perhaps some more mosquitoes will be trapped
over there and the same experiments done.

MICK BUNWORTH: Dr Johnson says more research will establish whether mosquitoes carry the bacteria
in their system, rather than just on their bodies.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR PAUL JOHNSON: It's in the mouth parts or in the salivary glands, that would
really increase the likelihood that it really is transmitting the infection, but the key experiment
will be to see whether we can get artificially infected mosquitoes under laboratory conditions to
actually infect an animal such as a mouse.

MICK BUNWORTH: Victorian health authorities say they're determined to solve the mystery of the
Bairnsdale ulcer. Is it fair to say that the Department won't rest until the mode of transmission
is found?

DR JOHN CARNIE: Certainly, that is the ultimate goal, is to try and find the mode of transmission,
and also then, what can we do about it? Because once you've found the mode of transmission, you
then have to try to determine what public health actions can be recommended to the public in trying
to reduce the risks of transmission.

DAVID PARKIN: There's been some conscientious work done by some very good people. I think in
big-picture stuff, in the finish, it will help people like me in this country, but it will
certainly be something that we can make - on the world scene, certainly, in Africa, where the
problem is quite severe.

MICK BUNWORTH: And with mosquito numbers booming after recent record rains, the people of the
Bellarine Peninsula will need little encouragement to cover up.

Great apes pushed towards extinction

Great apes pushed towards extinction

Reporter: Mick O'Donnell

MICK O'DONNELL: Back in the '80s, the Hollywood film Gorillas in the Mist introduced the majesty
and might of the mountain gorilla to a world audience. But through Hollywood's ideal, we saw that
humans could reconcile with their closest primate relatives. Once an advisor to the film, Ian
Redmond is the United Nations' consultant on the push to save the great apes.

IAN REDMOND, GREAT APE SURVIVAL PROJECT: And you look at them in the eye and there's somebody there
looking back at you, and that's a being. And I think we have to respect that. And I think almost
anyone who's had that experience would not want to see them destroyed.

MICK O'DONNELL: But now, the great apes are on the final run from their human cousins, from the
orangutan of Sumatra and Borneo...

BIRUTE GALDIKAS, GREAT APE SURVIVAL PROJECT: I think the future of orangutans as populations in the
wild is very bleak.

MICK O'DONNELL: What's the clock saying now?

BIRUTE GALDIKAS: 5 to 10 years, 5 to 10 years.

MICK O'DONNELL: ..to the gorillas of central Africa...

IAN REDMOND: We're not talking about some future generations; we're talking about us explaining to
our kids or our grandchildren that we heard this was happening but we couldn't quite get it
together to stop it.

MICK O'DONNELL: ..and even Africa's once-numerous chimpanzee.

BIRUTE GALDIKAS: 10 years ago, people did not think it likely that chimpanzees could go extinct in
the wild, that lowland gorillas could go extinct in the wild.

MICK O'DONNELL: For more than 30 years, Birute Galdikas has lived and worked with the orangutan of
Borneo.

BIRUTE GALDIKAS: I just have a passion for them. As long as I remember I've been fascinated by
them.

MICK O'DONNELL: Her studies of orangutan, which translates as "man of the forest", have shown they
have sophisticated behaviour, sometimes uncannily human.

BIRUTE GALDIKAS: This is Sishwe showing off. She's gonna use it as a pivot. She just understands
the relationships among the different components.

MICK O'DONNELL: Here in a national park in Borneo, Birute Galdikas runs the Leaky Centre, which
rescues orphaned young orangutan. Her pioneering work found they could be reintroduced into the
wild. Is there any going back, do you think, once orangutans have been in captivity?

BIRUTE GALDIKAS: Oh, absolutely. They're smart, they're opportunistic. The main thing that prevents
them from going back is humans, the fact that humans will kill them.

MICK O'DONNELL: The loss of habitat in these Indonesian and Malaysian provinces is from illegal
gold mining and logging, reducing tropical rainforest to stark moonscapes incapable of returning to
the diverse ecosystems which once supported the apes.

BIRUTE GALDIKAS: Illegal timber is sold outside of Indonesia, but are they sponsored by large
corporations that you can point a finger at? No. They're sponsored by semi-criminal syndicates that
smuggle the logs and timber out of Indonesia.

MICK O'DONNELL: Birute Galdikas is heartened by Indonesian provincial government support to protect
the national parks.

BIRUTE GALDIKAS: We asked the police to come in and start patrolling, and once they realised we had
the support of the local community, they came in with guns. They were very polite but they evicted
illegal loggers and goldminers.

MICK O'DONNELL: Ian Redmond's affinity with the ape world is only too plain. He soon gained the
trust of this chimp on a visit to a refuge in Cameroon last month. And after a decade in the forest
with gorillas, he speaks their language.

IAN REDMOND: And if you approach a group of gorillas and say "hhhmmmmam", then you may well get a
response.

MICK O'DONNELL: Through his decades in the wilds of Rwanda and Uganda, he has befriended many of
the mountain gorillas. He famously taught Sigourney Weaver a bit of gorilla language for her film
role.

IAN REDMOND: When they're travelling through dense vegetation they can't really see each other so
they keep in touch with a call that's sort of "hhhmmmam". So if a gorilla chooses to come and sit
by you and not do much, just kind of hang out together, then you have a friendship. But you also
have a very heavy responsibility because if you make them trust people you have to make sure bad
people with guns and spears don't come in and abuse that trust.

MICK O'DONNELL: Ian Redmond's investigations have revealed a rapid decline in gorilla numbers in
Central Africa, partly due to the bush meat trade - the hunting of gorillas for prestige food.

IAN REDMOND: Even if you're only taking 1 per cent of the population through hunting, that will
cause a decline, and if you're taking several per cent, the decline becomes more rapid.

MICK O'DONNELL: He's pushing programs in Central African villages which would see the eating of
gorilla meat replaced by the farming of cane rats for food. But in Rwanda and the Congo, as well as
illegal logging, an increasing threat to gorilla habitat is the unregulated mining of coltan, an
ore which produces titanium for our mobile phones and computers.

IAN REDMOND: It's that world market for computers and PlayStations and that sort of thing which has
led to, we fear, something like 70 per cent or 80 per cent of the eastern lowland gorilla
population gone.

MICK O'DONNELL: Here in Australia, Birute Galdikas and Ian Redmond have joined forces with Perth
Zoo orangutan curator Leif Cocks, who runs one of the world's most successful captivity breeding
programs. During all that time working with the orangutan here and in Asia, Leif Cocks remains
determined to maintain the genetic diversity of this threatened ape.

LEIF COCKS, PERTH ZOO: There's an interesting thing the mothers do - and they only ever do it once
but they always do it. They take the newborn baby's hand and get them to clutch my finger.

MICK O'DONNELL: Dinar, a proud male newly arrived from a Canadian zoo, is taking the credit for the
pregnancy of Sekara - a rare event among creatures notoriously slow to breed.

LEIF COCKS: One lady, Sekara, is already pregnant. We're expecting a birth in June. He's in with
Poonya to make sure the babies continue here.

MICK O'DONNELL: I think he knows what we're talking about - he's showing off in the background.

LEIF COCKS: Well, orangutans are as intelligent as a 5 or 6-year-old child.

MICK O'DONNELL: The Federal Government is currently considering funding Asian projects of Leif
Cocks' Australian Orangutan Foundation which are ultimately aimed at returning apes to the wild.
This week and next, these three world leaders in great ape research are speaking to audiences
across the country about not just the threats but their hopes for the creatures they love.

BIRUTE GALDIKAS: Well, I hope the Australian Government is supportive and I hope Australians will
open their hearts to the plight of the great apes.

MICK O'DONNELL: Ian Redmond is reporting to a world congress on the great apes in September, but he
says the poorer African countries will need the help of the rich, like Australia, to save his
friends the gorillas.

IAN REDMOND: I'm an optimistic person by nature. I don't think we can contemplate failure. We have
to succeed.

Clarke, Dawe and Prince Charles

Clarke, Dawe and Prince Charles

Reporter: Clarke and Dawe

INTERVIEWER: Your Royal Highness, thank you very much for coming in tonight.

PRINCE CHARLES: It's a great pleasure.

INTERVIEWER: l you Prince Charles?

PRINCE CHARLES: I think "Your Highness" is the appropriate form of address. What do you do?

INTERVIEWER: I'm the person who will be interviewing you.

PRINCE CHARLES: Oh, that's very interesting. How long have you been doing that?

INTERVIEWER: Interviewing people?

PRINCE CHARLES: Yes.

INTERVIEWER: A number of years. Quite a long time.

PRINCE CHARLES: And these other people. What do they all do?

INTERVIEWER: They're the camera crew.

PRINCE CHARLES: That's interesting. How long have they been doing that?

INTERVIEWER: Your Highness, do you enjoy coming to Australia?

PRINCE CHARLES: I love coming to Australia. I've always loved coming here.

INTERVIEWER: You went to school here, didn't you?

PRINCE CHARLES: Yes, down in Geelong. I did enjoy it, because we went up into the hills to a place
called...

INTERVIEWER: Timbertop.

PRINCE CHARLES: Timbertop. Many happy days, marvellous days, because there was a connection between
that place and the school that I'd been to down in - somewhere.

INTERVIEWER: Geelong.

PRINCE CHARLES: Yes, rings a bell. I know Geelong quite well, of course, because I went to school
there, down in Geelong. Marvellous days - wonderful, wonderful memories.

INTERVIEWER: You've announced you're getting married again.

PRINCE CHARLES: I have - indeed I have.

INTERVIEWER: What's been the reaction to that decision?

PRINCE CHARLES: Well, happily she has accepted me, so we're over the first hurdle.

INTERVIEWER: No, I meant more generally.

PRINCE CHARLES: I think broadly there has been understanding and support. I think one's right to
one's happiness is broadly accepted by one's broader community.

INTERVIEWER: What about your mother?

PRINCE CHARLES: Ah, there has been a very slight difficulty there.

INTERVIEWER: She isn't coming to the wedding, is she?

PRINCE CHARLES: She's not. To be honest, she wasn't mad keen on my first experiment in this general
area. Have you ever read "Frood"?

INTERVIEWER: Freud?

PRINCE CHARLES: Austrian chap. He's excellent on this whole sort of mother/wife racket. It turns
out to be rather a can of worms. Would that I had known. If I hadn't known now the things that I'd
failed to understand - no, if I'd not known, I'd be really a great deal wiser, I think.

INTERVIEWER: Your Royal Highness...

PRINCE CHARLES: Good evening. How do you do? Yes, nice to see you. It's good to be here. And how
long have you been doing that?

INTERVIEWER: Will you be king at some stage?

PRINCE CHARLES: I would very much like to be king.

INTERVIEWER: Because you've trained for it, haven't you?

PRINCE CHARLES: Yes, I can stand still for hours.

INTERVIEWER: It's difficult being royal, though, isn't it?

PRINCE CHARLES: Well, of course, I've known little else so it's very difficult for me to compare.
INTERVIEWER: Well, look, all the very best, Your Highness.

PRINCE CHARLES: Good evening. And you are?

INTERVIEWER: I'm Bryan.

PRINCE CHARLES: And what do you do?

INTERVIEWER: I've just interviewed you.

PRINCE CHARLES: And how long have you been doing that?

INTERVIEWER: For about two and a half minutes.

PRINCE CHARLES: That's very interesting. What's your name?

INTERVIEWER: Bryan.

PRINCE CHARLES: What do you do?

It's good to be here. And how long have you been doing that? Will you be king at some stage? I
would very much like to be king. Because you've trained for it, haven't you? Yes, I can stand still
for hours. It's difficult being royal, though, isn't it? Well, of course, I've known little else so
it's very difficult for me to compare. Well, look, all the very best, Your Highness. Good evening.
And you are? I'm Bryan. And what do you do? I've just interviewed you. And how long have you been
doing that? For about two and a half minutes. That's very interesting. What's your name? Bryan.
What do you do? That's the program for tonight and the week.