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Law and Justice Legislation Amendment (Identity Crimes and Other Measures) Bill 2010 [2011]

Schedule 2 Administration of justice offences

Part 1 Amendment of the Crimes Act 1914

1  Subsection 3(1)

Insert:

criminal detention has the meaning given by section 45A.

2  Subsection 3(1)

Insert:

federal criminal detention has the meaning given by section 45A.

3  Subsection 3(1)

Insert:

federal judicial proceeding has the meaning given by section 31.

4  Subsection 3(1)

Insert:

judicial proceeding has the meaning given by section 31 (other than in section 3L).

5  Subsection 3(1)

Insert:

judicial tribunal has the meaning given by section 31.

6  Before section 31

Insert:

Division 1 Preliminary

7  Section 31

Repeal the section, substitute:

31   Judicial proceeding and tribunal definitions

                   In this Act:

federal judicial proceeding means:

                     (a)  a judicial proceeding in or before:

                              (i)  a federal court; or

                             (ii)  a court exercising federal jurisdiction; or

                            (iii)  a court of a Territory; or

                     (b)  a judicial proceeding before a body or person acting under a law of:

                              (i)  the Commonwealth; or

                             (ii)  a Territory.

judicial proceeding means (other than in section 3L):

                     (a)  a proceeding in or before a court; or

                     (b)  a proceeding:

                              (i)  before a body, or a person, acting under a law of the Commonwealth, of a State or of a Territory; and

                             (ii)  in which evidence may be taken on oath.

judicial tribunal means a body or person (other than a court) before whom a judicial proceeding is conducted.

8  Before section 34

Insert:

Division 2 Judges and magistrates

9  Section 34

Repeal the section, substitute:

34   Judge or magistrate acting oppressively or when interested

Excessive and unreasonable bail

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person is a judge or magistrate; and

                     (b)  the judge or magistrate is required or authorised by law to admit a person accused of an offence to bail; and

                     (c)  the judge or magistrate requires excessive and unreasonable bail; and

                     (d)  the requirement is an abuse of the judge’s or magistrate’s office; and

                     (e)  the offence referred to in paragraph (b) is an offence against a law of the Commonwealth.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 2 years.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply if the judge or magistrate has a reasonable excuse.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (2) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code ).

             (3)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(e) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

Acting when interested

             (4)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person is a judge or magistrate; and

                     (b)  the judge or magistrate perversely exercises jurisdiction in a matter; and

                     (c)  the judge or magistrate has a personal interest in the matter; and

                     (d)  the jurisdiction is federal jurisdiction.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 2 years.

             (5)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (4)(d) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

10  Before section 35

Insert:

Division 3 Evidence and witnesses

11  Sections 35 to 40

Repeal the sections, substitute:

35   Giving false testimony

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person gives false testimony touching a matter; and

                     (b)  the person does so:

                              (i)  in a judicial proceeding; or

                             (ii)  with the intention of instituting a judicial proceeding; and

                     (c)  the matter is material in the judicial proceeding; and

                     (d)  the judicial proceeding is a federal judicial proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  Strict liability applies to the paragraph (1)(c) element of the offence.

Note:          For strict liability, see section 6.1 of the Criminal Code .

             (3)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(d) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, it is immaterial:

                     (a)  whether the testimony is given:

                              (i)  on oath or not on oath; or

                             (ii)  orally or in writing; or

                     (b)  whether the court or judicial tribunal to which the testimony is given:

                              (i)  is properly constituted; or

                             (ii)  is held in the proper place; or

                     (c)  whether the person who gave the testimony is a competent witness; or

                     (d)  whether the testimony is admissible.

36   Fabricating evidence

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person:

                              (i)  fabricates evidence; or

                             (ii)  makes use of fabricated evidence; and

                     (b)  the person does so with the intention of misleading a court or judicial tribunal in a judicial proceeding; and

                     (c)  the judicial proceeding is a federal judicial proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(c) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

36A   Intimidation of witnesses etc.

             (1)  A person (the first person ) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the first person:

                              (i)  threatens, intimidates or restrains another person; or

                             (ii)  uses violence to, or inflicts an injury on, another person; or

                            (iii)  causes or procures violence, damage, loss or disadvantage to another person; or

                            (iv)  causes or procures the punishment of another person; and

                     (b)  the first person does so on account of the other person having appeared, or being about to appear, as a witness in a judicial proceeding; and

                     (c)  the judicial proceeding is a federal judicial proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(c) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

37   Corruption of witnesses

Agreements or understandings

             (1)  A person (the first person ) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the first person:

                              (i)  gives, confers or procures any property, or benefit, of any kind to, upon or for another person; or

                             (ii)  promises or offers to give, to confer, to procure or to attempt to procure any property, or benefit, of any kind to, upon or for another person; or

                            (iii)  asks for, receives or obtains any property, or benefit, of any kind for himself or herself or another person; or

                            (iv)  agrees to receive or to obtain any property, or benefit, of any kind for himself or herself or another person; and

                     (b)  the first person does so upon an agreement or understanding that any person called, or to be called, as a witness in a judicial proceeding will:

                              (i)  give false testimony; or

                             (ii)  withhold true testimony; and

                     (c)  the judicial proceeding is a federal judicial proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(c) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

Inducing false testimony

             (3)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person does an act; and

                     (b)  the person does so with the intention of inducing a person called, or to be called, as a witness in a judicial proceeding:

                              (i)  to give false testimony; or

                             (ii)  to withhold true testimony; and

                     (c)  the judicial proceeding is a federal judicial proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (4)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (3)(c) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

38   Deceiving witnesses

             (1)  A person (the first person ) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the first person:

                              (i)  practises any fraud or deceit to a person called, or to be called, as a witness in a judicial proceeding; or

                             (ii)  makes or exhibits any false statement, representation, token or writing to a person called, or to be called, as a witness in a judicial proceeding; and

                     (b)  the first person does so with the intention of affecting the testimony of the other person; and

                     (c)  the judicial proceeding is a federal judicial proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 2 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(c) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

39   Destroying evidence

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person knows that a book, document or thing of any kind is, or may be, required in evidence in a judicial proceeding; and

                     (b)  the person:

                              (i)  destroys the book, document or thing; or

                             (ii)  renders the book, document or thing illegible, undecipherable or incapable of identification; and

                     (c)  the person does so with the intention of preventing the book, document or thing from being used in evidence; and

                     (d)  the judicial proceeding is a federal judicial proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(d) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

40   Preventing witnesses from attending Court

             (1)  A person (the first person ) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  another person has been subpoenaed or summoned to attend as a witness in a judicial proceeding; and

                     (b)  the first person prevents the other person from attending as a witness, or from producing anything in evidence, pursuant to the subpoena or summons; and

                     (c)  the judicial proceeding is a federal judicial proceeding.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 1 year.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(c) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

12  Before section 41

Insert:

Division 4 Perverting the course of justice

13  Subsection 41(1)

Repeal the subsection, substitute:

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person conspires with another person:

                              (i)  to charge any person falsely with an offence; or

                             (ii)  to cause any person to be falsely charged with an offence; and

                     (b)  the offence referred to in paragraph (a) is an offence against a law of:

                              (i)  the Commonwealth; or

                             (ii)  a Territory.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

          (1A)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(b) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

14  Subsections 42(1) and (2)

Repeal the subsections, substitute:

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person conspires with another person to obstruct, to prevent, to pervert or to defeat the course of justice in relation to a judicial power; and

                     (b)  the judicial power is the judicial power of the Commonwealth.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(b) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

15  Subsections 43(1) and (2)

Repeal the subsections, substitute:

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person attempts to obstruct, to prevent, to pervert or to defeat the course of justice in relation to a judicial power; and

                     (b)  the judicial power is the judicial power of the Commonwealth.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 10 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(b) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

16  Sections 44 and 45

Repeal the sections, substitute:

44   Compounding offences

             (1)  A person (the first person ) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the first person:

                              (i)  asks for, receives or obtains any property, or benefit, of any kind for himself or herself or another person; or

                             (ii)  agrees to receive or to obtain any property, or benefit, of any kind for himself or herself or another person; and

                     (b)  the first person does so upon an agreement or understanding that the first person will:

                              (i)  compound or conceal an offence; or

                             (ii)  abstain from, discontinue or delay a prosecution for an offence; or

                            (iii)  withhold evidence of an offence; and

                     (c)  the offence referred to in paragraph (b) is an indictable offence against a law of:

                              (i)  the Commonwealth; or

                             (ii)  a Territory.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 3 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(c) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

45   Inserting advertisements without authority of court

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person inserts in the Gazette , or in a newspaper, an advertisement purporting to be published under the authority of a court; and

                     (b)  the person does so:

                              (i)  without authority; or

                             (ii)  knowing the advertisement to be false in any material particular; and

                     (c)  the advertisement purports to be published under the authority of:

                              (i)  a federal court; or

                             (ii)  a court exercising federal jurisdiction; or

                            (iii)  a court of a Territory.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 2 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(c) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

17  Before section 46

Insert:

Division 5 Escape from criminal detention

45A   Criminal detention definitions

                   In this Act:

criminal detention : a person is in criminal detention if the person:

                     (a)  is arrested in respect of an offence; or

                     (b)  is in custody in respect of an offence; or

                     (c)  is detained because:

                              (i)  the person is unfit to be tried in respect of an offence; or

                             (ii)  the person has been acquitted of an offence because of mental illness at the time of the offence; or

                            (iii)  the person has been convicted of an offence and a court has ordered that the person be detained for the purposes of receiving treatment for a mental illness that contributed to the commission of the offence.

Example:    Paragraph (c) includes detention under:

(a)    Division 6 of Part IB (unfitness to be tried); or

(b)    Division 7 of Part IB or section 20BS (mental illness).

federal criminal detention means criminal detention in respect of an offence against a law of:

                     (a)  the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  a Territory (other than the Australian Capital Territory).

18  Sections 46 to 48

Repeal the sections, substitute:

46   Aiding prisoner to escape

             (1)  A person (the first person ) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  another person (the prisoner ) is in criminal detention; and

                     (b)  the first person aids the prisoner:

                              (i)  to escape from that detention; or

                             (ii)  to attempt to escape from that detention; and

                     (c)  the prisoner escapes, or attempts to escape, from that detention; and

                     (d)  the detention is lawful federal criminal detention.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(d) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

             (3)  Subsection (1) does not apply if, before the escape or attempted escape, the first person:

                     (a)  terminates his or her aid to the prisoner; and

                     (b)  takes all reasonable steps to prevent the escape or attempted escape.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (3) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code ).

             (4)  The first person may be found guilty of the offence even if the prisoner has not been prosecuted for, or has not been found guilty of, an offence in relation to the escape or attempted escape.

46A   Aiding prisoner to escape—conveying thing into prison etc.

             (1)  A person (the first person ) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  another person (the prisoner ) is in criminal detention; and

                     (b)  the first person conveys a thing into a prison, lock-up or other place of criminal detention; and

                     (c)  the first person does so with the intention of facilitating the escape of the prisoner from the prison, lock-up or other place; and

                     (d)  the detention is lawful federal criminal detention.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(d) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

47   Escaping

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person is in criminal detention; and

                     (b)  the person escapes from that detention; and

                     (c)  the detention is lawful federal criminal detention.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(c) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

47A   Rescuing a prisoner from criminal detention

             (1)  A person (the first person ) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  another person (the prisoner ) is in criminal detention; and

                     (b)  the first person rescues the prisoner from that detention by force; and

                     (c)  the detention is lawful federal criminal detention.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 14 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(c) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

47B   Person unlawfully at large

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person was in criminal detention in a prison, lock-up or other place of criminal detention; and

                     (b)  the detention was lawful federal criminal detention; and

                     (c)  in accordance with a permission given under a law of a State or Territory (other than the Australian Capital Territory), the person leaves the prison, lock-up or other place; and

                     (d)  the person refuses, or fails, to return to the prison, lock-up or other place in accordance with that permission.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(b) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

             (3)  Paragraph (1)(d) does not apply if the person has a reasonable excuse.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (3) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code ).

47C   Permitting escape

             (1)  A person (the first person ) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the first person is:

                              (i)  an officer of a prison, lock-up or other place of criminal detention; or

                             (ii)  a constable; or

                            (iii)  a Commonwealth officer; and

                     (b)  the first person is charged for the time being with the criminal detention of another person (the prisoner ); and

                     (c)  the first person intentionally or negligently permits the prisoner to escape from the detention; and

                     (d)  the detention is lawful federal criminal detention.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(d) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

48   Harbouring etc. an escapee

             (1)  A person (the first person ) commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the first person knows that another person (the escapee ) has escaped from a place where the other person was held in criminal detention; and

                     (b)  the first person harbours, maintains or employs the escapee; and

                     (c)  the detention was lawful federal criminal detention.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(c) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .

19  Before section 49

Insert:

Division 6 Seized property

20  Section 49

Repeal the section, substitute:

49   Removing property under seizure

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  property has been attached, or taken, under the process or authority of a court; and

                     (b)  the court was:

                              (i)  a federal court; or

                             (ii)  exercising federal jurisdiction; or

                            (iii)  a court of a Territory; and

                     (c)  the person receives, removes, retains, conceals or disposes of the property; and

                     (d)  the person does so with the intention of hindering or defeating the attachment or process.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 2 years.

             (2)  Absolute liability applies to the paragraph (1)(b) element of the offence.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code .



 

Part 2 Other amendments

Australian Federal Police Act 1979

21  Subsection 4(1) (subparagraph (a)(i) of the definition of protective service offence )

Omit “(other than paragraph (b))”.

Federal Court of Australia Act 1976

22  Subsection 32P(2)

Before “judicial proceeding”, insert “federal”.

International Criminal Court Act 2002

23  Section 183

Repeal the section, substitute:

183   Aiding persons to escape etc.

                   Sections 46, 46A, 47A, 47C and 48 of the Crimes Act 1914 have effect as if:

                     (a)  arrest pursuant to this Act were arrest in respect of an offence against a law of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  custody while in Australia pursuant to this Act were custody in respect of an offence against a law of the Commonwealth.

International Transfer of Prisoners Act 1997

24  After section 56

Insert:

56A   Aiding persons to escape etc.

                   Division 5 of Part III of the Crimes Act 1914 has effect as if:

                     (a)  custody or detention in Australia under this Act were custody in respect of an offence against a law of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  arrest under section 56 of this Act were arrest in respect of an offence against a law of the Commonwealth.

International War Crimes Tribunals Act 1995

25  Section 80

Repeal the section, substitute:

80   Aiding persons to escape etc.

                   Sections 46, 46A, 47A, 47C and 48 of the Crimes Act 1914 have effect as if:

                     (a)  arrest pursuant to this Act were arrest in respect of an offence against a law of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  custody while in Australia pursuant to this Act were custody in respect of an offence against a law of the Commonwealth.

Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Act 1987

26  Section 25A

Repeal the section, substitute:

25A   Aiding persons to escape etc.

                   Sections 46, 46A, 47A, 47C and 48 of the Crimes Act 1914 have effect as if:

                     (a)  arrest under section 25 of this Act were arrest in respect of an offence against a law of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  custody while in Australia under a request under section 16 of this Act were custody in respect of an offence against a law of the Commonwealth.

27  Section 31A

Repeal the section, substitute:

31A   Aiding persons to escape etc.

                   Sections 46, 46A, 47A, 47C and 48 of the Crimes Act 1914 have effect as if:

                     (a)  arrest under section 31 of this Act were arrest in respect of an offence against a law of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  custody while in Australia in accordance with a direction under paragraph 29(1)(d) of this Act were custody in respect of an offence against a law of the Commonwealth.

Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979

28  Paragraph 5D(8)(b)

After “46”, insert “, 46A”.

Transfer of Prisoners Act 1983

29  Subsection 26(1)

Omit “as if a reference in that section”, substitute “of this Act as if a reference in the definition of federal criminal detention in section 45A”.

30  Subsection 26(2)

Omit “that section”, substitute “the definition of federal criminal detention in section 45A of that Act”.