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Index of Victoria Cross Recipients by Electorate



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RESEARCH PAPER SERIES, 2014-15 UPDATED 6 AUGUST 2014

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate Dr Nathan Church (original paper by Marty Harris, with assistance from Nicholas Fuller, Laura Rayner and Brooke McDonagh) Foreign Affairs, Defence and Security Section

Contents

Purpose of publication ................................................................................. 1

Abbreviations .............................................................................................. 2

The Victoria Cross ........................................................................................ 3

New South Wales electorates ...................................................................... 4

Victorian electorates .................................................................................. 41

Queensland electorates .............................................................................. 69

Western Australian electorates ................................................................... 85

South Australian electorates ....................................................................... 88

Tasmanian electorates ................................................................................ 96

Northern Territory electorates .................................................................. 105

Australian Capital Territory ....................................................................... 105

Purpose of publication The intent of this paper is to allow Members and Senators to identify Victoria Cross (VC) winners with ties to particular electorates. A Victoria Cross winner is defined as ‘connected’ with a specific federal House of Representatives electorate if the recipient:

• was born in the electorate

• resided in the electorate when he enlisted

• died in the electorate or

• is buried or was cremated in the electorate.

ISSN 2203-5249

Abbreviations AAMC Australian Army Medical Corps

AATTV Australian Army Training Team Vietnam

AIF Australian Imperial Force

AMF Australian Military Forces

ARVN Army of the Republic of Vietnam

Bn Battalion

CB Companion of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath

CO Commanding Officer

Col. Colonel

Comd. Command

Coy. Company

Cpl Corporal

Cpt. Captain

DGMS Director General Medical Services

DSO Distinguished Service Order

Inf. Infantry

KCB Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath

KCMG Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George

LHR Light Horse Regiment

Lieut. Lieutenant

LMG Light machine gun

Lt. Lieutenant

MG Machine gun

MM Military Medal

NAA National Archives of Australia

NCO Non-Commissioned Officer

OBE Order of the British Empire

Pl. Platoon

Posn. Position

Pte Private

QOCG Queen’s Own Corps of Guides

RAAF Royal Australian Air Force

RAF Royal Air Force

RAR Royal Australian Regiment

Sjt. Sergeant

Sgt Sergeant

T/Corporal Temporary Corporal

TSMG Thompson sub-machine gun

VMR Victoria Mounted Rifles

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 2

The Victoria Cross … is the pre-eminent award for acts of bravery in wartime and Australia’s highest military honour.

It is awarded to persons who, in the presence of the enemy, display the most conspicuous gallantry; a daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice; or extreme devotion to duty.1

History

The (Imperial) Victoria Cross was created in the United Kingdom during 1856, and retrospectively covered the Crimean War beginning in 1854.2 It was first awarded to 62 sailors and soldiers following the Indian Mutiny in 1857.

The Victoria Cross for Australia was inaugurated in 1991, and is the highest Australian award in the Australian system of Honours and Awards. It was first awarded in January 2009 to Trooper Mark Gregor Donaldson, forty years after the award to the last Australian recipient of the (Imperial) Victoria Cross, Warrant Officer Keith Payne in 1969.3

The first Australian to receive a VC was Captain (later Sir) Neville Howse during the Boer War in 1900. Since then, 100 Australians have been awarded the VC, all but five while serving with Australian forces.4 Additionally, 18 recipients were born outside Australia. The conflicts for which the VCs to Australians have been awarded are:

Boer War (1899-1902): 6

First World War (1914-18): 64 North Russia (1919): 2

Second World War (1939-45): 20 Vietnam (1962-72): 4

Afghanistan (2001-present): 4

Description

The VC is made by Messrs. Hancock, jewellers of London, from metal taken from Russian guns captured at Sevastopol.5 It is in the form of a Maltese Cross in bronze adorned by a crown surmounted by a crowned lion, the emblem of the British royal family, in the centre, with a scroll bearing the inscription, ‘For Valour’. On the reverse is inscribed the date of the action. The name and regiment of the holder are inscribed on the back of the suspension bar. The ribbon is red for all Services, although until July 1918, the Royal Navy used the blue ribbon. 6 The original warrant for the Victoria Cross, issued by Queen Victoria under her Royal Sign Manual, is available in the London Gazette.7

1. Australian Government, ‘Victoria Cross for Australia’, It’s an Honour: Australia celebrating Australians website, accessed 23 March 2010. 2. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘The Victoria Cross’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 3. Australian Government, ‘Australian Army: Awarded the Victoria Cross for Australia: Trooper Mark Gregor Donaldson’, Department of Defence

website, accessed 23 March 2010. 4. Australian Government, ‘Victoria Cross for Australia’, op. cit. 5. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘The Victoria Cross,’ op. cit. Image source: Australian Government, ‘Victoria Cross for

Australia’, It’s an Honour: Australia celebrating Australians’, accessed 21 July 2014. 6. Ibid.

7. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette,’ London Gazette, no. 21846, 5 February 1856, p. 410, accessed 23 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 3

New South Wales electorates Banks John Patrick Hamilton (1896-1961; WWI) resided on enlistment Bennelong George Cartwright (1894-1978; WWI) buried Bradfield George Cartwright (1894-1978; WWI) died Calare John Patrick Hamilton (1896-1961; WWI) born Neville Reginald Howse (1863-1930; Boer War) resided on enlistment John Bernard Mackey (1922-45; WWII) resided on enlistment Rawdon Hume Middleton (1916-42; WWII) resided on enlistment Blair Anderson Wark (1894-1941; WWI) born Chifley Kevin Arthur Wheatley (1937-1965; Vietnam) buried Charlton William Matthew Currey (1895-1948; WWI) born (or electorate of Newcastle) Clarence Smith Jeffries (1894-1917; WWI) born (or electorate of Newcastle) Cowper Frank John Partridge (1924-64; WWII) resided on enlistment, died, and buried Farrer Albert Chalmers Borella (1881-1968; WWI) resided on enlistment, died, and buried Reginald Roy Inwood (1890-1971; WWI) resided on enlistment James Rogers (1873-1961; Boer War) born Grayndler William Matthew Currey (1895-1948; WWI) resided on enlistment John Bernard Mackey (1922-45; WWII) born Hughes Peter John Badcoe (1934-67; Vietnam) resided on enlistment William Matthew Currey (1895-1948; WWI) buried John Patrick Hamilton (1896-1961; WWI) buried Hume Charles Groves Wright Anderson (1897-1988; WWII) resided on enlistment Hunter Clarence Smith Jeffries (1894-1917; WWI) resided on enlistment Joseph Maxwell (1896-1967; WWI) resided on enlistment Kingsford Smith Thomas James Bede Kenny (1896-1953; WWI) buried Joseph Maxwell (1896-1967; WWI) died, and buried Blair Anderson Wark (1894-1941; WWI) buried Newcastle William Matthew Currey (1895-1948; WWI) born (or electorate of Charlton) Mark Gregor Strang Donaldson (1979-; Afghanistan) born Clarence Smith Jeffries (1894-1917; WWI) born (or electorate of Charlton) New England George Cartwright (1894-1978; WWI) resided on enlistment North Sydney Albert Edward Chowne (1920-45; WWII) born, and resided on enlistment Blair Anderson Wark (1894-1941; WWI) resided on enlistment Page Patrick Joseph Bugden (1897-1917; WWI) born, and resided on enlistment Frank John Partridge (1924-64; WWII) born Parkes Alexander Henry Buckley (1891-1918; WWI) born and resided on enlistment Arthur Charles Hall (1896-1978; WWI) resided on enlistment, died, and buried

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 4

Parramatta Arthur Charles Hall (1896-1978; WWI) born Reid John Patrick Hamilton (1896-1961; WWI) died Thomas James Bede Kenny (1896-1953; WWI) died James Rogers (1873-1961; Boer War) died John Woods Whittle (1883-1946; WWI) buried Riverina John Hurst Edmondson (1914-41; WWII) born John William Alexander Jackson (1897-1959; WWI) born, resided on enlistment Reginald Roy Rattey (1918-86; WWII) born, resided on enlistment, died, and buried Edward John Francis Ryan (1890-1941; WWI) born, and resided on enlistment Sydney William Matthew Currey (1895-1948; WWI) died Arthur Roden Cutler (1916-2002; WWII) died Joseph Maxwell (1896-1967; WWI) born Alfred John Shout (1881-1915; WWI) resided on enlistment Rayene Stewart Simpson (1926-78; Vietnam) born Percy Valentine Storkey (1893-1969; WWI) resided on enlistment Kevin Arthur Wheatley (1937-1965; Vietnam) born John Woods Whittle (1883-1946; WWI) died Warringah Arthur Roden Cutler (1916-2002; WWII) born, and resided on enlistment Watson George Julian Howell (1893-1964; WW1) born and resided on enlistment Wentworth Arthur Roden Cutler (1916-2002; WWII) buried Hughie Idwal Edwards (1914-82; WWII) died Thomas James Bede Kenny (1896-1953; WWI) born, resided on enlistment Leonard Maurice Keysor (1885-1951; WWI) resided on enlistment Rawdon Hume Middleton (1916-42; WWII) born Werriwa John Hurst Edmondson (1914-41; WWII) resided on enlistment

John Patrick Hamilton Born: 24 January 1896, Orange, New South Wales [electorate of Calare].8 War record states that he was born in Penshurst, New South Wales [electorate of Banks].9

Life before the war:

Son of William Hamilton, butcher, and his wife Catherine, née Fox. Nothing is known of his schooling but he described himself as a butcher when he enlisted as a private in the Australian Imperial Force on 15 September 1914; he had had prior service in the militia. 10

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Penshurst, Sydney, New South Wales [electorate of Banks].

Enlistment date: 15 September 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery on 9th August, 1915, in the Gallipoli Peninsula. During a heavy bomb attack by the enemy on the newly captured position at Lone Pine, Private Hamilton, with utter disregard to personal safety,

8. WA Land, ‘Hamilton, John (1896-1961)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 9. AIF Project, ‘John Hamilton’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 10 . WA Land, ‘Hamilton, John (1896-1901)’, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 5

exposed himself under heavy fire on the parados, in order to secure a better fire position against the enemy’s bomb throwers. His coolness and daring example had an immediate effect. The defence was encouraged, and the enemy driven off with heavy loss. 11

Unit at time of action: 3rd Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

On 5 July 1918 Hamilton was posted to No.5 Officer Cadet Battalion at Cambridge, England; he was commissioned second lieutenant in January 1919 and promoted lieutenant next April. He rejoined a much-depleted 3rd Battalion in France late that month and returned to Australia in August. His AIF appointment ended on 12 September. After demobilization he lived at Tempe, Sydney, and was a wharf labourer for over thirty years; he also worked as a shipping clerk, storeman and packer. He was an active member of the Waterside Workers’ Federation and was Labor nominee for the position of Sydney branch secretary in 1952. During World War II he served as a lieutenant with the 16th Garrison Battalion and several training battalions. In 1942 he went to New Guinea with the 3rd Pioneer Battalion, then served with Australian Labour Employment Companies until 1944 when he transferred to the Australian Army Labour Service. He was promoted captain in the Australian Military Forces in October 1944. He returned to Sydney in April 1946.

12

Died: 27 February 1961, Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, New South Wales [electorate of Reid].

Place of burial or cremation: Woronora Cemetery, Sydney [electorate of Hughes].13

George Cartwright Born: 9 December 1894, South Kensington, London, United Kingdom.14

Life before the war:

Son of William Edward Cartwright, coach trimmer, and his wife Elizabeth, née Stracey. Migrating alone to Australia in 1912, George took a job as a labourer on a sheep station in the Elsmore district, near Inverell, New South Wales. 15

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Elsmore via Inverell, New South Wales [electorate of New England].16

Enlistment date: 9 December 1915 (19 December 1915 on Nominal Roll)

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty on the morning of the 31st August, 1918, during the attack on Road Wood, south west of Bouchavenes, near Peronne. When two companies were held up by machine gun fire, from the south western edge of the wood, without hesitation, Private Cartwright moved against the gun in a most deliberate manner under intense fire. He shot three of the team, and, having bombed the post, captured the gun and nine enemy. This gallant deed had a most inspiring effect on the whole line, which immediately rushed forward. Throughout the operation Private Cartwright displayed wonderful dash, grim determination, and courage of the highest order.

17

Unit at time of action: 33rd Infantry Battalion (New South Wales).

Life after the war:

11. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette,’ London Gazette, no. 29328, 15 October 1915, p. 10154, accessed 26 March 2010. 12. WA Land, ‘Hamilton, John (1896-1901)‘, op. cit. 13. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 647. 14. AIF Project, ‘George Cartwright’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 15. A Staunton, ‘Cartwright, George (1894-1978)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 16. AIF Project, ‘George Cartwright‘, op. cit. 17. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31067, 13 December 1918, p. 14779, accessed 25 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 6

Cartwright lived in Sydney and worked as a motor mechanic. On 25 June 1921 he married Elsie Broker at St Stephen’s Anglican Church, Chatswood; they were to have two children before being divorced. He served in the Militia’s 4th-3rd Battalion and was commissioned on 25 February 1932. Mobilized for full-time service on 5 March 1940, he was promoted captain (1942) and performed training and amenities duties in Australia. Cartwright was placed on the Retired List on 11 May 1946. He found employment as an assistant-cashier and married Evelyn Mary Short on 4 September 1948 in the Congregational Church, Pitt Street, Sydney.

In 1956 Cartwright visited London for the VC centenary celebrations; he returned there for biennial reunions of the Victoria Cross and George Cross Association. He was a quiet, unassuming man, 5 ft 7 ins (170 cm) tall, with black hair and a dark complexion. Survived by his wife, and by the son of his first marriage, he died on 2 February 1978 at Gordon and was cremated. His widow presented his VC and other medals to the Imperial War Museum, London.

18

Died: 2 February 1978, Gordon, Sydney [electorate of Bradfield].

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Northern Suburbs Crematorium, Sydney [electorate of Bennelong]19. Commemorated at the Garden of Remembrance at Rookwood, Sydney.20

Neville Reginald Howse (first Australian recipient of the VC) Born: 26 October 1863 in Stogursey, Somerset, United Kingdom. 21

Life before the war:

Born on 26 October 1863 at Stogursey, Somerset, England, son of Alfred Howse, surgeon, and his wife Lucy Elizabeth, née Conroy. He was educated at Fullard’s House School, Taunton, and studied medicine at London Hospital … Howse was a demonstrator in anatomy at the University of Durham when declining health caused him to migrate to New South Wales. Registered to practise on 11 December 1889 he set up at Newcastle but soon moved to Taree. In 1895 he visited England for postgraduate work in surgery, became FRCS in 1897, then bought a practice at Orange. On 17 January 1900 he was commissioned lieutenant in the New South Wales Medical Corps and sailed with the 2nd Contingent for South Africa.

22

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Orange, New South Wales [electorate of Calare].23

Enlistment date: 17 January 1900

Description of action for which VC awarded:

During the action at Vredefort on the 24th July, 1900, Captain House went out under a heavy cross fire and picked up a wounded man, and carried him to a place of shelter. 24

Unit at time of action: New South Wales Medical Staff Corps, Australian Forces.

Life after the war:

Howse became widely known in Orange for his skill as a surgeon and was twice mayor. On 31 January 1905 he married Evelyn Gertrude Northcote Pilcher at Bathurst. He remained a major in the AAMC Reserve and in August 1914 was appointed principal medical officer to the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force to German New Guinea, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. On his own initiative drugs and medical equipment (including a unique dental arrangement) suitable for a tropical campaign were obtained and the troops were protected against typhoid and smallpox. The brief action in New Britain was completed without a single case of serious illness up to 15 October as a result of his thoroughness. The ambitious Howse returned alone just in time to join the Australian

18. A Staunton, ‘Cartwright, George (1894-1978)‘, op. cit. 19. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 632. 20. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Private George Cartwright’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010.

21. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 650. 22. AJ Hill, ‘Howse, Sir Neville Reginald (1863-1930)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 1 March 2010. 23. Ibid.

24. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette,’ London Gazette, no. 27320, 4 June 1901, p. 3769, accessed 24 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 7

Imperial Force and sail with the first convoy as staff officer to Surgeon General (Sir) WCD Williams, director of medical services. During the voyage he won the confidence of the commander of the AIF Major General (Sir) WT Bridges and the friendship of Colonel (Sir) Brudenell White.

In December Howse was appointed assistant director of medical services, 1st Australian Division, with the rank of colonel. He was gravely perturbed by the inadequacy and confusion of the Imperial forces’ medical plan for the Gallipoli landing and obtained improvements in the arrangements for the evacuation of Australian wounded. When the perilous situation of the 1st Division at the landing made his plans impossible Howse took personal charge of the evacuation of the wounded men crowding the beach under increasing shell-fire, ‘giving and disregarding orders in a manner quite shocking but strangely productive of results. Shells and bullets he completely disregarded’, wrote White. ‘To the wounded he was gentleness itself’. By 3 am on 26 April the beach was clear but Howse continued to superintend evacuation to the ships for two more days. To Howse the medical service was no mere humane amenity for soldiers but a fundamental of fighting efficiency. So he strove to improve sanitation and food, to expedite the return of the wounded to units and, after Gallipoli, to combat venereal disease and to resist every attempt to lower the physical standard of the AIF On Gallipoli he established the Anzac Medical Society which met regularly to disseminate knowledge among his officers. In July 1915 he was appointed CB and in September was given command of the medical services, Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, as deputy director; from November he was director of medical services of the AIF In this appointment, which he had been strongly urging, Howse could ensure the independence of the AAMC from the British medical authorities and give it the cohesion and leadership which it had lacked.

When the infantry divisions went to France in 1916 Howse set up his headquarters with AIF administrative headquarters in London. He retained control of the AAMC in Egypt and Palestine, made frequent visits to the AIF in France and reported each month to the director general of medical services in Melbourne. If he had much to learn about the vast, complex organism of the army at war, he revealed a capacity to learn and grow with the magnitude of his task. Mistakes were made but Howse never lost the confidence of the commander of the AIF, Lieutenant-General Sir William Birdwood, nor of Brudenell White. Among his achievements were recognition by the army of the need for direct access by the director of medical services to the general officer commanding the AIF, and his acceptance by the War Office as chief medical officer of the AIF. He established clear policies for the AAMC in line with those of the Royal Army Medical Corps and preserved the independence of his corps. When Major General (Sir) John Monash ordered AAMC officers on his headquarters to wear the 3rd Division colour patch instead of their own, Howse forced Monash to withdraw the order; he won the same battle against Major General (Sir) Talbot Hobbs. In January 1917 he was promoted major general and appointed KCB. Howse gave evidence before the Dardanelles Commission in 1917. The arrangements for the wounded at the landing he characterized as ‘so inadequate that they amounted to criminal negligence’ on the part of the Imperial authorities.

In the field, Howse had introduced surgical teams and had supported the work of Major AW Holmes à Court in developing resuscitation teams with each division. His reorganization of the field ambulances in two sections, rejected by the War Office in 1916, was readopted in the AIF in September 1918. In October Howse went briefly to Australia to advise the minister of defence on AIF affairs and on crippled returned soldiers. He returned to London in February 1919 to assist on the medical side of repatriation. He was mentioned in dispatches, and was appointed KCMG and Knight of the Order of St John of Jerusalem in 1919. Howse returned home in January 1920 but his resumption of private practice was short lived. He had been appointed chairman of a committee on the reorganization of the Army Medical Service which began work in 1921 but in July 1921 he was made DGMS as a regular major general stationed in Melbourne. From the day of his return he had spoken out in public on the achievement of the AAMC in maintaining the health of the AIF and had insisted that the same must be done for all Australians in peacetime. As a regular officer could not campaign in public he resigned in November 1922 and was elected to the House of Representatives for the seat of Calare, which included Orange, as a member of the National Party.

… He was a member of the Australian delegation to the fourth assembly of the League of Nations in 1923 and commissioned by the government to inquire into the medical examination of migrants to Australia and into the Spahlinger treatment of tuberculosis. From January 1925 to April 1927 Howse was minister for defence and health and minister in charge of repatriation. He accompanied the Prime Minister, SM (Viscount) Bruce to the Imperial Conference in 1926 but was taken ill and returned to Australia. He relinquished defence and health but remained in the cabinet as assistant minister without portfolio. Nevertheless he continued to administer repatriation and even acted as secretary to the cabinet. In February 1928 he again became minister for health and repatriation and also for home and territories. He was campaign manager for the 1929 election in which he lost his seat. In his brief parliamentary career he was recognized as champion of the returned servicemen and as a pioneer in public health. He spoke on the need for the Commonwealth to improve public health, on the treatment of cancer and venereal disease, maternity allowances and the welfare of returned servicemen. With the purchase of £100,000 worth of radium in 1928 Howse set up one of the world’s first radium banks. The first conference of cancer organizations in Australia was inspired by him and he was responsible for the transfer of the Institute of Anatomy to Canberra. He helped to found the Federal Health Council in 1925 and the College of Surgeons of Australasia in 1928.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 8

Howse went to England for medical treatment in 1930. He died of cancer on 19 September 1930 and was buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London, survived by his wife, two sons and three daughters. Neville Howse was an Englishman who expressed the nascent Australian nationalism vigorously and directly. He was a pragmatist who nevertheless saw far ahead, a surgeon who had a flair for soldiering, an organizer who had deep insight into the essential relationship between the medical service and the force it served and who had the courage and persistence to establish policies not always understood by combatant officers. His confidence, good humour and diplomacy were matched by his shrewd appreciation of character. If his ambition carried him far, it was motivated by his recognition of human need in war and peace and sustained by confidence in his own capacity to help. His successes, in the words of another great DGMS, Colonel RM Downes, ‘made him one of the outstanding Australians of the Great War … one of the most remarkable and self-sacrificing medical administrators any military force has ever known’.

25

Died: 19 September 1930, London.26

Place of burial or cremation: Kensal Green Cemetery, London. Memorials to Howse are at the Orange sub-branch of the Returned Servicemen’s League of Australia, in the Orange Base Hospital and in the Australian Institute of Anatomy.27

Blair Anderson Wark Born: 27 July 1894, Bathurst, New South Wales [electorate of Calare].28

Life before the war:

Fourth child of Alexander Wark, a gas engineer from Scotland, and his native-born wife Blanche Adelaide Maria, née Forde. Educated at Fairleigh Grammar, Bathurst, St Leonards Superior Public School (North Sydney High) and Sydney Technical College, Blair worked as a quantity surveyor while pursuing his military interests. A senior cadet in

1911-12, he enlisted in the 18th (North Sydney) Infantry, Australian Military Forces, and was provisionally commissioned in 1913. 29

Place of residence at time of enlistment: McMahon’s Point, New South Wales [electorate of North Sydney].

Enlistment date: 15 September 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery, initiative, and control during the period 29th Sept. to 1st Oct., 1918, in the operations against the Hindenburg Line at Bellicourt and the advance through Nauroy, Etricourt, Magny La Fosse and Joncourt. On 29th Sept., after personal reconnaissance, under heavy fire, [Major Wark] led his command forward at a critical period, and restored the situation. Moving fearlessly at the head of, and at times far in advance of, his troops, he cheered his men on through Nauroy, thence towards Etricourt. Still leading his assaulting companies, he observed a battery of 77mm guns firing on his rear companies, and causing heavy casualties. Collecting a few of his men, he rushed the battery, capturing four guns and then of the crew [sic]. Then moving rapidly forward, with only two NCOs he surprised and captured fifty Germans near Magny La Fosse. On 1st Oct., 1918, he again showed fearless leading and gallantry in attack, and without hesitation, and regardless of personal risk, dashed forward and silenced machine guns which were causing heavy casualties. Throughout he displayed the greatest courage, skilful leading, and devotion to duty, and his work was invaluable.

30

Unit at time of action: 32nd Infantry Battalion (South Australia and Western Australia), AIF.

25. AJ Hill, ‘Howse, Sir Neville Reginald (1863-1930)‘, op. cit. 26. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 650. 27. AJ Hill, ‘Howse, Sir Neville Reginald (1863-1930)‘, op. cit. 28. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 679. 29. R Gorrell, ‘Wark, Blair Anderson (1894-1941)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010. 30. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31082, 24 December 1918, pp. 15117-15118, accessed 8 April 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 9

Life after the war:

On 31 May 1919 at the parish church, Worthing, Sussex, Wark married Phyllis Marquiss Munro and returned to Australia where his AIF appointment was terminated in September. He became a principal of Thompson & Wark, quantity surveyors, a director of several companies, a councillor of the National Roads and Motorists’ Association, a committee-member of the Hawkesbury Race Club and a life governor of the Benevolent Society of New South Wales. Divorced in 1922, Wark married Catherine Mary Davis on 10 December 1927 at St Stephen’s Presbyterian Church, Sydney. In April 1940 he was appointed to the 1st Battalion, AMF, and assumed command on 26 July with the rank of temporary lieutenant-colonel. While bivouacked at Puckapunyal, Victoria, he died suddenly of coronary heart disease on 13 June 1941. Wark was cremated after a military funeral at which it was said that he ‘liked the wind in his face and lived the life of three men’. His wife, their son and two daughters survived him.

31

Died: 13 June 1941, Puckapunyal, Victoria [electorate of McEwen]32

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Eastern Suburbs Crematorium, Matraville [electorate of Kingsford Smith] 33.

John Bernard (Jack) Mackey Born: 16 May 1922, Leichhardt, New South Wales [electorate of Grayndler].34

Life before the war:

Only son and eldest of four children of native-born parents Stanislaus Mackey, baker, and his wife Bridget Catherine, née Smyth. After attending St Columba’s School, Leichhardt, and Christian Brothers’ High School, Lewisham, Jack moved with his family to Portland in 1936. Aged 14, he finished his formal education at St Joseph’s Convent School that year. Because jobs were scarce, young Mackey was apprenticed in his father’s bakery. Of average height, stockily built and weighing about 13 stone (83 kg), he had blue eyes, reddish hair, and a humorous and exuberant nature. He played Rugby League football for the local junior team (and later for his battalion) and proved an excellent swimmer, but he disliked working in the bakery and living in the country. His relationship with his father became strained, particularly after his mother died in 1939. Defying his father, Jack overstated his age and enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 4 June 1940. Stanislaus reluctantly accepted the situation.

35

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Portland, New South Wales [electorate of Calare].36

Enlistment date: 4 June 1940.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

Corporal Mackey was in charge of a section of the 2/3rd Australian Pioneer Battalion in the attack on the feature known as Helen, East of Tarakan town. Led by Corporal Mackey the section moved along a narrow spur with scarcely width for more than one man when it came under fire from three well-sited positions near the top of a very steep, razor-backed ridge. The ground fell away almost sheer on each side of the track making it almost impossible to move to a flank so Corporal Mackey led his men forward. He charged the first Light Machine-Gun position but slipped and after wrestling with one enemy, bayoneted him, and charged straight on to the Heavy Machine-Gun which was firing from a bunker position six yards to his right. He rushed this post and killed the crew with grenades. He then jumped back and changing his rifle for a sub-machine-gun he attacked further up the steep slope another Light Machine-Gun position which was firing on his platoon. Whilst charging, he fired his gun and reached within a few feet of the enemy position when he was killed by Light Machine-Gun fire but not before he had killed two more enemy. By his exceptional bravery and complete disregard for his own life, Corporal Mackey was largely responsible for the killing of seven Japanese and the elimination of two machine-gun posts, which enabled his platoon to gain

31. R Gorrell, ‘Wark, Blair Anderson (1894-1941)’, op. cit. 32. AIF Project, ‘Blair Anderson Wark’, op. cit. 33. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 347. 34. H Taplin, ‘Mackey, John Bernard (Jack) (1922-1945)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 19 February 2010. 35. Ibid.

36. National Archives of Australia (NAA): Department of Defence; B883, Second Australian Imperial Force personnel dossiers, 1939-1947; NX20317, Mackey John Bernard, 1939-1948.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 10

its objective, from which the Company continued to engage the enemy. His fearless action and outstanding courage were an inspiration to the whole battalion. 37

Unit at time of action: 2/3rd Pioneer Battalion, Australian Military Forces.

Died: 12 May 1945, during VC action, Tarakan Island off the coast of North Borneo.38

Place of burial or cremation: Labuan War Cemetery, Borneo. Mackey’s name is commemorated by an individual plaque on the front of the Leichhardt War Memorial in Pioneers Park, Leichhardt, New South Wales.39

Rawdon Hume Middleton Born: 22 July 1916, Waverley, New South Wales [electorate of Wentworth].40

Life before the war:

Son of native-born parents Francis Rawdon Hamilton Middleton, station-manager, and his wife Faith Lillian, née Millar. Rawdon was educated at Dubbo High School and worked as a jackeroo on Leewong, a station at Yarrabandi, near Parkes, managed by his father. Nicknamed ‘Ron’, he was a keen cricketer and footballer, despite being slightly built. He was a good-looking young man, very quiet and a little moody, with a strong ‘streak of honest determination’.

41

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Yarrabandi (near Parkes), New South Wales [electorate of Calare].

Enlistment date: 14 October 1940.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

Flight Sergeant Middleton was captain and first pilot of a Stirling aircraft detailed to attack the Fiat Works at Turin [28-9] November, 1942. Great difficulty was experienced in climbing to 12,000 feet to cross the Alps, which led to excessive consumption of fuel. So dark was the night that the mountain peaks were almost invisible. During the crossing Flight Sergeant Middleton had to decide whether to proceed or turn back, there being barely sufficient fuel for the return journey. Flares were sighted ahead and he continued the mission and even dived to 2,000 feet to identify the target, despite the difficulty of regaining height. Three flights were made over Turin at this low altitude before the target was identified. The aircraft was then subjected to fire from light anti-aircraft guns. A large hole appeared in the port main plane which made it difficult to maintain lateral control. A shell then burst in the cockpit, shattering the windscreen and wounding both pilots. A piece of shell splinter tore into the side of Flight Sergeant Middleton’s face, destroying his right eye and exposing the bone over the eye. He was probably wounded also in the body or legs. The second pilot received wounds in the head and both legs which bled profusely. The wireless operator was also wounded in the leg. Flight Sergeant Middleton became unconscious and the aircraft dived to 800 feet before control was regained by the second pilot, who took the aircraft up to 1500 feet and released the bombs. There was still lightflak, some very intense, and the aircraft was hit many times. The three gunners replied continuously until the rear turret was put out of action. Flight Sergeant Middleton had now recovered consciousness and, when clear of the target, ordered the second pilot back to receive first aid. Before this was completed the latter insisted on returning to the cockpit, as the captain could see very little and could only speak with loss of blood and great pain.

Course was set for base and the crew now faced an Alpine crossing and a homeward flight in a damaged aircraft, with insufficient fuel. The possibilities of abandoning the aircraft or landing in Northern France were discussed but Flight Sergeant Middleton expressed the intention of trying to make the English coast, so that his crew could leave the aircraft by parachute. Owing to his wounds and diminishing strength, he knew that, by then, he would have little or no chance of saving himself. After four hours, the French coast was reached and here the aircraft, flying at 6,000 feet, was once more engaged and hit by intense light anti-aircraft fire. Flight Sergeant Middleton was still at the controls and mustered sufficient strength to take evasive action. After crossing the Channel there was only

37. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 37340, 6 November 1945, p. 5431, accessed 13 May 2014. 38. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 659. 39. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Corporal John Bernard Mackey,’ Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010.

40. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 661. 41. L Edmonds, ‘Middleton, Rawdon Hume (1916-1942)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 23 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 11

sufficient fuel for 5 minutes flying. Flight Sergeant Middleton ordered the crew to abandon the aircraft while he flew parallel with the coast for a few miles, after which he intended to head out to sea. Five of the crew left the aircraft safely, while two remained to assist Flight Sergeant Middleton. The aircraft crashed in the sea and the bodies of the front gunner and flight engineer were recovered the following day. Their gallant captain was apparently unable to leave the aircraft and his body has not been traced. Flight Sergeant Middleton was determined to attack the target regardless of the consequences and not to allow his crew to fall into enemy hands. While all the crew displayed heroism of a high order, the urge to do so came from Flight Sergeant Middleton, whose fortitude and strength of will made possible the completion of the mission. His devotion to duty in the face of overwhelming odds is unsurpassed in the annals of the Royal Air Force.

42

Unit at time of action: RAAF, attached 149 Squadron, RAF.

Died: 29 November 1942, during VC action, near Dymchurch, Kent, United Kingdom.43

Place of burial or cremation: St John’s Churchyard, Mildenhall, Suffolk, United Kingdom.

Kevin Arthur Wheatley Born: 13 March 1937 at Surry Hills, New South Wales [electorate of Sydney].44

Life before the war:

Third child of Raymond George Wheatley, labourer, and his wife Ivy Sarah Ann, née Newman, both born in Sydney. Educated at Maroubra Junction Junior Technical School, Kevin worked as a milk carter, food sterilizer, machine operator and brick burner. At the registrar-general’s office, Sydney, on 20 July 1954 he married a 14-year-old milk-bar assistant Edna Aileen Davis, who used her stepfather’s surname, Gimson. On 12 June 1956 Wheatley enlisted in the Australian Regular Army. Following recruit training he joined the 4th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, in September 1956 and transferred to the 3rd Battalion in March 1957. He served in the Malayan Emergency from September that year to July 1959, before transferring in August to the 2nd Battalion and in June 1961 to the 1st Battalion. In January 1964 he was promoted sergeant and in August, temporary warrant officer, class two. Short and stocky, he was a highly respected and well-liked non-commissioned officer with a reputation as a rough, wild man who was a good soldier. He was known as ‘Dasher’ for his Rugby Union football prowess. Arriving in the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) in March 1965, Wheatley joined the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam.

45

Enlistment date: 12 June 1956.46

Description of action for which VC awarded:

On 13th November 1965 at approximately 1300 hours, a Vietnamese Civil Irregular Defence Group company commenced a search and destroy operation in the Tra Bong valley, 15 kilometres East of Tra Bong Special Forces Camp in Quang Ngai Province. Accompanying the force were Captain F Fazekas, senior Australian Advisor, with the centre platoon, and Warrant Officers KA Wheatley and RJ Swanton with the right hand platoon. At about 1340 hours, Warrant Officer Wheatley reported contact with Viet Cong elements. The Viet Cong resistance increased in strength until finally Warrant Officer Wheatley asked for assistance. Captain Fazekas immediately organised the centre platoon to help and personally led and fought it towards the action area. While moving towards this area he received another radio message from Warrant Officer Wheatley to say that Warrant Officer Swanton had been hit in the chest, and requested an air strike and an aircraft, for the evacuation of casualties.

At about this time the right platoon broke in the face of heavy Viet Cong fire and began to scatter. Although told by the Civil Irregular Defence Group medical assistant that Warrant Officer Swanton was dying, Warrant Officer Wheatley refused to abandon him. He discarded his radio to enable him to half drag, half carry Warrant Officer

Swanton, under heavy machine gun and automatic rifle fire, out of the open rice paddies into the comparative safety of a wooded area, some 200 metres away. He was assisted by a Civil Irregular Defence Group member, Private Dinh Do who, when the Viet Cong were only some ten metres away, urged him to leave his dying comrade. Again he refused, and was seen to pull the pins from two grenades and calmly awaited the Viet Cong, holding one

42. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 35864, 12 January 1943, pp. 329-330, accessed 9 April 2010. 43. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 661. 44. A Staunton, ‘Wheatley, Kevin Arthur (1937-1965)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 24 February 2010. 45. Ibid.

46. AATTV Association, ‘WOII KA Wheatley, VC (Post.)’, AATTV Association website, accessed 1 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 12

grenade in each hand. Shortly afterwards, two grenade explosions were heard, followed by several bursts of fire. The two bodies were found at first light next morning after the fighting had ceased, with Warrant Officer Wheatley lying beside Warrant Officer Swanton. Both had died of gunshot wounds. Warrant Officer Wheatley displayed magnificent courage in the face of an overwhelming Viet Cong force which was later estimated at more than a company. He had the clear choice of abandoning a wounded comrade and saving himself by escaping through the dense timber or of staying with Warrant Officer Swanton and thereby facing certain death. He deliberately chose the latter course. His acts of heroism, determination and unflinching loyalty in the face of the enemy will always stand as examples of the true meaning of valour.

47

Unit at time of action: Australian Army Training Team, Vietnam.

Died: 13 November 1965, during VC action, Tra Bong Valley, Quang Ngai, Republic of (South) Vietnam.48

Place of burial or cremation: Lawn Cemetery, Pine Grove Memorial Park, Blacktown, New South Wales [electorate of Chifley].49 His name is commemorated in the New South Wales Garden of Remembrance at Rookwood War Cemetery.50

William Mathew Currey Born: 19 September 1895, Wallsend, New South Wales [either electorate of Charlton or electorate of Newcastle].51

Life before the war:

Son of William Robert Currey, labourer and later miner, and his wife Mary Ellen, née Lang. Educated at Dudley and Plattsburg Public schools, he moved to Leichhardt, Sydney, and found employment as a wireworker. After the outbreak of World War I he twice attempted to enlist without his parents’ consent, giving a false age, but was discovered and discharged.

52

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Leichhardt, New South Wales [electorate of Grayndler].

Enlistment date: 9 October 1916.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery and daring in the attack on Peronne on the morning of 1st September, 1918. When the battalion was suffering heavy casualties from a 77mm field gun at very close range, Private Currey, without hesitation, rushed forward under intense machine gun fire and succeeded in capturing the gun single handed after killing the entire crew. Later, when the advance of the left flank was checked by an enemy strong point, Private Currey crept around the flank and engaged the post with a Lewis gun. Finally, he rushed the post single handed, causing many casualties. It was entirely owing to his gallant conduct that the situation was relieved and the advance enabled to continue. Subsequently, he volunteered to carry orders for the withdrawal of an isolated company, and this he succeeded in doing despite shell and rifle fire, returning later with valuable information. Throughout the operations his striking example of coolness, determination, and utter disregard of danger had a most inspiring effect on his comrades, and his gallant work contributed largely to the success of the operations.

53

Unit at time of action: 53rd Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

47. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 44198, 13 December 1966, p. 13567, accessed 24 February 2010. 48. A Staunton, ‘Wheatley, Kevin Arthur (1937-1965)‘, op. cit. 49. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 680. 50. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Warrant Officer Class II Kevin Arthur Wheatley’, Anzac

Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 51. AIF Project, ‘William Mathew Currey’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 52. D Coulthard-Clark, ‘Currey, William Matthew (1895-1948)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 53. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31067, 13 December 1918, p. 14779, accessed 25 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 13

Despite his gas wound, Currey saw out the war with the 53rd Battalion, arriving back in Australia in March 1919. In September he joined the New South Wales railways as a storeman and next year, on 10 April, married Emma Davies at St Saviour’s Anglican Church, Punchbowl. While employed with the railways he became active in the Australian Labor Party and on 16 May 1941 he resigned his post to stand as Labor candidate for Kogarah in the Legislative Assembly. He won the seat, thereby becoming the first VC winner to enter the New South Wales parliament. He was twice re-elected—in 1944 and 1947—and made the interests of ex-servicemen his particular concern. In 1930-32 he had served with the 45th Battalion in the citizen forces, rising to warrant officer rank, and in 1940-41 with the Australian Instructional Corps. Currey collapsed suddenly in Parliament House on 27 April 1948 and, survived by his wife and two daughters, died three days later of coronary-vascular disease.

54

Died: 30 April 1948, Sydney, New South Wales [electorate of Sydney].55

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Woronora Crematorium, Sydney [electorate of Hughes]. His name is commemorated on plaques at the Garden of Remembrance Rookwood Cemetery, and on the Leichhardt War Memorial.56 He is also commemorated in the Jeffries-Currey Memorial Library installed at the Dudley School in 1941 and at a memorial park at Abermain, New South Wales.

Clarence Smith Jeffries Born: 26 October 1894, Wallsend, New South Wales [either electorate of Charlton or electorate or Newcastle].57

Life before the war:

Only child of Joshua Jeffries, colliery manager, and his wife Barbara, née Steel, both born at Wallsend. After attending Dudley Primary School, where he excelled at cricket, and the Newcastle Collegiate and High schools, he was apprenticed to his father as a mining engineer. A young man of high standards and ideals, he strove to excel in all he did. Jeffries had a particular interest in the study of breeding thoroughbreds, although not in racing them, and always kept fine horses. His military service began in the militia when he was 14. He joined the 14th (Hunter River) Infantry Regiment as a private in July 1912 under the compulsory training scheme, and was promoted sergeant a year later. Commissioned second lieutenant on 22 August 1914, he was mobilized for home defence duties and instructed volunteers for the Australian Imperial Force at Newcastle and Liverpool camps.

58 Previous military

service: 14th Infantry. 59

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Abermain, New South Wales [electorate of Hunter].

Enlistment date: 1 February 1916.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 12 October 1917—Passchendaele, Belgium.

For most conspicuous bravery in attack, when his company was held up by enemy machine gun fire from concrete emplacements. Organising a party, [Captain Jeffries] rushed one emplacement, capturing four machine guns and 35 prisoners. He then led his company forward under extremely heavy enemy artillery barrage and enfilade machine gun fire to the objective. Later, he again organised a successful attack on a machine gun emplacement, capturing two machine guns and thirty more prisoners. This gallant officer was killed during the attack, but it was entirely due to his bravery and initiative that the centre of the attack was not held up for a lengthy period. His example had a most inspiring influence.

60

Unit at time of action: 34th Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

54. CD Coulthard-Clark, ‘Currey, William Matthew (1895-1948)‘, op. cit. 55. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 637. 56. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner— Private William Matthew Currey’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010.

57. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 652. 58. JB Hopley, ‘Jeffries, Clarence Smith (1894-1917)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 59. AIF Project, ‘Clarence Smith Jeffries’, 2010, accessed 26 March 2010.

60. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30433, 14 December 1917, p. 13222, accessed 26 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 14

Died: 12 October 1917, during VC action, Hillside Farm, Passchendaele, Belgium.61

Place of burial or cremation: Tyne Cot Cemetery (Plot XL, Row E, Grave No. 1), Passchendaele, Belgium.62

Frank John Partridge Born: 29 November 1924, Grafton, New South Wales [electorate of Page].63

Life before the war:

Third of five children of Patrick (Paddy) James Partridge, an Australian-born farmer, and his wife Mary, née Saggs, who came from England. Frank left Tewinga Public School at the age of 13 and worked on the family farm—dairying and growing bananas at Upper Newee Creek, near Macksville. While serving in the Volunteer Defence Corps, he was called up for full-time duty in the Australian Military Forces on 26 March 1943.

64

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Upper Newee Creek, near Macksville, New South Wales [electorate of Cowper].

Enlistment date: 26 March 1943.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

In New Guinea, on 24th July, 1945, two fighting patrols, 8th Australian Infantry Battalion, were given the task of eliminating an enemy outpost in Bougainville which denied any forward movement to our troops. The preliminary artillery concentration caused the enemy bunkers to be screened by a litter of felled banana plants, and from these well concealed positions to their front and left, one of our Platoons came under extremely fierce machine-gun, grenade and rifle fire. The forward section at once suffered casualties and was pinned down together with two other sections. Private Partridge was a rifleman in a section which, in carrying out an encircling movement, immediately came under heavy medium machine-gun fire. He was hit twice in the left arm and again in the left thigh, whilst the Bren gunner was killed and two others seriously wounded, leaving only the section leader unwounded, but another soldier began to move up from another position. Private Partridge quickly appreciated the extreme gravity of the situation and decided that the only possible solution was personal action by himself.

Despite wounds and with complete disregard to his own safety, Private Partridge rushed forward under a terrific burst of enemy fire and retrieved-the Bren gun from alongside the dead gunner, when he challenged the enemy to come out and fight. He handed the Bren gun to the newly arrived man to provide covering fire while he rushed this bunker, into which he threw a grenade and silenced the medium machine-gun. Under cover of the grenade burst, he dived into the bunker and, in a fierce hand-to-hand fight, he killed the only living occupant with his knife. Private Partridge then cleared the enemy dead from the entrance to the bunker and attacked another bunker in the rear; but weakness from loss of blood compelled him to halt, when he shouted to his section commander that he was unable to continue. With the way clear by the silencing of the enemy medium machine-gun by Private Partridge, the Platoon moved forward and established a defence perimeter in the vicinity of the spot where Private Partridge lay wounded. Heavy enemy medium machine-gun and rifle fire both direct and enfilade from other bunkers soon created an untenable situation for the Platoon, which withdrew under its own covering fire. Despite his wounds and weakness due to loss of blood, Private Partridge joined in this fight and remained in action until the Platoon had withdrawn after recovering their casualties.

The information gained by both patrols, and particularly from Private Partridge, enabled an attack to be mounted later. This led to the capture of a vital position sited on strong defensive ground and strengthened by 43 bunkers and other dug in positions from which the enemy fled in panic. The serious situation during the fight of the two patrols was retrieved only by the outstanding gallantry and devotion to duty displayed by Private Partridge, which inspired his comrades to heroic action, leading to a successful withdrawal which saved the small force from complete annihilation. The subsequent successful capture of the position was due entirely to the incentive derived by his comrades from the outstanding heroism and fortitude displayed by Private Partridge.

65

61. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 652. 62. AIF Project, ‘Clarence Smith Jeffries‘, op. cit. 63. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 666. 64. BO Jones, ‘Partridge, Frank John (1924-1964)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 23 February 2010. 65. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 37439, 18 January 1946, p. 571, accessed 23 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 15

Unit at time of action: 8th Infantry Battalion (Victoria), Australian Military Forces.

Life after the war:

Of the Australians who won the VC in World War II, he was the youngest and the last … After visiting London in 1946 for the Victory march, he was discharged from the AMF on 17 October in New South Wales; he was again to travel to England in 1953 for the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II and in 1956 for the Victoria Cross centenary celebrations. Returning to Upper Newee Creek, Partridge lived with his father in a dirt-floored farmhouse. He devoted himself to self-education, reading the Encyclopaedia Britannica by kerosene lamp and developing an extraordinarily retentive memory. In 1962-63 he appeared as a contestant on the television quiz show, ‘Pick-a-Box’, compered by Bob Dyer; his laconic manner appealed strongly to viewers. Partridge was one of only three contestants to win all forty boxes; his prizes were valued at more than £12,000. At St Stephen’s Presbyterian Church, Sydney, on 23 February 1963 he married Barbara Mavis Vyvienne Jenniffer Wylie Dunlop, a 31-year-old nursing sister who lived at Turramurra. The wedding received extensive media coverage. Barbara remained at Turramurra while Frank built a new home at the farm. He drove to Sydney every weekend to see her.

Partridge was an honorary member of the Returned Sailors’, Soldiers’ and Airmen’s Imperial League of Australia, a life member and patron of the Macksville Ex-Servicemen’s Club, and vice-president of the Nambucca district council of the Banana Growers’ Federation Co-operative Ltd. Harbouring deep political ambitions, he confidently sought Country Party pre-selection for the House of Representatives seat of Cowper in 1963. His views were regarded as rather extreme, and he lost to Ian Robinson. Partridge agreed to be Robinson’s campaign-manager for the election that year. To supplement the income from his farm, Partridge travelled around the district selling life assurance. He was killed in a motorcar accident on 23 March 1964 near Bellingen and was buried with full military honours in Macksville cemetery. His wife and three-month-old son survived him.

66

Died: 23 March 1964, near Bellingen, New South Wales [electorate of Cowper].67

Place of burial or cremation: Macksville Cemetery, New South Wales [electorate of Cowper].

Albert Chalmers Borella (surname changed to Chalmers-Borella in 1939) Born: 7 August 1881, Borung, Victoria [electorate of Murray].68

Life before the war:

Son of Louis Borella, farmer, and his wife Annie, née Chalmers, both native-born. His mother died when he was 4 and his father remarried. Educated at Borung and Wychitella state schools, he later farmed in the Borung and Echuca districts; he also served for eighteen months with a volunteer infantry regiment, the Victorian Rangers. From April 1910 Borella was employed by the Metropolitan Fire Brigades Board, Melbourne. He resigned in January 1913 and took up a pastoral lease, drawn by ballot, on the Daly River, Northern Territory. With the help of Aboriginal boys he built a house and ring-barked and partly fenced his holding before mounting costs forced him to abandon it early in 1915.

69 Previous military service: Served for 18 months in the Victorian Rifles. 70

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Thyra, New South Wales [electorate of Farrer]. Prior to enlisting in Townsville, Queensland, Borella maintained a pastoral lease on the Daly River, Northern Territory [electorate of Lingiari].

Enlistment date: 15 March 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 17-18 July 1918 — Villers-Bretonneux, France.

For most conspicuous bravery in attack. Whilst leading his platoon with the first wave Lt. Borella marked an enemy machine gun firing through our barrage. He ran out ahead of his men into the barrage, shot two German machine-gunners with his revolver, and captured the gun. He then led his party, now reduced to ten men and two Lewis

66. BO Jones, ‘Partridge, Frank John (1924-1964)‘, op. cit. 67. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 666. 68. AIF Project, ‘Albert Borella’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 69. JP Fielding, ‘Borella, Albert Chalmers (1881-1968)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 8 February 2010. 70. AIF Project, ‘Albert Borella‘, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 16

guns, against a very strongly held trench, using his revolver and later a rifle, with great effect, causing many enemy casualties. His leading and splendid example resulted in the garrison being quickly shot or captured. Two large dug-outs were also bombed and thirty prisoners taken. Subsequently the enemy twice counterattacked in strong force, on the second occasion outnumbering Lt. Borella’s platoon by ten to one, but his cool determination inspired his men to resist heroically, and the enemy were repulsed with very heavy loss.

71

Unit at time of action: 26th Infantry Battalion (Queensland and Tasmania), AIF.

Life after the war:

In 1920-39 Borella farmed on a soldier-settlement block near Hamilton, Victoria. He was National Party candidate for Dundas in the 1924 Legislative Assembly election and was only narrowly defeated. He married Elsie Jane Love at Wesley Church, Hamilton, on 16 August 1928; from September 1939, when he changed his name by deed-poll, he and his family used the surname Chalmers-Borella. On the outbreak of World War II Borella was appointed lieutenant in the 12th Australian Garrison Battalion with which he served until 1941 when he was attached to the Prisoner of War Group at Rushworth. Promoted captain on 1 September 1942, he served with the 51

st Garrison

Company at Myrtleford until discharged in 1945. He then moved to Albury, New South Wales, joined the Commonwealth Department of Supply and Shipping, and was an inspector of dangerous cargoes until his retirement in 1956. Survived by his wife and two of his four sons, he died on 7 February 1968 and was buried with full military honours in the Presbyterian cemetery. ‘A big tough-looking bloke, the image we conjure up of the digger’, Borella was yet a humane, quietly spoken and unostentatious man, ever ready to assist a worthy cause.

72

Died: 7 February 1968, Albury-Wodonga, New South Wales [electorate of Farrer].73

Place of burial or cremation: Presbyterian Cemetery, North Albury, New South Wales [electorate of Farrer.]74 In 1977 a street in Albury was renamed Borella Road in his honour and a plaque unveiled on a memorial nearby, where the road begins. A street in Canberra is also named after him.75

Reginald Roy Inwood Born: 14 July 1890, Renmark, South Australia [electorate of Barker].76

Life before the war:

Eldest son of Edward Inwood, labourer, and his wife Mary Ann, née Minney. He was educated at North Adelaide Public School and Broken Hill Model School. Inwood worked as a miner at Broken Hill. 77

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Broken Hill, New South Wales [electorate of Farrer].78

Enlistment date: 24 August 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 19-22 September 1917 — Polygon Wood, Belgium.

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during the advance to the second objective. He moved forward through our barrage alone to an enemy strong post and captured it, together with nine prisoners, killing several of the enemy. During the evening he volunteered for a special all night patrol, which went out 600 yards in front of our line, and there—by his coolness and sound judgement—obtained and sent back very valuable information as to the enemy’s movements. In the early morning of the 21st September, Pte. Inwood located a machine gun which was

71. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30903, 13 September 1918, p. 11075, accessed 24 March 2010. 72. JP Fielding, ‘Borella, Albert Chalmers (1881-1968)‘, op. cit. 73. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 629. 74. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner— Lieutenant Albert Chalmers Borella’, Anzac Day

Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 75. JP Fielding, ‘Borella, Albert Chalmers (1881-1968)‘, op. cit. 76. Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 651. 77. J Gibberd, ‘Inwood, Reginald Roy (1890-1971)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 78. AIF Project, ‘Reginald Roy Inwood’, 2010, accessed 26 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 17

causing several casualties. He went out alone and bombed the gun and team, killing all but one, whom he brought in as a prisoner with the gun. 79

Unit at time of action: 10th Infantry Battalion (South Australia), AIF.

Life after the war:

Returning to a hero’s welcome at Broken Hill in October Inwood contrasted, in a public speech, his departure when he was, he claimed, ‘stoned by mongrels at the train’, with his return when ‘those mongrels were the first to … shake me by the hand … If the boys stick together like they did in France there will be no Bolshevikism in this town … I would like to be at one end of the street with a machine-gun and have them at the other end’. Departing recruits had been hooted and jeered by militant socialists at Broken Hill but there is no evidence of stone-throwing. MP Considine, member for Barrier in the House of Representatives, accused Inwood of trying ‘to incite trouble between returned soldiers and the working classes’. Broken Hill was not a comfortable place for Inwood. He soon moved to Adelaide and on 31 December 1918 married a widow Mabel Alice Collins, née Weber. Inwood had difficulty in finding work. After an assault charge by police, which resulted in a fine in 1919, and his divorce in 1921, he spent a short time mining at Queenstown, Tasmania, and at a eucalyptus distillery on Kangaroo Island. He returned to Adelaide and was employed by the city council as a labourer in 1928-55. During World War II he served as a warrant officer with the Australian Military Forces.

Inwood married Evelyn Owens in 1927 and after her death married Louise Elizabeth Gates in 1942. He had no children. A rugged, independent, well-built man, ‘with the rough corners still on him’, the years after his third marriage were spent happily and quietly. This loyal labourer, perhaps exploited by some at Broken Hill, gave the impression that ‘his VC had not done him much good’. He never lost his pride in the 10th Battalion and always marched with them on Anzac Day. The Other Ranks Mess, 10th Battalion, Torrens Parade Ground, Adelaide, is called the Roy Inwood Club. His Victoria Cross hangs in the council chambers of the Adelaide City Council. He died on 23 October 1971, was given a military funeral and was buried in West Terrace cemetery. Two brothers, Harold and Robert, also served with the AIF; the latter was killed in action at Pozières.

80

Died: 23 October 1971, St Peter’s, Adelaide [electorate of Adelaide].81

Place of burial or cremation: AIF Cemetery, West Terrace, Adelaide [electorate of Adelaide].82

James Rogers Born: 4 July 1873, at Woodside Farm, Moama, New South Wales [electorate of Farrer].83

Life before the war:

Born on 4 July 1873, at Woodside Farm, Moama, New South Wales, son of Welsh-born John Rogers, farmer, and his wife Sarah Louisa, née Johnstone, from Sydney. Rogers was educated locally at public schools. In 1886 his family moved to Heywood, Victoria, where he later worked on his father’s farm and joined the local company of the Victorian Mounted Rifles in 1898. He was 6 ft 2 ins (188 cm) tall, 12 stone (76 kg) and a superb horseman, tough bushman and crack rifle-shot.

84

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Heywood, Victoria [electorate of Wannon].85

Description of action for which VC awarded:

On the 15th June, 1901, during a skirmish near Thaba ‘Nchu, a party of the rearguard of Captain Sitwell’s column, consisting of Lieutenant F. Dickinson, Sergeant James Rogers, and 6 men of the South African Constabulary, was suddenly attacked by about 60 Boers. Lieutenant Dickinson’s horse having been shot, that Officer was compelled to

79. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30400, 23 November 1917, p. 12330, accessed 26 March 2010. 80. J Gibberd, ‘Inwood, Reginald Roy (1890-1971)‘, op. cit. 81. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 651. 82. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Private Reginald Roy Inwood’, Anzac Day Commemoration

Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 83. A Staunton, ‘Rogers, James (1873-1961)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 8 February 2010. 84. Ibid.

85. National Archives of Australia (NAA): Department of Defence; B4418, Boer War dossiers, 1901-1984; Roger James, 1902.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 18

follow his men on foot. Sergeant Rogers seeing this, rode back, firing as he did so, took Lieutenant Dickinson up behind him, and carried him for half-a-mile on his horse. The Sergeant then returned to within 400 yards of the enemy and carried away, one after the other, two men who had lost their horses, after which he caught the horses of two other men, and helped the men to mount. All this was done under a very heavy rifle fire. The Boers were near enough to Sergeant Rogers to call upon him to surrender; his only answer was to continue firing.

86

Unit at time of action: South African Constabulary.

Life after the war:

Rogers tried to obtain a commission in the Australian Military Forces but was unsuccessful. After buying and then selling a farm at Yea, Victoria, he returned to South Africa where he served as a special detective with the Cape Police until February 1904. On 25 April 1907, describing himself as a mounted trooper, he married Ethel Maud Seldon at Portland, Victoria; they had two sons. By 1912 Rogers was a marker at Williamstown rifle range and by the outbreak of World War I he was an assistant ranger there. On 6 December 1914 he was commissioned in the 3rd Light Horse Brigade Train, Australian Army Service Corps, Australian Imperial Force. He was seriously wounded at Gallipoli on 4 August 1915 and evacuated to Egypt. He then served with the Anzac Provost Corps before returning to Australia on 18 July 1916. Rogers resumed work at Williamstown as a range assistant, then in 1921 became an assistant storeman, Ordnance Branch, AMF, Victoria. He resigned in 1922 and resumed farming. He lived at Kew, Melbourne, for over thirty years; then, after his wife died, with his one surviving son at Roseville, Sydney.

87

Died: 28 October 1961, Sydney, New South Wales [electorate of Reid].

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Springvale Crematorium, Melbourne, Victoria [electorate of Bruce].88 He is also commemorated on a plaque in the Victoria Garden of Remembrance in Springvale, and a memorial cairn in the main street of Heywood with a plaque commemorating Rogers’ actions.89

Peter John Badcoe (also recorded as Peter John Badcock and Peter James Badcock) Born: 11 January 1934 in Malvern, Adelaide, South Australia [electorate of Adelaide].90

Life before the war:

Son of Leslie Allen Badcock, public servant, and his wife Gladys Mary Ann May, née Overton. Educated at Adelaide Technical High School, in 1950 Peter entered the South Australian Public Service as a clerk. He enlisted in the Australian Regular Army on 10 June 1950. Graduating from the Officer Cadet School, Portsea, Victoria, on 13 December 1952, he was allocated to the Royal Australian Artillery. Postings to the 14th National Service Training Battalion (1953 and 1955-57) and the 1st Field Regiment (1953-55 and 1957-58) followed. On 26 May 1956 he married 17-year-old Denise Maureen MacMahon in the Methodist Church, Manly, Sydney.

Promoted temporary captain, in December 1958 Badcock was sent to Army Headquarters as a staff officer. In 1961 he changed his surname to Badcoe. While serving in Malaya with the 103rd Field Battery from September 1961 to November 1963, he spent a week (7-14 November 1962) in the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). He saw the conditions under which the South resisted communist insurgency which was led by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). Back in Australia, Badcoe returned to the 1st Field Regiment, but in 1965 transferred to the infantry; in June 1966 he was promoted provisional major. He arrived in Saigon on 6 August to join the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam. Short, round and stocky, with horn-rimmed spectacles, Badcoe did not look a hero. He was a quiet, gentle and retiring man, with a dry sense of humour. His wife was his confidante. Badcoe neither drank alcohol nor smoked; bored by boisterous mess activities, he preferred the company of a book on military history. To his colleagues he was an enigma, yet many humoured his boundless enthusiasm in field exercises and his off-duty discourses on martial matters.

91

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Hammondville, New South Wales [electorate of Hughes].

86. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 27426, 18 April 1902, p. 2600, accessed 1 March 2010. 87. A Staunton, ‘Rogers, James (1873-1961)‘, op. cit. 88. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 670. 89. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner — Sergeant James Rogers’, Anzac Day Commemoration

Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 90. I McNeill, ‘Badcoe, Peter John (1934-1967)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 23 February 2010. 91. Ibid.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 19

Enlistment date: 10 June 1950.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

Major Peter John Badcoe was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Australian Staff Corps in December 1952. He was allotted to the Royal Regiment of Australian Artillery in which he served in a number of Regimental and Staff postings until August 1965. He then transferred to the Royal Australian Infantry Corps and joined the Australian

Army Training Team Vietnam in August 1966. He was posted as Sector Operations Office in Thua Thien Province, South Vietnam.

On 23rd February 1967 he was acting as an Adviser to a Regional Force Company in support of a Sector operation in Thu Thu district. He monitored a radio transmission which stated that the Subsector Advisor, a United States Army officer, had been killed and that his body was within 50 metres of an enemy machine-gun position; further, the United States Medical Advisor had been wounded and was in immediate danger from the enemy. Major Badcoe with complete disregard for his own safety moved alone across 600 metres of fire-swept ground and reached the wounded advisor, attended to him and ensured his future safety. He then organised a force of one platoon and led them towards the enemy post. His personal leadership, words of encouragement, and actions in the face of hostile enemy fire forced the platoon to successfully assault the enemy position and capture it, where he personally killed the machine gunners directly in front of him. He then picked up the body of the dead officer and ran back to the Command Post over open ground still covered by enemy fire.

On 7 March 1967 at approximately 0645 hours, the Sector Reaction Company was deployed to Quang Dien Subsector to counter an attack by the Viet Cong on the Headquarters. Major Badcoe left the Command group after their vehicle broke down and a United States officer was killed; he joined the Company Headquarters and personally led the company in an attack over open terrain to assault and capture a heavily defended enemy position. In the face of certain death and heavy loss his personal courage and leadership turned certain defeat into victory and prevented the enemy from capturing the District Headquarters.

On 7th April 1967, on an operation in Huong Tra District, Major Badcoe was with the 1st ARVN Division Reaction Company and some armoured personnel carriers. During the move forward to an objective the company came under heavy small arms fire and withdrew to a cemetery for cover, this left Major Badcoe and his radio operator about 50 metres in front of the leading elements, under heavy mortar fire. Seeing this withdrawal, Major Badcoe ran back to them, moved amongst them and by encouragement and example got them moving forward again. He then set out in front of the company to lead them on; the company stopped again under heavy fire but Major Badcoe continued on to cover and prepared to throw grenades, when he rose to throw, his radio operator pulled him down as heavy small arms fire was being brought to bear on them: he later got up again to throw a grenade and was hit and killed by a burst of machine gun fire. Soon after, friendly artillery fire was called in and the position was assaulted and captured. Major Badcoe’s conspicuous gallantry and leadership on all these occasions was an inspiration to all, each action, ultimately, was successful, due entirely to his efforts, the final one ending in his death. His valour and leadership were in the highest traditions of the military profession and the Australian Regular Army.

92

Unit at time of action: Australian Army Training Team Vietnam.

Died: 7 April 1967, during VC action, near An Thuan village, north-west of Hue, South Vietnam.93

Place of burial or cremation: Terendak Garrison Camp Cemetery, Malaysia. In November 1967 an Australian and New Zealand soldiers’ club in Vietnam was officially opened as the Peter Badcoe Club. A training block at the Officer Cadet School, Portsea, was also named Badcoe Hall in his honour.

Charles Groves Wright Anderson Born: 12 February 1897, Cape Town, South Africa.94

Life before the war:

92. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 44431, 13 October 1967, p. 11273, accessed 9 April 2010. 93. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 626. 94. National Archives of Australia (NAA): Department of Defence; B883, Second Australian Imperial Force personnel dossiers, 1939-1947; NX12595, Anderson Charles Groves Wright, 1939-1948.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 20

Third of five children of Alfred Gerald Wright Anderson, an English-born auditor and later newspaper editor, and his Belgian-born wife Emma (Maïa) Louise Antoinette, née Trossaert. In 1900 the family moved to the East Africa Protectorate (Kenya) and settled on a farm near Nairobi called Mount Margaret. After beginning his education at a government school in Nairobi, Charles was sent in 1907 to England, where he lived with an uncle and aunt before entering St Brendan’s College, Bristol, in 1910. On his return to Africa, Anderson enlisted in the local volunteers in November 1914, following the start of World War I. Next year he joined the Calcutta Volunteer Battery. On 13 October 1916 he was commissioned temporary lieutenant in the King’s African Rifles. Serving with the 2nd Battalion, 3rd Regiment, he displayed outstanding leadership during fighting at Nhamacurra, Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique), in July 1918 and was awarded the Military Cross (1919). Before he was demobilised in February 1919, he was promoted to temporary captain.

Turning to farming, Anderson served as chairman of the Kenya Settlers’ Association in the Rift Valley district. At the Anglican Cathedral of the Highlands, Nairobi, on 21 February 1931 he married Edith Marian Tout, a niece of (Sir) Frederick Tout, who came from Young, New South Wales, to tour Africa. During a subsequent visit to Australia, Anderson was impressed by his wife’s home country. In 1935 they migrated to Australia with their daughter and twin sons. He purchased a 2200-acre (890 ha) grazing property, Fernhill, at Crowther, near Young. On 3 March 1939 Anderson was appointed a captain in the 56th Battalion (Riverina Regiment), Militia. Promoted to major in October, he transferred to the Australian Imperial Force on 1 July 1940 as second-in-command of the 2/19th Battalion.

95

Place of residence at time of enlistment: ‘Fernhill’, Crowther, New South Wales [electorate of Hume].96

Enlistment date: 1 July 1940.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

During the operations in Malaya from the 18th to 22nd Jan. 1942, Lieutenant-Colonel Anderson, in command of a small Force, was sent to restore a vital position and to assist a Brigade. His Force destroyed ten enemy tanks. When later cut off, he defeated persistent attacks on his position from air and ground forces, and forced his way through the enemy lines to a depth of fifteen miles. He was again surrounded and subjected to very heavy and frequent attacks resulting in severe casualties to his Force. He personally led an attack with great gallantry on the enemy who were holding a bridge, and succeeded in destroying four guns. Lieutenant-Colonel Anderson throughout all this fighting, protected his wounded and refused to leave them. He obtained news by wireless of the enemy position and attempted to fight his way back through eight miles of enemy occupied country. This proved to be impossible and the enemy were holding too strong a position for any attempt to be made to relieve him. On the 19th January Lieutenant-Colonel Anderson was ordered to destroy his equipment and make his way back as best he could round the enemy position. Throughout the fighting, which lasted for four days, he set a magnificent example of brave leadership, determination and outstanding courage. He not only showed fighting qualities of a very high order but throughout exposed himself to danger without any regard to his own personal safety.

97

Unit at time of action: 2/19th Battalion (New South Wales), Australian Military Forces.

Life after the war:

Freed after Japan’s surrender, Anderson was repatriated in November 1945 and next month placed on the Reserve of Officers. He returned to farming near Young and later took over a property, Springfield, that his wife had inherited. At the 1949 Federal election Anderson won the House of Representatives seat of Hume for the Country Party. He became an advocate for rural issues and for improving the rehabilitation of service personnel. Defeated in 1951, he stood unsuccessfully in 1954 before regaining Hume next year; re-elected in 1958, he served until again defeated in 1961. During his second term, he was a member of the joint committees on the Australian Capital Territory (1957-61) and Foreign Affairs (1961). In 1955 Anderson had revisited Kenya and Britain; in 1959 he returned to Thailand as special Australian representative during wreath-layings on war graves at the River Kwai. He retained his military links, becoming honorary colonel of the 56th Battalion (1956-57) and the 4th Battalion (1957- 60), Citizen Military Forces. In 1968 he again visited Malaya as the guest of the British 17th Division, which was conducting a study tour of the Muar battle. On 11 November 1988 he died in his home at Red Hill, Canberra, and was cremated with full military honours. He was survived by two daughters and a son; his wife and their other son predeceased him.

98

95. ‘Anderson, Charles Groves Wright (1897-1985)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010. 96. NAA: Anderson Charles Groves Wright, op. cit. 97. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 35456, 13 February 1942, p. 749, accessed 9 April 2010. 98. ‘Anderson, Charles Groves Wright (1897-1985)’, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 21

Died: 11 November 1988 in Red Hill, Canberra [electorate of Canberra]99

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Norwood Crematorium, Canberra [electorate of Fraser].

Joseph Maxwell Born: 10 February 1896, Forrest Lodge, Annandale, New South Wales [electorate of Sydney].100

Life before the war:

Son of John Maxwell, labourer, and his wife Elizabeth, née Stokes. Employed as an apprentice boilermaker in Newcastle, he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 8 February 1915. 101 Previous military service: Served for

three years in the Senior Cadets; two years in the Citizen Military Forces. 102

Place of residence at time of enlistment: West Maitland, New South Wales [electorate of Hunter].

Enlistment date: 6 February 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery and leadership in attack on the Beaurevoir-Fonsomme line, near Estrees, north of St Quentin, on the 3rd October, 1918. His company commander was severely wounded early in the advance and Lt. Maxwell at once took charge. The enemy wire when reached under intense fire was found to be exceptionally strong, and closely supported by machine guns, whereupon Lt. Maxwell pushed forward single handed through the wire and captured the most dangerous gun, killing three and capturing four enemy. He thus enabled his company to penetrate the wire and reach the objective. Later, he again dashed forward and silenced, single handed, a gun which was holding up a flank company. Subsequently, when with two men only he attempted to capture a strong party of the enemy, he handled a most involved situation very skilfully, and it was due to his resource that he and his comrades escaped. Throughout the day Lt. Maxwell set a high example of personal bravery, coupled with excellent judgement and quick decision.

103 It is said that he would have achieved higher rank had he moderated his

unruly behaviour. On one occasion, whilst in England attending officer training school, he was fined £20 and sent back to his unit after military and civilian police arrested him at a party in London. He was also present when a piano was hurled through a Cairo brothel window. 104

Unit at time of action: 18th Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

In just over twelve months Maxwell was awarded the DCM, the MC and Bar and the VC, and he was only 22 when the war ended. After returning to Australia in 1919 he worked in a variety of occupations in Sydney, Canberra and New South Wales country towns. On 14 February 1921, describing himself as a reporter, he married a 19-year-old

tailoress, Mabel Maxwell (not a relative) at Bellevue Hill, Sydney, with Catholic rites. There was a daughter of the marriage which was dissolved in 1926 with his wife as petitioner. In 1932, helped by Hugh Buggy, Maxwell published the very successful Hell’s Bells and Mademoiselles, an account of the war as he saw it; at the time he was working as a gardener with the Department of the Interior in Canberra. His health was often very unstable. He attempted, unsuccessfully because of his age, to enlist in the 2nd AIF, but eventually succeeded in enlisting in Queensland under a false name; his identity was discovered and he was discharged. On 6 March 1956, stating that he was a journalist of Bondi, he married a widow Anne Martin, née Burton, in Sydney. In 1964, with his wife, he attended the opening of VC Corner in the Australian War Memorial, Canberra. He was adamant that his VC would not end up there, as he took the view that ‘lumping’ all the VCs together cheapened the award. On 6 July 1967 Maxwell collapsed and died of a heart attack in a street in his home suburb of Matraville; he had for some time been an

99. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 625. 100. EJH Howard, ‘Maxwell, Joseph (1896-1967)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 101. Ibid. 102. AIF Project, ‘Joseph Maxwell’, 2010, accessed 1 April 2010. 103. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31108, 3 January 1919, p. 307, accessed 1 April 2010. 104. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 349.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 22

invalid pensioner. After a service with military honours at St Matthias Anglican Church, Paddington, he was cremated. His widow donated his medals to the Army Museum, Victoria Barracks, Paddington. 105

Died: 6 July 1967, Matraville, New South Wales [electorate of Kingsford Smith].106

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Eastern Suburbs Crematorium, Botany Bay, New South Wales [electorate of Kingsford Smith].

Thomas James Bede Kenny Born: 29 September 1896, Paddington, New South Wales [electorate of Wentworth].107

Life before the war:

Son of Austin James Kenny, butcher, from Auckland, New Zealand, and his wife Mary Christina, née Connolly, of New South Wales. Bede Kenny was educated at the Christian Brothers’ College, Waverley. He began to train as a chemist’s assistant at Bondi but after three months he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 23 August 1915.

108

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Drynane, Park Parade, Bondi, New South Wales [electorate of Wentworth].109

Enlistment date: 23 August 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 9 April 1917—Hermies, France.110

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty, when his platoon was held up by an enemy strong point, and severe casualties prevented progress. Private Kenny, under very heavy fire at close range, dashed alone towards the enemy’s position, killed one man in advance of the strong point who endeavoured to bar his way. He then bombed the position, captured the gun crew, all of whom he had wounded, killed an officer who showed fight, and seized the gun. Pte. Kenny’s gallant action enabled his platoon to occupy the position, which was of great local importance.

111

Unit at time of action: 2nd Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

Though he described his injuries as ‘nothing to write home about’ he was invalided to Australia in August 1918, having become a corporal that month. He arrived in Sydney on 9 October to a tumultuous welcome. He rejected an offer to join the military police, whom he disliked intensely, and was discharged on 12 December. Returning to civilian life, Kenny first worked for Clifford Love & Co., manufacturers, importers and merchants, as their northern New South Wales traveller. He then joined the Sunday Times newspaper in Sydney, and shortly after became a traveller for Penfolds Wines Ltd. He married Kathleen Dorothy Buckley, a florist, at St Mary’s Cathedral, on 29 September 1927; they had three children and their home is remembered as a happy one. Kenny repeatedly suffered the effects of trench feet; the war had also made him partially deaf. He never recovered from the deaths of his elder daughter in 1943 and his only son in 1948 (both from rheumatic fever). Survived by his wife and one daughter, he died in Concord Repatriation Hospital, Sydney, on 15 April 1953 and was buried in Botany cemetery. It was a bitter irony that the pall bearers at his funeral were military policemen. Kenny was a staunch Catholic, a vital man of immense character and physical stature. He had no shortage of friends and was often involved in good-natured pranks. Though he never talked openly of his wartime experiences, he always led the V.C. winners in the Sydney

105. EJH Howard, ‘Maxwell, Joseph (1896-1967)’, op. cit. 106. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 661. 107. AIF Project, ‘Thomas James Bede Kenny’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 108. M Higgins, ‘Kenny, Thomas James Bede (1896-1953)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 109. AIF Project, ‘Thomas James Bede Kenny‘, op. cit. 110. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 273. 111. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30112, 8 June 1917, p. 5705, accessed 26 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 23

Anzac Day march. In 1957 the Bede Kenny Memorial Ward was opened at Wentworth Private Hospital, Randwick, to provide beds for ex-servicemen ineligible for repatriation hospital treatment. 112

Died: 15 April 1953, Concord, New South Wales [electorate of Reid].

Place of burial or cremation: Botany Cemetery, Matraville, New South Wales [electorate of Kingsford Smith].113

Mark Gregor Strang Donaldson Born: 2 April 1979, Waratah, Newcastle, New South Wales [electorate of Newcastle].114

Life before the war:

He spent his formative years in northern NSW where he graduated from high school in 1996. Trooper Donaldson enlisted into the Australian Army on 18 June 2002 and entered recruit training at the Army Recruit Training Centre, Kapooka, NSW. He demonstrated an early aptitude for soldiering and was awarded the prizes for best shot and best at physical training in his platoon. Subsequently he was allocated to the Royal Australian Infantry Corps and posted to the school of infantry at Singleton, NSW, where he excelled in his initial employment training. At the completion of this training he was again awarded best shot and best at physical training, as well as the award for the most outstanding soldier in his platoon. He was posted to 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, Townsville, QLD in November 2002. It was during this time that Trooper Donaldson decided to pursue his ambition to join the Special Air Service Regiment. In February 2004, he successfully completed the Special Air Service Regiment selection course and was posted to the regiment in May 2004. He was then posted to I Troop, 3 Special Air Service Squadron. Since that time he has been deployed on operations to East Timor, Afghanistan and Iraq.

On 12 August 2008, Trooper Donaldson was wounded in action whilst conducting nighttime operations in Oruzgan Province, Afghanistan. He recovered from his minor wounds and continued on the deployment. Trooper Donaldson was involved in an incident on 2 September 2008 in Oruzgan Province, Afghanistan that resulted in him being awarded the Victoria Cross for Australia. He was invested by her Excellency the Governor-General of Australia at Government House, Canberra on 16 January 2009. Trooper Donaldson remains posted to the Special Air Service Regiment in Perth, WA. Trooper Donaldson is married to Emma and has a daughter Kaylee. His parents are deceased.

115

Enlistment date: 18 June 2002.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous acts of gallantry in action in a circumstance of great peril in Afghanistan as part of the Special Operations Task Group during Operation SLIPPER, Oruzgan Province, Afghanistan. Trooper Mark Gregor Donaldson enlisted into the Australian Army on 18 June 2002. After completing Recruit and Initial and Employment Training he was posted to the 1st Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment. Having successfully completed the Special Air Service Selection Course in April 2004, Trooper Donaldson was posted to Special Air Service Regiment in May 2004.

On 2 September 2008, during the conduct of a fighting patrol, Trooper Donaldson was travelling in a combined Afghan, US and Australian vehicle convoy that was engaged by a numerically superior, entrenched and coordinated enemy ambush. The ambush was initiated by a high volume of sustained machine gun fire coupled with the effective use of rocket propelled grenades. Such was the effect of the initiation that the combined patrol suffered numerous casualties, completely lost the initiative and became immediately suppressed. It was over two hours before the convoy was able to establish a clean break and move to an area free of enemy fire. In the early stages of the ambush, Trooper Donaldson reacted spontaneously to regain the initiative. He moved rapidly between alternate positions of cover engaging the enemy with 66mm and 84mm anti-armour weapons as well as his M4 rifle. During an early stage of the enemy ambush, he deliberately exposed himself to enemy fire in order to draw attention to himself and thus away from wounded soldiers. This selfless act alone bought enough time for those wounded to be moved to relative safety.

112. M Higgins, ‘Kenny, Thomas James Bede (1896-1953)‘, op. cit. 113. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 653. 114. Department of Defence, ‘Trooper Mark Gregor Strang Donaldson, VC’, accessed 1 March 2010. 115. Department of Defence, ‘Trooper Mark Gregor Strang Donaldson, VC‘, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 24

As the enemy had employed the tactic of a rolling ambush, the patrol was forced to conduct numerous vehicle manoeuvres, under intense enemy fire, over a distance of approximately four kilometres to extract the convoy from the engagement area. Compounding the extraction was the fact that casualties had consumed all available space within the vehicles. Those who had not been wounded, including Trooper Donaldson, were left with no option but to run beside the vehicles throughout. During the conduct of this vehicle manoeuvre to extract the convoy from the engagement area, a severely wounded coalition force interpreter was inadvertently left behind. Of his own volition and displaying complete disregard for his own safety, Trooper Donaldson moved alone, on foot, across approximately 80 metres of exposed ground to recover the wounded interpreter. His movement, once identified by the enemy, drew intense and accurate machine gun fire from entrenched positions. Upon reaching the wounded coalition force interpreter, Trooper Donaldson picked him up and carried him back to the relative safety of the vehicles then provided immediate first aid before returning to the fight. On subsequent occasions during the battle, Trooper Donaldson administered medical care to other wounded soldiers, whilst continually engaging the enemy.

Trooper Donaldson’s acts of exceptional gallantry in the face of accurate and sustained enemy fire ultimately saved the life of a coalition force interpreter and ensured the safety of the other members of the combined Afghan, US and Australian force. Trooper Donaldson’s actions on this day displayed exceptional courage in circumstances of great peril. His actions are of the highest accord and are in keeping with the finest traditions of the Special Operations Command, the Australian Army and the Australian Defence Force.

116

Unit at time of action: Special Operations Task Group.

Albert Edward Chowne Born: 19 July 1920, Willoughby, New South Wales [electorate of North Sydney].117

Life before the war:

Seventh child of Balmain-born parents Arthur James Chowne, grocer, and his wife Frances Ellen, née Dalziel. The Chowne and Dalziel families were well known in the Willoughby district where Bert grew up. Educated at Chatswood Boys’ Intermediate High and Naremburn Junior Technical schools, he started work in 1935 as a shirtcutter at David Jones Ltd. Chowne played for Gordon Rugby Union Football Club, and also enjoyed scouting and tennis. He was 5 ft 9 ins (175 cm) tall, with brown hair, a fair complexion and hazel eyes. Having served briefly in the Militia’s 36th Battalion, on 27 May 1940 he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force; he described himself as a salesman, probably to avoid reserved-occupation status.

118

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Willoughby, New South Wales [electorate of North Sydney].119

Enlistment date: 27 May 1940.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery, brilliant leadership and devotion to duty during an attack on an enemy position on a narrow ridge near Dagua, New Guinea, on 25th March, 1945. After the capture of Dagua, the main enemy force withdrew southwards from the beach to previously prepared positions on the flank of the Division. Further movement towards Wewak was impossible while this threat to the flank existed and the Battalion was ordered to destroy the enemy force. ‘A’ Company, after making contact with the enemy on a narrow ridge, was ordered to attack the position. The leading Platoon in the attack came under heavy fire from concealed enemy machine guns site on a small rise dominating the approach. In the initial approach one member of this Platoon was killed and nine wounded, including the Platoon Commander, and the enemy continued to inflict casualties on our troops. Without awaiting orders, Lieutenant Chowne, whose Platoon was in reserve, instantly appreciated the plight of the leading Platoon and rushed the enemy's position. Running up a steep, narrow track, he hurled grenades which knocked out two enemy Light-Machine Guns. Then, calling on his men to follow him and firing his submachine gun from the hip,

he charged the enemy's position. Although he sustained two serious wounds in the chest, the impetus of his charge

116. Department of Defence, ‘Trooper Mark Gregor Strang Donaldson, VC’, op. cit. 117. National Archives of Australia (NAA): Department of Defence; B883, Second Australian Imperial Force personnel dossiers, 1939-1947; NX24405, Chowne Albert, 1939-1948. 118. M Barter, ‘Chowne, Albert Edward (1920-1945)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010. 119. NAA: Chowne Albert, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 25

carried him 50 yards forward under the most intense machine gun and rifle fire. Lieutenant Chowne accounted for two more Japanese before he was killed standing over three foxholes occupied by the enemy. The superb heroism and self-sacrifice of this officer, culminating in his death, resulted in the capture of this strongly-held enemy position, ensured the further immediate success of his Company in this area and paved the way directly for the continuance of the Division's advance to Wewak.

120

Unit at time of action: 2/2nd Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), Australian Military Forces.

Died: 25 March 1945, during VC action, between Dagua and Wewak, New Guinea.121

Place of burial or cremation: Lae War Cemetery, New Guinea. The Lieutenant Albert Chowne, VC, MM, Memorial Hall at Willoughby commemorates him.122

Patrick Joseph Bugden Born: 17 March 1897, South Gundurimba, New South Wales [electorate of Page]123. Place of birth has alternatively been noted as Lismore, New South Wales [electorate of Page].

Life before the war:

Eldest child of Thomas Bugden, farmer, and his wife Annie, née Connolly, both native-born. His father died when Bugden was 6, leaving four children; and his mother remarried. Educated at Gundurimba Public School and the convent school at Tatham, he later worked for his stepfather as a barman at the Federal Hotel, Alstonville; outgoing and popular, he excelled at football, cricket and shot-putting. Before joining the Australian Imperial Force he completed twelve months military training under the compulsory scheme introduced in 1911.

124 Previous military

service: Served for 1 year in the Compulsory Military Training scheme. 125

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Alstonville, Lismore, New South Wales [electorate of Page].

Enlistment date: 25 May 1916.

Description of action for which VC awarded: (26-28 September 1917 — Polygon Wood, Belgium).126

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty when on two occasions our advance was temporarily held up by strongly-defended ‘pill-boxes.’ Pte. Bugden, in the face of devastating fire from machine guns, gallantly led small parties to attack these strong points and, successfully silencing the machine guns with bombs, captured the garrison at the point of the bayonet. On another occasion, when a corporal, who had become detached from his company, had been captured and was being taken to the rear by the enemy, Pte. Bugden, single-handed, rushed to the rescue of his comrade, shot one enemy and bayoneted the remaining two, thus releasing the Corporal. On five occasions he rescued wounded men under intense shell and machine-gun fire, showing an utter contempt and disregard for danger. Always foremost in volunteering for any dangerous mission, it was during the execution of one of these missions that this gallant soldier was killed.

127

Unit at time of action: 31st Infantry Battalion (Queensland and Victoria), AIF.

Died: 28 September 1917, Polygon Wood, Belgium.128

Place of burial or cremation: Hooge Crater Cemetery (Plot VIII, Row C, Grave No. 5), Zillebeke, Belgium

120. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 37253, 4 September 1945, p. 4467, accessed 9 April 2010. 121. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 633. 122. M Barter, ‘Chowne, Albert Edward (1920-1945)‘, op. cit. 123. AIF Project, ‘Patrick Bugden’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 124. NS Foldi, ‘Bugden, Patrick Joseph (1897-1917)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 10 February 2010. 125. AIF Project, ‘Patrick Bugden‘, op. cit. 126. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 288. 127. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30400, 23 November 1917, pp. 12329-12330, accessed 24 March 2010. 128. AIF Project, ‘Patrick Bugden‘, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 26

Alexander Henry Buckley Born: 22 July 1891, Warren, New South Wales [electorate of Parkes].129

Life before the war:

Fourth child of James Buckley, selector, and his wife Julia, née Falkanhagan, both of whom were Victorian-born. He was educated at home by his parents and later farmed with his father on Homebush, a property near Gulargambone. 130

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Homebush, near Gulargambone, New South Wales [electorate of Parkes].

Enlistment date: 3 February 1916.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery and self-sacrifice at Peronne during the operations on l/2nd September, 1918. After passing the first objective his half-company and part of the company on the flank were held up by an enemy machinegun nest. With one man he rushed the post, shooting four of the occupants and taking 22 prisoners. Later on, reaching a moat, it was found that another machine-gun nest commanded the only available foot-bridge. Whilst this was being engaged from a flank Corporal Buckley endeavoured to cross the bridge and rush the post, but was killed in the attempt. Throughout the advance he had displayed great initiative, resource and courage, and by his effort to save his comrades from casualties, he set a fine example of self-sacrificing devotion to duty.

131

Unit at time of action: 54th Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Died: 1 September 1918, Peronne, France.132

Place of burial or cremation: Peronne Communal Cemetery Extension (Plot II, Row C, Grave No. 32), France. Originally buried in an isolated grave, St Radegonde, near Peronne.

Arthur Charles Hall Born: 11 August 1896, Granville, New South Wales [electorate of Parramatta].133

Life before the war:

Eldest son of Charles Hall, grazier, of Glenelg station near Nyngan, and his wife Emma Jane, née King. He attended All Saints’ College, Bathurst, in 1909-12 and became an overseer on his father’s properties. 134 Previous military service: Served in the Senior Cadets for two years.

135

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Nyngan, New South Wales [electorate of Parkes].

Enlistment date: 3 April 1916.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery, brilliant leadership, and devotion to duty during the operations at Peronne on 1st and 2nd September, 1918. During the attack on the 1st September a machine gun post was checking the advance.

129. AIF Project, ‘Alexander Henry Buckley’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 130. L Wigmore, ‘Buckley, Alexander Henry (1891-1918)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 24 March 2010. 131. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31067, 13 December 1918, p. 14778, accessed 24 March 2010. 132. L Wigmore, ‘Buckley, Alexander Henry (1891-1918),’ op. cit. 133. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Corporal Arthur Charles Hall’, Anzac Day Commemoration

Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 134. G Hall, ‘Hall, Arthur Charles (1896-1978)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 135. AIF Project, ‘Arthur Charles Hall’, accessed 26 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 27

Single handed [Corporal Hall] rushed the position, shot four of the occupants, and captured nine others, and two machine guns. Then crossing the objective with a small party, he afforded excellent covering support to the remainder of the company. Continuously in advance of the main party, he located enemy posts of resistance and personally led parties to the assault. In this way he captured many small parties of prisoners and machine guns. On the morning of the 2nd September, during a heavy barrage, he carried to safety a comrade who had been dangerously wounded and was urgently in need of medical attention, and immediately returned to his post. The

energy and personal courage of this gallant non-commissioned officer contributed largely to the success of the operations, throughout which he showed utter disregard of danger and inspired confidence in all. 136

Unit at time of action: 54th Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

On 11 October 1918 he was transferred to the 56th Battalion and on 6 March 1919 was promoted temporary sergeant a rank he retained until his discharge from the AIF on 3 August in Sydney. After demobilization Hall returned to the Nyngan district where he bought a pastoral property, Gundooee station, near Coolabah. On 26 April 1927 he married Catherine Jessie Hemington Harris at the Union Church, Lahey’s Creek, with Anglican rites. In 1942 he served as a lieutenant in the 7th Garrison Battalion and on returning to Gundooee carried on his pastoral activities, running sheep and building up a fine herd of Poll Devon cattle. He was president of the Nyngan Picnic Race Club for twenty years and was a foundation member and keen competitor in the Coolabah District Rifle Club; he was also active in the Nyngan District Historical Society. Survived by his wife, a daughter and three sons, Hall died in Nyngan District Hospital on 25 February 1978. He was buried at the tiny Anglican Church of St Matthew’s, West Bogan, which had been built from timber cut and milled on his property. His estate was sworn for probate at $160,191. He left his Victoria Cross to the Australian War Memorial.

137

Died: 25 February 1978, Nyngan, New South Wales [electorate of Parkes].

Place of burial or cremation: St Matthew’s Church of England Church Cemetery, West Bogan, Coolabah, New South Wales [electorate of Parkes].138

John Woods Whittle Born: 3 August 1883, Huon Island, Tasmania [electorate of Franklin].139

Life before the war:

Son of Henry Whittle, labourer, and his wife Catherine, née Sullivan. John enlisted as a private in Tasmania’s 4th (2nd Imperial Bushmen) Contingent which reached South Africa on 24 April 1901, saw action in the Cape Colony and returned to Tasmania in June 1902. Soon after, he enlisted in the Royal Navy and served for five years as a stoker before joining the Permanent Military Forces. On 23 July 1909 at the archbishop’s house, Hobart, he married with Catholic rites Emily Margaret Roland; they were to have six children.

140 Previous military service: Served for 3.6

years, Senior Cadets; five years, Royal Navy; one year in South African War; one year, Australian Field Artillery. 141

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Launceston, Tasmania [electorate of Bass].

Enlistment date: 6 August 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 9 April 1917 — Boursies, France.142

For conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty on two occasions. When in command of a platoon, the enemy, under cover of an intense artillery barrage, attacked the small trench he was holding. Owing to weight of numbers the enemy succeeded in entering the trench, and it was owing to Sjt. Whittle personally collecting all available men and

136. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31067, 13 December 1918, p. 14778, accessed 26 March 2010. 137. G Hall, ‘Hall, Arthur Charles (1896-1978)’, op. cit. 138. AIF Project, ‘Arthur Charles Hall’, op. cit. 139. S Allen, ‘Whittle, John Woods (1882-1946)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010. 140. Ibid. 141. AIF Project, ‘John Woods Whittle’, 2010, accessed 8 April 2010. 142. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 274.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 28

charging the enemy that the position was regained. On the second occasion when the enemy broke through the left of our line, Sjt. Whittle’s own splendid example was the means of keeping the men well in hand. His platoon were suffering heavy casualties and the enemy endeavoured to bring up a machine gun to enfilade the position. Grasping the situation, he rushed alone across the fire swept ground and attacked the hostile gun crew with bombs before the gun could be got into action. He succeeded in killing the whole crew and in bringing back the machine gun to our position.

143

Unit at time of action: 12th Infantry Battalion (South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania), AIF.

Life after the war:

Wounded again during the German offensive of March 1918, and once more in late July, Whittle returned to Australia with other VC winners in October 1918 to take part in a planned recruiting drive. Following the Armistice, he was discharged on 15 December and lived in Sydney. He made a desperate plea in 1932: ‘I have been trying to struggle on for some time, but the children are badly in need of boots and clothing for the winter, and I cannot get any work’. Within a month he was employed by the Western Assurance Co. On 7 February 1934 he saved a small boy from drowning in an ornamental pool in University Park; though Whittle departed without giving his name, the deed became widely known. Survived by his wife, three daughters and a son, he died of a cerebral haemorrhage on 2 March 1946 at Glebe and was buried in Rookwood cemetery. Whittle and Newland were the only Australian VC winners of World War I to have been permanent servicemen before the war. One of Whittle’s sons, Ivan Ernest, had joined the AIF and was killed in September 1943 when a bomber crashed into the 2/33

rd Battalion marshalling area

near Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. 144

Died: 2 March 1946, Glebe, New South Wales [electorate of Sydney].

Place of burial or cremation: Rookwood Cemetery, New South Wales [electorate of Reid].145

John Hurst Edmondson Born: 8 October 1914 at Wagga Wagga, New South Wales [electorate of Riverina].146

Life before the war:

Only child of native-born parents Joseph William Edmondson, farmer, and his wife Maude Elizabeth, née Hurst. The family moved to a farm near Liverpool when Jack was a child. Educated at Hurlstone Agricultural High School, he worked with his father and became a champion rifle-shooter. He was a council-member of the Liverpool Agricultural Society and acted as a steward at its shows. Having served (from March 1939) in the 4th Battalion, Militia, he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 20 May 1940 and was posted to the 2nd/17th Battalion. Later that month he was promoted acting corporal (substantive in November). Well built and about 5 ft 9 ins (175 cm) tall, Edmondson settled easily into army life and was known as a quiet but efficient soldier.

147

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Liverpool, New South Wales [electorate of Werriwa].148

Enlistment date: 20th May 1940.

Description of action for which VC awarded: (13-14 April 1941 — Tobruk, Libya).

On the night of the 13-14th April, 1941, a party of German infantry broke through the wire defences at Tobruk and established themselves with at least six machine guns, mortars and two small field pieces. It was decided to attack them with bayonets, and a party consisting of one officer, Corporal Edmondson and five privates, took part in the charge. During the counter-attack Corporal Edmondson was wounded in the neck and stomach but continued to advance under heavy fire and killed one enemy with his bayonet. Later, his officer had his bayonet in one of the enemy and was grasped about the legs by him, when another attacked him from behind. He called for help, and

143. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30122, 8 June 1917, p. 5704, accessed 8 April 2010. 144. S Allen, ‘Whittle, John Woods (1892-1946)‘, op. cit. 145. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 680. 146. National Archives of Australia (NAA): Department of Defence; B883, Second Australian Imperial Force personnel dossiers, 1939-1947;

NX15705, Edmondson John Hurst, 1939-1948. 147. I Grant, ‘Edmondson, John Hurst (1914-1941)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010. 148. NAA: Edmondson John Hurst, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 29

Corporal Edmondson, who was some yards away, immediately came to his assistance and in spite of his wounds, killed both of the enemy. This action undoubtedly saved his officer’s life. Shortly after returning from this successful counter-attack, Corporal Edmondson died of his wounds. His actions throughout the operations were outstanding for resolution, leadership and conspicuous bravery.

149

Unit at time of action: 2/17th Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), Australian Military Forces.

Died: 14 April 1941, during VC action, Tobruk, Libya.150

Place of burial or cremation: Tobruk War Cemetery. Edmondson’s name is commemorated by a clock which stands in the main business section of Liverpool, New South Wales.151 The clubrooms used by the sub-branch of the Returned Services League of Australia also commemorate Edmondson.152

John William Alexander Jackson Born: 13 September 1897, Gunbar, near Hay, New South Wales [electorate of Riverina].153

Life before the war:

Son of John Gale Jackson and Adelaide Ann (née McFarlane), John William Alexander Jackson was working as a labourer on a property near Gunbar when he enlisted. 154 According to an uncle of Jackson’s quoted in 1917, ‘my

nephew had never even seen a train until he enlisted.’ 155

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Gunbar via Hay, New South Wales [electorate of Riverina].156

Enlistment date: 19 February 1915. (15 February 1915 on Nominal Roll)

Description of action for which VC awarded: 25-26 June 1916 — Armentières, France.157

For most conspicuous bravery. On the return from a successful raid, several members of the raiding party were seriously wounded in ‘No Man’s Land’ by shell fire. Pte. Jackson got back safely and, after handing over a prisoner whom he had brought in, immediately went out again under very heavy shell fire and assisted in bringing in a wounded man. He then went out again, and with a sergeant was bringing another wounded man when his arm was blown off by a shell and the sergeant was rendered unconscious. He then returned to our trenches, obtained assistance, and went out again to look for his two wounded comrades. He set a splendid example of pluck and determination. His work has always been marked by the greatest coolness and bravery.

158

Unit at time of action: 17th Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

Jackson was evacuated and his arm was amputated. He embarked for Australia on 4 May 1917 and was discharged on 15 September. He became a hotelkeeper at Wollongong, then returned to Merriwa but after almost seven years of drought he left the land and moved to Sydney for employment. He had several jobs, including clerical work with

149. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 35207, 1 July 1941, pp. 3807-3808, accessed 9 April 2010. 150. I Grant, ‘Edmondson, John Hurst (1914-1941)‘, op. cit. 151. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Corporal John Hurst Edmondson’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010.

152. I Grant, ‘Edmondson, John Hurst (1914-1941)‘, op. cit. 153. H Willey, ‘Pte John William Alexander Jackson VC: Australia’s youngest VC,’ in H Willey (ed.), 150 years of the Victoria Cross 1857-2007: Crimea to Afghanistan, 2nd edition, Scone, NSW, self-published, 2007, p. 54; R Sutton, ‘Jackson, John William Alexander (1897-1959)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 September 2011; and L Wigmore in collaboration with B Harding, They

dared mightily, second edition, revised and condensed by J Williams and A Staunton, Canberra, Australian War Memorial, 1986, p. 75. 154. H Willey, ‘Pte John William Alexander Jackson VC,’ op. cit., p. 54. 155. ‘Jackson, VC: Gunbar’s modest hero,’ Sydney Morning Herald, 6 July 1917, p. 6; cited in Willey, ‘Pte John William Alexander Jackson VC,’ op. cit., p. 53. 156. AIF Project, ‘William Jackson’, 2010, accessed 12 September 2011. 157. Australian War Memorial, ‘People profiles: Private John William Alexander Jackson VC’, accessed 13 May 2014. 158. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29 740, 8 September 1916, pp. 8870-8871, accessed 12 September 2011.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 30

the Metropolitan Water, Sewerage and Drainage Board. On 12 January 1932 he married a dressmaker, Ivy Muriel Alma Morris, at St Paul’s Anglican Church, Kogarah; there was one daughter of the marriage which was dissolved in 1955. During World War II he served as an acting sergeant in Eastern Command Provost Company, 1941-42. In 1953

he moved to Melbourne and became commissionaire and inquiry attendant at the Melbourne Town Hall. In 1956 Jackson visited England to attend Victoria Cross centenary celebrations. Survived by his daughter, he died of arteriosclerotic heart disease on 4 August 1959 at the Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Melbourne, and was cremated. Jackson was the youngest Australian to be awarded the Victoria Cross in World War I and his was the first VC to be awarded to a member of the AIF in France.

159

Died: 4 August 1959, Heidelberg, Victoria [electorate of Jagajaga].

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Springvale Crematorium, Melbourne [electorate of Bruce].160

Reginald Roy Rattey Born: 28 March 1918, Barmedman, New South Wales [electorate of Riverina].161

Life before the war:

The third of seven children of a Lutheran couple, Johannes Albert Rattey a Springton, South Australia, born, share farmer and his Munyabla New South Wales born wife Anna Elisabeth (nee Damschke) who were married at Pleasant Hills on February 26 1914 … At the time of Reg’s birth the then thirty one year old Johannes was share-farming for a solicitor Mr. T Farrell, three years later he purchased ‘Pine Lodge’ near Wargin, on the Barmedman to Rankins Springs Railway line, to which he later added ‘Bon Accord’, these two properties totalling 1672 acres. Reg and his siblings attended the small one teacher school at Bellarwi travelling the six and a half km to and from school in a sulky pulled by the family’s pony ‘Podge’. After school and at weekends he helped with the work on the family farm and for recreation regularly played tennis. During the depression it became necessary for Reg and his elder brothers to find work away from the family property. Reg was working at the Gibsonvale Open Cut Tin Mine at Kikoira and was a member of the part time Citizens Forces the 21st Light Horse Regiment at Wagga Wagga … when war broke out.

162

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Barmedman, New South Wales [electorate of Riverina].

Enlistment date: 24 September 1941.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

In the South West Pacific, on 22nd March 1945 a company of an Australian Infantry Battalion was ordered to capture a strongly held enemy position astride Buin Road, South Bougainville. The attack was met by extremely heavy fire and all forward movement was stopped with casualties mounting. Corporal Rattey quickly appreciated the serious situation delaying the advance could only be averted by silencing enemy fire from automatic weapons in bunkers, which dominated all the lines of approach. He determined that a bold push by himself alone would surprise the enemy and offered the best chance of success. With amazing courage he rushed forward firing his Bren gun and hurling grenades. This completely neutralised enemy fire. Corporal Rattey, now without grenades, raced back to his section under extremely heavy fire and obtained two grenades with which he again rushed the remaining bunkers, effectively silencing all opposition and enabling his company to continue its advance. A little later the advance of his company was again held up by a heavy machine gun firing across the front. Without hesitation Corporal Rattey rushed the gun and silenced it. The company again continued its advance and gained its objective, which was consolidated. The serious situation was turned into a brilliant success, entirely by the courage, cool planning and stern determination of Corporal Rattey. His bravery was an incentive to the entire company, who fought with inspiration derived from the gallantry of Corporal Rattey, despite the stubborn opposition to which they were subjected.

163

Unit at time of action: 25th Infantry Battalion, Australian Military Forces.

159. R Sutton, ‘Jackson, John William Alexander (1897-1959)’, op. cit. 160. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 6. 161. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 668. 162. ‘Reg Rattey, VC’ battlefields.com.au, accessed 13 May 2014.

163. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 37194, 24 July 1945, p. 3857, accessed 23 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 31

Life after the war:

Reg … returned to West Wyalong where a Public Meeting that had been held on August 11 had started a testimonial fund for him and called on the Minister for Lands to grant him a special lease of 2,400 acres of land fronting Lake Cowal. The Minister agreed and the lease was arranged, of a bare undeveloped block, which Reg named ‘Weeloona’ and proceeded through sheer hard work to built a home and made this land into a viable property, later adding a further 783 acres. At its peak this property carried 1,000 merinos, 40 Hereford cows & calves, 60 pigs and had 700 acres sown to wheat. In 1946 Reg was notified that a place was available for him with the Australian Victory Contingent, which was to be made up of 250 Australian Servicemen & women who between them held 162 Bravery Awards. The Contingent was to represent Australia when the ‘Fighting Men and Women of the British Empire’, marched in the Victory Parade through the streets of London on 8 June 1946 ... On March 13, 1948, Reg married nineteen year old Emily Joyce Café, (daughter of Edward and Emily Kate Café who had married in England while Edward was on leave there while serving with the 1st AIF) their only child a daughter Jeanette was born on the 19 May 1949.

… In 1954 Reg then a widower, declined an invitation to be part of the Official Celebrations for the Royal Visit by Queen Elizabeth and Prince Phillip to Australia being unable to spare the time away from his property. On 11 January 1955 Reg married Aileen Delaney, the daughter of James & Ellen (nee O’Connor) Delaney there are four children from this marriage, Robert, Carmel, Christine and Helen. Again not able to spare the time away from his property in 1956 Reg declined an invitation to attend with 300 other Victoria Cross recipients from around the World the Victoria Cross Centenary Celebrations in London. The people of West Wyalong understanding his dilemma, raised the money for Reg and Aileen to fly to London for the celebrations and avoid a lengthy sea voyage. Reg Rattey VC died of emphysema, aged 68 yrs, on the 10 January 1986. He was buried from St Mary’s Catholic Church, West Wyalong, on Tuesday January 14, when 400 mourners including Keith Payne VC., assembled with his family. Reg was given a full military funeral attended by 118 members of the 5/7 Royal Australian Regiment & the 2nd Cavalry Regiment.

164

Died: 10 January 1986, West Wyalong, New South Wales [electorate of Riverina].165

Place of burial or cremation: West Wyalong Lawn Cemetery, New South Wales [electorate of Riverina].

Edward John Francis (commonly known as John) Ryan Born: 9 February 1890, Tumut, New South Wales [electorate of Riverina].166

Life before the war:

Second son of Michael Ryan, a Sydney-born labourer, and his wife Eugenia, née Newman, from Gunning. Educated locally, he worked as a labourer before enlisting in the Australian Imperial Force at Wagga Wagga on 1 December 1915. 167

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Tumut, New South Wales [electorate of Riverina].168

Enlistment date: 1 December 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during an attack against the Hindenburg defences on 30th September 1918. In the initial assault on the enemy’s positions Pte. Ryan went forward with great dash and determination, and was one of the first to reach the enemy trench. His exceptional skill and daring inspired his comrades, and, despite heavy fire, the hostile garrison was soon overcome and the trench occupied. The enemy then counter-attacked, and succeeded in establishing a bombing party in the rear of the position. Under fire from front and rear, the position was critical, and necessitated prompt action. Quickly appreciating the situation, he organised and led the men near him with bomb and bayonet against the enemy bombers, finally reaching the position with only three men. By skilful bayonet work, his small party succeeded in killing the first three Germans on

164. ‘Reg Rattey, VC’ battlefields.com.au, accessed 13 May 2014. 165. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 668. 166. AIF Project, ‘John Ryan’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 167. GP Walsh, ‘Ryan, Edward John Francis (1890-1941)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 168. AIF Project, ‘John Ryan‘, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 32

the enemy’s flank, then, moving along the embarkment, Pte. Ryan alone rushed the remainder with bombs. He fell wounded after he had driven back the enemy, who suffered heavily as they retired across ‘No Man’s Land’. A particularly dangerous situation had been saved by this gallant soldier, whose example of determination, bravery and initiative was an inspiration to all.

169

Unit at time of action: 55th Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

Private Ryan rejoined his battalion in December and on 22 May 1919 received his VC from King George V at Buckingham Palace. He returned to Sydney on 24 October and was discharged from the AIF on 10 January 1920. A Sydney Morning Herald article described him as ‘a thin lithe man with a smiling face that has been burned a deep mahogany brown’. The subsequent years were not kind to John Ryan who, like so many returned servicemen, found it hard to adjust to civilian life and to keep a job. His circumstances worsened during the Depression when he was on the road for four years. Destitute, in August 1935 he walked from Balranald, New South Wales, to Mildura, Victoria, where he was given temporary work by the local council and shortly after found employment in a Melbourne insurance office where he remained for several years. By May 1941, in poor health, he was again tramping the streets looking for work and was taken to hospital the day he was to have started yet another job. He died of pneumonia in Royal Melbourne Hospital on 3 June 1941 and was buried with military honours in the Catholic section of Springvale cemetery where eight VC winners formed a guard of honour. Unmarried, he was survived by two brothers and a sister Mrs PG Grant of Yass, New South Wales, who presented his VC to the Australian War Memorial in November 1967. His brother Malcolm was a trooper with the Light Horse, AIF.

170

Died: 3 June 1941, Melbourne, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne].171

Place of burial or cremation: Springvale Cemetery, Springvale, Victoria [electorate of Bruce].172

Arthur Roden Cutler Born: 24 May 1916 in Manly, New South Wales [electorate of Warringah].173

Life before the war:

Growing up he was a keen sportsman who enjoyed swimming, sailing, cycling and cricket. Cutler began his education at the Manly public school and gained admission to Sydney Boys High School at the age of 15. After school he worked for the Texas Company Australasia (later to become Texaco). He studied economics at Sydney University at night and later joined the public service. In March 1936, seeking extra money, he joined the Sydney University Regiment. On 10 November 1939, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the militia.

174

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Manly, New South Wales [electorate of Warringah].

Enlistment date: 13 April 1940.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 19 June-6 July 1941 — Syria.

For most conspicuous and sustained gallantry during the Syrian Campaign and for outstanding bravery during the bitter fighting at Merdjayoun when this Artillery Officer became a byword amongst forward troops with which he worked. At Merdjayoun on June 19th, 1941, our Infantry attack was checked after suffering heavy casualties from an enemy counter attack with tanks. Enemy machine gun fire swept the ground, but Lieutenant pressed a continuation of the attack. With another Artillery Officer and a small party he pushed on ahead of the Infantry and established an outpost in a house. The telephone line was cut and he went out and mended this line under machine gun fire and returned to the house from which the enemy post and battery were successfully engaged.

169. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31082, 24 December 1918, p. 15119, accessed 8 April 2010. 170. GP Walsh, ‘Ryan, Edward John Francis (1890-1941)‘, op. cit. 171. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 671. 172. AIF Project, ‘John Ryan‘, op. cit. 173. National Archives of Australia (NAA): Department of Defence; B883, Second Australian Imperial Force personnel dossiers, 1939-1947;

NX12378, Cutler Arthur Roden, 1939-1948. 174. Australian War Memorial, ‘Who’s who in Australian military history: Lieutenant Arthur Roden Cutler’, Australian War Memorial website, 2010, accessed 9 April 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 33

The enemy then attacked this outpost with Infantry and tanks, killing Bren gunners and mortally wounding other Officers. Lieutenant Cutler and another manned an anti-tank rifle and Bren gun and fought back driving the enemy infantry away. The tank continued to attack but under constant fire from the anti-tank rifle and Bren gun eventually withdrew. Lieutenant Cutler then personally supervised the evacuation of wounded members of his party. Undaunted he pressed for a further advance. He had been ordered to establish an outpost from which he could register the only road by which enemy transport could enter the town. With a small party of volunteers he pressed on until finally with one other he succeeded in establishing an outpost right in the town which was occupied by the Foreign Legion, despite enemy machine gun fire which prevented our Infantry from advancing. At this time Lieutenant Cutler knew that the enemy were massing on his left for counter attack and that he was in danger of being cut off. Nevertheless, he carried out his task of registering the battery on the road and engaging the enemy post. The enemy counter attacked with Infantry and tanks and he was cut off. He was forced to go to ground, but after dark succeeded in making his way back through enemy lines. His work on registering the only road by which enemy transport could enter the town was of vital importance and a big factor in the enemy’s subsequent retreat.

On the night of June 23rd-24th he was in charge of a 25-pounder sent forward into our forward defended locality to silence an enemy anti-tank gun and post which had held up our attack. This he did and next morning the recapture of Merdjayoun was complete. Later at Damour on 6th July when our forward Infantry were pinned to the ground by heavy hostile machine gun fire, Lieutenant Cutler, regardless of all danger, went to bring a line to his outpost when he was seriously wounded. Twenty-six hours elapsed before it was possible to rescue this Officer, whose wound by this time had become septic, necessitating the amputation of his leg. Throughout the Campaign this Officer’s courage was unparalleled and his work was a big factor in the capturing of Merdjayoun.

175

Unit at time of action: 2/5th Field Artillery, Australian Military Forces.

Life after the war:

Having been discharged, Cutler became secretary of the New South Wales branch of the RSL before being employed with the National Security Service; this was followed with a position in the Repatriation Department. After the war he was appointed as High Commissioner to New Zealand. He married Helen Morris on 28 May 1946. While in New Zealand they had two sons, Roden and Anthony. Cutler then became ambassador to Ceylon where a third son, Richard, was born. When the Ceylon posting finished, Cutler was appointed head of Australia's legation to Egypt where he and Helen had another son, Mark. He was appointed secretary-general of the SEATO [South-East Asian Treaty Organisation] Council of Foreign Ministers, held in Canberra in January 1957. Cutler’s next diplomatic posting was as Australia's high commissioner to Pakistan. In 1961 he became Australia's Consul-General in New York, and in 1965 became ambassador to the Netherlands but returned early to take up the Governorship of New South Wales. He was then knighted by Queen Elizabeth. Cutler retired from the governorship in 1981, during his career he had been created a Knight of the Order of St John of Jerusalem, a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order and a Knight in the Order of Australia as well as being the recipient of many honorary degrees and holding positions on numerous boards. His wife died in November 1990 and he remarried in April 1993. Cutler was regarded with affection by many Australians and in 2000 he was honoured as one of three Australian living Victoria Cross winners to be commemorated on a stamp and coin issue. He died in February 2002.

176

Died: 21 February 2002, Rose Bay, New South Wales [electorate of Wentworth].177

Place of burial or cremation: South Head Cemetery, Vaucluse, New South Wales [electorate of Wentworth]. Having served as Governor of New South Wales from 1966-1981, he was given a State Funeral.178

Alfred John Shout Born: 7 August 1881, Wellington, New Zealand.179 War record states that he was born on 8 August 1882.180

Life before the war:

175. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 35360, 25 November 1941, p. 6825, accessed 9 April 2010. 176. Australian War Memorial, ‘Lieutenant Arthur Roden Cutler,’ op. cit. 177. J Howard (Prime Minister), ‘Condolences: Cutler, Sir Roden, VC, AK, KCMG, KCVO, CBE’, House of Representatives, Debates, 11 March 2002, pp. 833-834, accessed 9 April 2010.

178. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Lieutenant Arthur Roden Cutler’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 179. M Higgins, ‘Shout, Alfred John (1881-1915)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 180. AIF Project, ‘Alfred John Shout’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 34

Son of London-born John Shout, cook, and his Irish wife Agnes, née McGovern. In 1900 he joined the New Zealand contingent to the South African War, serving as a sergeant in the Border Horse; he was wounded at least once. In 1903 Shout became a sergeant in the Cape Field Artillery. With his wife and daughter Shout moved to Australia in 1905, settled at Darlington, Sydney, and worked as a carpenter and joiner. He joined the 29th Infantry Regiment (militia) in 1907 and obtained his commission on 16 June 1914. He was well-known in rifle-shooting circles.

181

Previous military service: Served as a Lieutenant for ten years in the Australian Rifle Regiment. 182

Place of residence at time of enlistment: 131 Darlington Road, Darlington, New South Wales [electorate of Sydney].

Enlistment date: 27 August 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery at Lone Pine trenches, in the Gallipoli Peninsula. On the morning of the 9th August, 1915, with a very small party, Captain Shout charged down trenches strongly occupied by the enemy, and personally threw four bombs among them, killing eight and routing the remainder. In the afternoon of the same day, from the position gained in the morning he captured a further length of trench under similar conditions, and continued personally to bomb the enemy at close range under very heavy fire, until he was severely wounded, losing his right hand and left eye. This most gallant officer has since succumbed to his injuries.

183

Unit at time of action: 1st Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Died: 11 August 1915, Lone Pine, Gallipoli, Turkey.184

For his wife Rose Alice, Shout’s death was made the more traumatic by army clerical errors. She was first informed he had died, then that he was wounded and returning to Australia, then, finally, that he had died of wounds. In August 1916 the Returned Soldiers’ Association launched a fund-raising appeal to purchase a home for her and her 11-year-old daughter; housing assistance was also offered by the New South Wales government. In November 1915 a memorial plaque commemorating Shout was unveiled at Darlington Town Hall by the governor-general, Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson. It is now displayed at Victoria Barracks Museum, Paddington.

185

Place of burial or cremation: At sea. Commemorated at the Lone Pine Memorial (Panel 12), Gallipoli.

Rayene Stewart Simpson Born: 16 February 1926, Redfern, New South Wales [electorate of Sydney].186

Life before the war:

Third child of New South Wales-born parents Robert William Simpson, labourer, and his wife Olga Maude, née Montgomery. Olga deserted her husband and children about 1931. Ray was separated from his siblings and placed in the Church of England Home for Boys, Carlingford. Educated at a local school and at Dumaresq Island Public School, Taree, he worked as a labourer. On 15 March 1944 Simpson enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force. He served on Morotai, and at Tarakan, Borneo, and Rabaul, New Guinea, and was demobilized on 20 January 1947 in Sydney. After taking various jobs, he joined the Australian Regular Army in January 1951. Five months later he was sent to Korea as reinforcement for the 3

rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment. On 16 January 1953 at Kure, Japan,

he married Shoko Sakai, a divorcee. Next month he was promoted temporary sergeant. Returning to Australia in April 1954, he served with the 2 nd Battalion, RAR, in Malaya (1955-57), then with the 1

st Special Air Service

Company, near Perth. In July 1962, promoted warrant officer, class two, he flew to Saigon for duty with the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam. 187

181. M Higgins, ‘Shout, Alfred John (1881-1915)’, op. cit. 182. AIF Project, ‘Alfred John Shout’, op. cit. 183. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29328, 15 October 1915, p. 10153, accessed 8 April 2010. 184. AIF Project, ‘Alfred John Shout’, op. cit. 185. M Higgins, ‘Shout, Alfred John (1881-1915)’, op. cit. 186. B Kelly, ‘Simpson, Rayene Stewart (1926-1978)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 23 February 2010. 187. Ibid.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 35

Enlistment date: January 1951.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

On 6th May 1969, Warrant Officer Simpson was serving as Commander of 232nd Mobile Strike Force of 5th Special Forces Group on a search and clear operation in Kontum Province, near the Laotian border. When one of his platoons became heavily engaged with the enemy, he led the remainder of his company to its assistance. As the company moved forward, an Australian Warrant Officer commanding one of the platoons was seriously wounded and the assault began to falter. Warrant Officer Simpson, at great personal risk carried the Warrant Officer to safety. He then returned to his company where, with complete disregard for his safety, he crawled forward to within ten metres of the enemy and threw grenades into their positions.

On 11 May 1969, in the same operation, Warrant Officer Simpson’s Battalion Commander was killed and an Australian Warrant Officer and several others wounded. Warrant Officer Simpson quickly organised two platoons and led them to the position of the contact. Warrant Officer Simpson came under heavy fire. Disregarding his own safety, he moved forward in the face of accurate enemy machine gun fire, in order to cover the initial evacuation of casualties. At the risk of almost certain death he made several attempts to move further forward towards his Battalion Commander’s body but on each occasion he was stopped by heavy fire. Realising the position was becoming untenable, Warrant Officer Simpson alone and still under enemy fire covered the withdrawal until the wounded were removed from the immediate vicinity. Warrant Officer Simpson’s repeated acts of personal bravery in this operation were an inspiration to all Vietnamese, United States and Australian soldiers who served with him. His conspicuous gallantry was in the highest tradition of the Australian Army.

188

Unit at time of action: Australian Army Training Team Vietnam.

Life after the war:

Simpson’s character was complex. At times he was diffident in company, at others direct and blunt. He was tough, fit and dependable, but also rude, mischievous and exasperating. A proud, moral and compassionate man who was devoted to his wife, he was completely free of pretension and had simple material needs. He was well read in tactics and military history, as indicated by his infantry skills. His colourful language was legendary. ‘Simmo’ was discharged from the army on 4 May 1970. He obtained an administrative post in the Australian Embassy, Tokyo.

189

Died: 18 October 1978, Tokyo, Japan.190

Place of burial or cremation: Yokohama War Cemetery, Japan.191

Percy Valentine Storkey Born: 9 September 1893, Napier, Hawkes Bay, New Zealand.192 War record states he was born on 9 September 1891.193

Life before the war:

Son of English-born Samuel James Storkey, printer, and his wife Sarah Edith, née Dean, from Auckland. Educated at Napier Boys’ Grammar School and Victoria College, Wellington, he reached Sydney in 1911 where he worked as a clerk for the Orient Steamship Co. and then for the Teachers’ College, Blackfriars. In 1912 he joined the administrative staff of the University of Sydney and next year enrolled as a law student. Having had five years’ service with the Wellington Infantry, he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force as a private on 10 May 1915 and was commissioned second lieutenant in September. A ‘well-knit figure with dark hair and eyes … a laughing face and dare-devil, happy-go-lucky ways’, he embarked for England in December with reinforcements for the 19th

188. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 44925, 26 August 2010, p. 8873, accessed 23 February 2010. 189. B Kelly, ‘Simpson, Rayene Stewart (1926-1978)‘, op. cit. 190. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 673. 191. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Warrant Officer Class II Rayene Stewart Simpson’, Anzac Day

Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 192. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 675. 193. AIF Project, ‘Percy Valentine Storkey’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 36

Battalion. 194 Previous military service: Served for five years in the Wellington Infantry Regiment; two months with Field Battery; five years with the Wellington Infantry Regiment, Territorial Force.

195

Place of residence at time of enlistment: University of Sydney, New South Wales [electorate of Sydney].

Enlistment date: 10 May 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 7 April 1918—Bois de Hangard, France.196

For most conspicuous bravery, leadership, and devotion to duty when in charge of a platoon in attack. On emerging from the wood, the enemy trench line was encountered, and Lt. Storkey found himself with six men. While continuing his move forward, a large party—about 80 to 100 strong—armed with several machine guns, was noticed to be holding up the advance of the troops on the right. Lt. Storkey immediately decided to attack this party from the flank and rear, and, while moving forward in the attack was joined by Lt. Lipscomb and four men. Under the leadership of Lt. Storkey, this small party of two officers and ten other ranks charged the enemy position with fixed bayonets, driving the enemy out, killing and wounding about thirty, and capturing three officers and fifty men, also one machine gun. The splendid courage shown by this officer in quickly deciding his course of action, and his skilful method of attacking against such great odds, removed a dangerous obstacle to the advance of the troops on the right, and inspired the remainder of our small party with the utmost confidence when advancing to the objective line.

197

Unit at time of action: 19th Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

Resuming his studies at the university, he graduated LLB in 1921 (while holding an appointment as associate to Justice Sir Charles Wade). Admitted to the Bar on 8 June, Storkey practised in common law before being appointed to the New South Wales Department of Justice as crown prosecutor for the south-western circuit. He held this post for eighteen years. On 15 April 1922 he married an English-born divorcee Minnie Mary Gordon, née Burnett, at St Stephen’s Presbyterian Church, Sydney; they made their home at Vaucluse. At the Bar Storkey was ‘practical and realistic’, his outlook being tempered by humour and compassion. In May 1939 he became district court judge and chairman of quarter sessions in the northern district of New South Wales. There he became an identity, making many friends and being recognized for his quick assessment of character and for his sound common sense. He was ‘good looking, with dark hair and a shortish, well-built figure, always well dressed’. In 1955 he retired and went to England with his wife to live at Teddington, Middlesex, where he died without issue on 3 October 1969. His wife survived him. Storkey bequeathed his Victoria Cross to his old school at Napier. His portrait by Max Meldrum hangs in the Archives Building, Wellington.

198

Died: 3 October 1969, Teddington, London.199

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at South-West Middlesex Crematorium, Hanworth.

George Julian Howell Born: 19 November 1893, Enfield, New South Wales [electorate of Watson].200

Life before the war:

Fourth son of Francis John Howell, a carpenter from Brighton, England, and his Sydney-born wife Martha, née Sweeny. He was educated at Croydon Park and Burwood public schools, served an apprenticeship in bricklaying and was working as a builder when he enlisted as a private in the Australian Imperial Force on 3 June 1915. 201

194. W Derkenne, ‘Storkey, Percy Valentine (1893-1969)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 195. AIF Project, ‘Percy Valentine Storkey’, op. cit. 196. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 322. 197. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30733, 4 June 1918, p. 6775, accessed 8 April 2010. 198. W Derkenne, ‘Storkey, Percy Valentine (1893-1969)‘, op. cit. 199. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 675. 200. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Corporal George Julian Howell’, Anzac Day Commemoration

Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 37

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Enfield, Sydney, New South Wales [electorate of Watson].202

Enlistment date: 3 June 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 6 May 1917—Bullecourt, France.

For most conspicuous bravery. Seeing a party of the enemy were likely to outflank his battalion, Cpl. Howell, on his own initiative, single handed and exposed to heavy bomb and rifle fire, climbed on to the top of the parapet, and proceeded to bomb the enemy, pressing them back along the trench. Having exhausted his stock of bombs, he continued to attack the enemy with his bayonet. He was then severely wounded. The prompt action and gallant conduct of this NCO in the face of superior numbers was witnessed by the whole battalion, and greatly inspired them in the subsequent counter attack.

203

Unit at time of action: 1st Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

‘Snowy’ Howell came from a fighting family. His father and two brothers, one of whom was killed in action, served in France with the AIF. On 1 March 1919 he married a nurse, Sadie Lillian Yates, at St Stephen’s Presbyterian Church, Sydney. They settled at Coogee and Howell worked on the advertising staffs of Smith’s Newspapers Ltd and later the Bulletin Newspaper Co. Pty Ltd. By 1933 he was New South Wales representative for the Standard, Brisbane, and the Queensland Worker. In World War II he served with the 2nd AIF as a staff sergeant with Eastern Command, New South Wales, but found this work ‘too unexciting’ so in August 1944 joined the United States Army Sea Transport Service and took part in the landing at Leyte during the invasion of the Philippines. In December 1953 he retired to Perth to join his married daughter and later lived at Gunyidi, Western Australia. Survived by one daughter, he died on 23 December 1964 in the Repatriation General Hospital, Hollywood, and was cremated with military honours after an Anglican service.

204

Died: 23 December 1964, Hollywood, Perth, Western Australia [electorate of Curtin].

Place of burial or cremation: Karrakatta Crematorium, Hollywood, Perth, Western Australia [electorate of Curtin].205

Hughie Idwal Edwards Born: 1 August 1914 at Fremantle, Western Australia [electorate of Fremantle].206

Life before the war:

Third of five surviving children of Welsh-born parents Hugh Edwards, farrier, and his wife Jane Ann, née Watkins. Called Idwal by his family, he was to be known as Eddie in the Royal Air Force and Hughie to his Australian aircrews. He attended White Gum Valley State School and Fremantle Boys’ School, which he had to leave, reluctantly, after gaining his Junior certificate because the family finances could no longer support him. After working in a shipping agent’s office, a racing stable and a factory, Edwards enlisted in the Permanent Military Forces in March 1934 and served with the 6th Heavy Battery, Royal Australian Artillery, which manned the defences of Fremantle. Six ft 1½ ins (187 cm) tall and about 12 stone (76 kg) in weight, he played Australian Rules football for South Fremantle and cricket for the Fremantle garrison team. His stay in the army was brief as, much to his surprise, he was accepted as a cadet in the Royal Australian Air Force on 15 July 1935 and sent to No.1 Flying Training School, Point Cook, Victoria. He was not a natural pilot but on graduation was rated as `above average’.

The Royal Air Force was seeking recently graduated officers such as Edwards; he and six others arrived in England and were granted short-service commissions on 21 August 1936. Edwards loved the club-like atmosphere of the pre-war RAF. He soon became proficient on the new Blenheim bombers and was promoted to flying officer in May

201. WH Connell, ‘Howell, George Julian (1893-1964)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 202. AIF Project, ‘George Julian Howell’, 2010, accessed 26 March 2010. 203. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30154, 26 June 1917, p. 6832, accessed 26 March 2010. 204. WH Connell, ‘Howell, George Julian (1893-1964)‘, op. cit. 205. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 650. 206. A Hoyle, ‘Edwards, Sir Hughie Idwal (1914-1982)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 38

1938, but in August he flew into a cumulo-nimbus cloud and his aircraft iced up and went into an uncontrollable spin. After baling out his crew, he managed to escape at low altitude but his parachute caught on the radio aerial and he ‘rode’ the aircraft to the ground. He was critically injured and spent much of the following two years recovering, afraid that he would be unable to take part in World War II, which had broken out in September 1939. By sheer determination and constant pressure on the medical authorities, in April 1940 Edwards finally gained permission to resume flying.

207

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Fremantle, Western Australia [electorate of Fremantle]

Enlistment date: 15 July 1935.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

Wing Commander Edwards, although handicapped by a physical disability resulting from a flying accident, has repeatedly displayed gallantry of the highest order in pressing home bombing attacks from very low heights against strongly defended objectives. On 4th July, 1941 he led an important attack on the Port of Bremen, one of the most heavily defended towns in Germany. This attack had to be made in daylight and there were no clouds to afford concealment. During the approach to the German coast several enemy ships were sighted and Wing Commander - Edwards knew that his aircraft would be reported and that the defences would be in a state of readiness. Undaunted by this misfortune he brought his formation 50 miles overland to the target, flying at a height of little more than 50 feet, passing under high-tension cables, carrying away telegraph wires and finally passing through a formidable balloon barrage. On reaching Bremen he was met with a hail of fire, all his aircraft being hit and four of them being destroyed. Nevertheless he made a most successful attack, and then with the greatest skill and coolness withdrew the surviving aircraft without further loss. Throughout the execution of this operation which he had planned personally with full knowledge of the risks entailed, Wing Commander Edwards displayed the highest possible standard of gallantry and determination.

208

Unit at time of action: 105 Squadron, RAF.

Life after the war:

Edwards was sent to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) as group captain, bomber operations, in December 1944 and as senior air staff officer at Lord Louis Mountbatten’s headquarters, South-East Asia Command, in January 1945. He was engaged first in supporting the 14th Army in Burma and then, after being posted to Malaya and to Batavia (Jakarta), in the rescue of prisoners of war and Dutch civilians from the troubled Netherlands East Indies. Having been mentioned in despatches, he was appointed OBE (1947). Returning to England in May 1947, Edwards attended the RAF Staff College, Bracknell, Berkshire. He spent the following years flying jet aircraft and instructing. In 1956 he was posted to command the large RAF station at Habbaniyah, Iraq, which was besieged during a military coup in 1958. He acquitted himself well in a tense situation and withdrew the force without casualties. In October that year he was made commandant of the Central Fighter Establishment, West Raynham, Norfolk, as an acting air commodore (substantive 1 July 1959). He was appointed CB in 1959 and an aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II next year. In 1961 he attended the Imperial Defence College, London. Director of organisation (establishments) at the Air Ministry from January 1962, he retired from the RAF on 30 September 1963.

Edwards took up a post in Sydney as resident director of a large mining firm, Australian Selection (Pty) Ltd. His wife died in 1966. At the registrar-general’s office on 11 September 1972 he married Dorothy Carew Berrick, née Nott, a divorcee. On 7 January 1974 he was sworn in as governor of Western Australia. He was appointed a knight of grace of the Order of St John in May and KCMG in August. Impeded by chronic ill health, Sir Hughie resigned on 2 April 1975 and returned to Sydney. Survived by his wife, and by the son and daughter of his first marriage, he died suddenly of subdural haematoma after a fall on 5 August 1982 at Darling Point and was cremated. The most highly decorated Australian of World War II, he had been respected by all with whom he came in contact and revered by those with whom he served.

209

Died: 5 August 1982, Darling Point, New South Wales [electorate of Wentworth].210

207. Ibid. 208. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 35225, 22 July 1941, pp. 4213-4214, accessed 9 April 2010. 209. A Hoyle, ‘Edwards, Sir Hughie Idwal (1914-1982)‘, op. cit.

210. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 640.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 39

Place of burial or cremation: Karrakatta Cemetery, Western Australia, after a State Funeral [electorate of Curtin].211 A bronze statue of him by Andrew Kay was erected in Kings Square, Fremantle, in 2002.212

Leonard Maurice Keysor (Keyzor) Born: 3 November 1885, Maida Vale, London.213

Life before the war:

Son of Benjamin Keysor, a Jewish clock importer. The name was sometimes spelt Keyzor. After education at Tonnleigh Castle, Ramsgate, Keysor spent ten years in Canada. He migrated to Sydney, where he found employment as a clerk, about three months before the outbreak of World War I. On 18 August 1914 he enlisted in the 1st Battalion, Australian Imperial Force, and embarked for Egypt on 18 October.

214

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Darling Point, New South Wales [electorate of Wentworth].215

Enlistment date: 18 August 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty at Lone Pine trenches, in the Gallipoli Peninsula. On 7th August, 1915, he was in a trench which was being heavily bombed by the enemy. He picked up two live bombs and threw them back at the enemy at great risk to his own life, and continued throwing bombs, although himself wounded, thereby saving a portion of the trench which it was most important to hold. On 8th August, at the same place, Private Keysor successfully bombed the enemy out of a position, from which a temporary mastery over his own trench had been obtained, and was again wounded. Although marked for hospital, he declined to leave, and volunteered to throw bombs for another company which had lost its bomb throwers. He continued to bomb the enemy till the situation was relieved.

216

Unit at time of action: 1st Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

In October 1918 Keysor, an uncompromising advocate of conscription, returned to Australia with other veterans and assisted in the recruiting campaign. Discharged from the army as medically unfit on 12 December, he resumed clerical work but in 1920 he entered business in London. There, on 8 July at the Hill Street Synagogue, he married Gladys Benjamin. Keysor was persuaded to re-enact his bomb-throwing exploits in a film, For Valour, in 1927, but he was essentially a shy man who shunned publicity. White-haired and deaf when interviewed in the 1940s, he described himself as 'a common-or-garden clock importer' and remarked that 'the war was the only adventure I ever had'. Keysor was rejected for military service in 1939 on medical grounds. He died in London of cancer on 12 October 1951, survived by his wife and daughter, and was cremated after a memorial service at the Liberal Jewish Synagogue, St John's Wood. His Victoria Cross is held at the Australian War Memorial, Canberra.

217

Died: 12 October 1951, Paddington, London.218

Place of burial or cremation: Golders Green Crematorium, London. Plaque at Rookwood Cemetery Garden of Remembrance, New South Wales.219

211. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Acting Wing Commander Hughie Idwal Edwards’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 212. A Hoyle, ‘Edwards, Sir Hughie Idwal (1914-1982)’, op. cit. 213. D McCarthy, ‘Keysor, Leonard Maurice (1885-1951)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 13 February 2010. 214. Ibid. 215. AIF Project, ‘Leonard Keyzor’, 2010, accessed 26 March 2010. 216. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29328, 15 October 1915, p. 10154, accessed 26 March 2010. 217. D McCarthy, ‘Keysor, Leonard Maurice (1885-1951)’, op. cit. 218. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 654. 219. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Lance Corporal Leonard Maurice Keysor’, Anzac Day

Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 26 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 40

Victorian electorates Ballarat William Dunstan (1895-1957; WWI) born, and resided on enlistment Rupert Vance Moon (1892-1986; WWI) born Batman Bruce Steel Kingsbury (1918-42; WWII) resided on enlistment Bendigo Alexander Stewart Burton (1893-1915; WWI) born George Morby Ingram (1889-1961; WWI) born Walter Peeler (1887-1968; WWI) born William John Symons (1889-1948; WWI) born Bruce William Dunstan (1895-1957; WWI) buried Robert Cuthbert Grieve (1889-1957; WWI) buried John William Alexander Jackson (1897-1959; WWI) buried Richard Kelliher (1910-63; WWII) buried Lawrence Dominic McCarthy (1892-1975; WWI) buried James Rogers (1873-1961; Boer War) buried Edward John Francis Ryan (1890-1941; WWI) buried Corangamite Percy Herbert Cherry (1895-1917; WWI) born (or electorate of Corio) Albert Jacka (1893-1932; WWI) born James Ernest Newland (1881-1949; WWI) born Frederick William Bell (1875-1954; Boer War) resided on enlistment Corio Robert Matthew Beatham (1894-1918; WWI) resided on enlistment Percy Herbert Cherry (1895-1917; WWI) born (or electorate of Corangamite) Rupert Vance Moon (1892-1986; WWI) died, and buried Dunkley George Morby Ingram (1889-1961; WWI) buried Flinders George Morby Ingram (1889-1961; WWI) died Goldstein Robert Cuthbert Grieve (1889-1957; WWI) born, and resided on enlistment Walter Peeler (1887-1968; WWI) died Higgins George Morby Ingram (1889-1961; WWI) resided on enlistment Bruce Steel Kingsbury (1918-42; WWII) born Clifford William King Sadlier (1892-1964; WWI) born (or electorate of Kooyong) Indi Alexander Stewart Burton (1893-1915; WWI) resided on enlistment Albert David Lowerson (1896-1945; WWI) born, died, and buried Leslie Cecil Maygar (1871-1917; WWI) resided on enlistment Frederick Harold Tubb (1881-1917; WWI) born Jagajaga John William Alexander Jackson (1897-1959; WWI) died Richard Kelliher (1910-63; WWII) died Lawrence Dominic McCarthy (1892-1975; WWI) died William Ruthven (1893-1970; WWI) died Kooyong Maurice Vincent Buckley (1891-1921; WWI) born Clifford William King Sadlier (1892-1964; WWI) born (or electorate of Higgins) Mallee Samuel George Pearse (1897-1919; Russia) resided on enlistment

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 41

McEwen Leslie Cecil Maygar (1871-1917; WWI) born Blair Anderson Wark (1894-1941; WWI)died McMillan Walter Peeler (1887-1968; WWI) resided on enlistment Melbourne Maurice Vincent Buckley (1891-1921; WWI) died and buried Claud Charles Castleton (1893-1916) Thomas Cooke (1881-1916; WWI) resided on enlistment William Thomas Dartnell (1885-1915; WWI) born, resided on enlistment William Dunstan (1895-1957; WWI) died in ‘Melbourne’ Robert Cuthbert Grieve (1889-1957; WWI) died in ‘Melbourne’ Albert Jacka (1893-1932; WWI) died, and buried William Donovan Joynt (1889-1986; WWI) born, resided on enlistment, died and buried Rupert Vance Moon (1892-1986; WWI) resided on enlistment James Ernest Newland (1881-1949; WWI) died, and buried William Ellis Newton (1919-1943; WWII) born Walter Peeler (1887-1968; WWI) buried William Ruthven (1893-1970; WWI) born Edward John Francis Ryan (1890-1941; WWI) died Melbourne Ports Murray

Albert Chalmers Borella (1881-1968; WWI) born Albert Jacka (1893-1932; WWI) resided on enlistment Francis Hubert (Frank) McNamara (1894-1961; WWI) born Robert Mactier (1890-1918; WWI) born, and resided on enlistment Wannon Maurice Vincent Buckley (1891-1921; WWI) resided on enlistment Edward Kenna (1919-2009; WWII) born, resided on enlistment and buried James Rogers (1873-1961; Boer War)resided on enlistment Wills William Ruthven (1893-1970; WWI) buried William John Symons (1889-1948; WWI) resided on enlistment

William Dunstan Born: 8 March 1895, Ballarat, Victoria [electorate of Ballarat].220

Life before the war:

Fourth child and third son of William John Dunstan, bootmaker, and his wife Henrietta, née Mitchell. At Golden Point State School he was a very bright pupil. He left school at 15 to join the clerical staff of Snows, drapers at Ballarat. He served under the compulsory training scheme as a cadet gaining the cadet rank of captain, Australian Military Forces, and in July 1914 was commissioned lieutenant in the militia with the 70th Infantry (Ballarat Regiment).

221 Previous military service: Served three years in the Senior Cadets; one year in the 70th Infantry, Citizen Military Forces. 222

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Ballarat East, Victoria [electorate of Ballarat].

Enlistment date: 3 June 1915. (Nominal role cites enlistment date as 2 June 1915)

Description of action for which VC awarded:

220. AIF Project, ‘William Dunstan’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 221. RP Serle, ‘Dunstan, William (1895-1957)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 222. AIF Project, ‘William Dunstan’, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 42

For most conspicuous bravery at Lone Pine Trenches, in the Gallipoli Peninsula, on the 9th August, 1915. In the early morning the enemy made a determined counter attack on the centre of the newly captured trench held by Lieutenant Tubb, Corporals Burton and Dunstan, and a few men. They advanced up a sap and blew in a sandbag barricade, leaving only one foot of it standing; but Lieutenant Tubb, with the two corporals, repulsed the enemy and rebuilt the barricade. Supported by strong bombing parties, the enemy twice again succeeded in blowing in the barricade; but on each occasion they were repulsed, and the barricade rebuilt, although Lieutenant Tubb was wounded in the head and arm, and Corporal Burton was killed by a bomb while most gallantly building up the parapet under a hail of bombs.

223

Unit at time of action: 7th Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Life after the war:

He was invalided to Australia and discharged on 1 February 1916 having been twice mentioned in dispatches. He then rejoined the Citizen Forces, serving in the rank of lieutenant as area officer, Ballarat, and acting brigade major, 18th Infantry Brigade. His army career concluded when he transferred to the 6th Infantry Battalion in Melbourne in 1921, the unattached list in 1923 and the reserve of officers in 1928, retiring as lieutenant. On 10 June 1916 he was presented with the VC by the governor-general on the steps of Parliament House, Melbourne. This was the occasion for an outburst of exceptional public fervour. ‘A reserved man disliking fuss’, Dunstan found it a great ordeal. On 9 November 1918 he married a Ballarat girl, Marjorie Lillian Stewart Carnell, at St. Paul’s Church of England, Ballarat East. Two sons and a daughter, all of whom served in World War II, were born of this marriage. Dunstan moved to Melbourne to take a position in the Repatriation Department and in 1921 joined the staff of the Herald and Weekly Times Ltd as an accountant under (Sir) Keith Murdoch. He gradually took over the administration of the Herald group as chief accountant, company secretary, and general manager from 1934.

He was a considerate staff manager, conscientious and upright, with a gift for readily making friends in all walks of life. He was allowed a great deal of freedom in the administration of the Herald and was highly regarded in business, judicial and parliamentary circles. He had a particular interest in Australian Newsprint Mills Ltd, the consortium which established Australia’s first plant to make newsprint from hardwood at New Norfolk, Tasmania, and was well known to businessmen in England, the United States of America and Canada for his work in the industry. In 1953 the effect of his war wounds forced his resignation as general manager and he then became a director of the Herald and several other companies. He was a member of the Naval and Military, Australian, Athenaeum, the Royal Melbourne and Metropolitan golf, and the main racing clubs. Survived by his wife and children, Dunstan died suddenly of coronary vascular disease on 2 March 1957 and was cremated after a funeral service at Christ Church, South Yarra, attended by over 800 people including seven VC winners.

224

Died: 2 March 1957, Melbourne, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne].225

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Springvale Crematorium, Melbourne [electorate of Bruce]

Rupert Vance Moon Born: 14 August 1892, Bacchus Marsh, Victoria [electorate of Ballarat].226

Previous military service: Served in the 13th Australian Light Horse and in the 8th Infantry, Citizen Military Forces.

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Collins Street, Melbourne, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne].

Enlistment date: 21 August 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 12 May 1917—Bullecourt, France.

For most conspicuous bravery during an attack on an enemy strong point. His own immediate objective was a position in advance of the hostile trench itself, after the capture of which it was intended that his men should co-

223. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29328, 15 October 1915, p. 10154, accessed 25 March 2010. 224. RP Serle, ‘Dunstan, William (1895-1957)’, op. cit. 225. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 640. 226. AIF Project, ‘Rupert Vance Moon’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 43

operate in a further assault on a strong point further in rear. Although wounded in the initial advance, he reached his first objective. Leading his men against the trench itself, he was again badly wounded and incapacitated for the moment. He nevertheless inspired and encouraged his men and captured the trench. Lt. Moon continued to lead his much diminished command in the general attack with the utmost valour, being again wounded, and the attack was successfully pressed home. During the consolidation of this position, this officer was again badly wounded, and it was only after this fourth and severe wound through the face that he consented to retire from the fight. His bravery was magnificent and was largely instrumental in the successful issue against superior numbers, the safeguarding of the flank in attack, and the capture of many prisoners and machine guns.

227

Unit at time of action: 58th Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Life after the war:

After the war he had various jobs, including managing a rubber plantation in Malaya, and working as a jackaroo/bookkeeper near Corowa, NSW, before returning first to the bank and then an accountancy firm [Dennys Lascelles in Geelong] for the rest of his working career. 228

Also served in World War II … Enlisted 5 March 1941,

Geelong, Victoria; discharged, Captain, 6th Victorian Battalion, 1 November 1945. 229

Died: 28 February 1986, Whittington, Victoria [electorate of Corio].230

Place of burial or cremation: Mount Duneed Cemetery, Victoria [electorate of Corio]. In 2008 Mount Duneed Cemetery opened a memorial garden dedicated to Rupert Vance Moon.231

Bruce Steel Kingsbury Born: 8 January 1918, Armadale, Victoria [electorate of Higgins].232

Life before the war:

Second child of English-born parents Philip Blencowe Kingsbury, estate agent, and his wife Florence Annie, née Steel. Bruce was educated at Windsor State School and (on a scholarship) at Melbourne Technical College. At the outset of his career he preferred life in the bush and left the city for a job as caretaker on a farm at Boundary Bend by the Murray River. He and his boyhood friend Alan Avery later worked on sheep stations in New South Wales. Kingsbury returned to Melbourne, entered his father’s real-estate business at Northcote and played in the Jika Cricket Association.

233

Place of residence at time of enlistment: West Preston, Victoria [electorate of Batman].234

Enlistment date: 16 May 1940.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

In New Guinea, the Battalion to which Private Kingsbury belonged had been holding a position in the Isurava area for two days against continuous and fierce enemy attacks. On the 29th August, 1942, the enemy attacked in such force that they succeeded in breaking through the Battalion's right flank, creating a serious threat both to the rest of the Battalion and to its Headquarters. To avoid the situation becoming more desperate, it was essential to regain immediately the lost ground on the right flank. Private Kingsbury, who was one of the few survivors of a Platoon which had been over-run and severely cut about by the enemy, immediately volunteered to join a different platoon which had been ordered to counter-attack. He rushed forward firing his Bren Gun from the hip through terrific machine-gun fire and succeeded in clearing a path through the enemy. Continuing to sweep the enemy positions

227. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30130, 12 June 1917, p. 5865, accessed 8 April 2010. 228. ‘More World War I VC heroes’, PerthNow, 19 April 2008, accessed 8 April 2010. 229. AIF Project, ‘Rupert Vance Moon’, op. cit. 230. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 662. 231. Monument Australia, ‘Lieutenant Rupert Vance Moon V.C’, accessed 13 May 2014. 232. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 654. 233. JC McAllester, ‘Kingsbury, Bruce Steel (1918-1942)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 19 February 2010. 234. National Archives of Australia (NAA): Department of Defence; B883, Second Australian Imperial Force personnel dossiers, 1939-1947;

VX19139Kinsbury Bruce Steel, 1939-1948.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 44

with his fire and inflicting an extremely high number of casualties on them, Private Kingsbury was then seen to fall to the ground shot dead, by the bullet from a sniper hiding in the wood. Private Kingsbury displayed a complete disregard for his own safety. His initiative and superb courage made possible the recapture of the position which undoubtedly saved Battalion Headquarters, as well as causing heavy casualties amongst the enemy. His coolness, determination and devotion to duty in the face of great odds was an inspiration to his comrades.

235

Unit at time of action: 2/14th Battalion (Victoria), Australian Military Forces.

Died: 29 August 1942, during VC action, Isurava, New Guinea.236

Place of burial or cremation: Port Moresby War Cemetery, Papua New Guinea. A Melbourne suburb was named after him and a commemorative plaque was unveiled at his old primary school.237

Alexander Stewart Burton Born: 20 January 1893, Kyneton, Victoria [electorate of Bendigo].238

Life before the war:

Son of Alfred Edward Burton, grocer, and his wife Isabella, née Briggs, both Victorian-born. The family moved to Euroa and, after attending the state school, Burton followed his father into the firm of A. Miller & Co., working in the ironmongery department. He was a chorister in the Euroa Presbyterian Church, a member of the town band, and was active in sport. In 1911 he began his period of compulsory military service.

239

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Euroa, Victoria [electorate of Indi].240

Enlistment date: 18 August 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery at Lone Pine trenches in the Gallipoli Peninsula on the 9th August, 1915.In the early morning the enemy made a determined counter-attack on the centre of the newly captured trench held by Lieutenant Tubb, Corporals Burton and Dunstan and a few men. They advanced up a sap and blew in a sandbag barricade, leaving only one foot of it standing, but Lieutenant Tubb with the two corporals repulsed the enemy and rebuilt the barricade. Supported by strong bombing parties the1 enemy twice again succeeded in blowing in the barricade, but on each occasion they were repulsed and the barricade rebuilt, although Lieutenant Tubb was wounded in the head and arm and Corporal Burton was killed by a bomb while most gallantly building up the parapet under a hail of bombs.

241

Unit at time of action: 7th Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Died: 9 August 1915, Gallipoli, Turkey.242

Place of burial or cremation: Commemorated at the Lone Pine Memorial to the Missing, Gallipoli.243 A bridge over Seven Creeks near Euroa, Victoria, was officially renamed Burton Bridge.

George Morby (Mawby) Ingram Born: 18 March 1889, Bagshot, Victoria [electorate of Bendigo]. 244

235. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no.35893, 5 February 1943, p. 695, accessed 9 April 2010. 236. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 654. 237. JC McAllester, ‘Kingsbury, Bruce Steel (1918-1942)’, op. cit. 238. AIF Project, ‘Alexander Stewart Burton’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 239. GP Walsh, ‘Burton, Alexander Stewart (1893-1915)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 240. AIF Project, ‘Alexander Stewart Burton‘, op. cit. 241. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29328, 15 October 1915, p. 10154, accessed 25 March 2010. 242. AIF Project, ‘Alexander Stewart Burton‘, op. cit. 243. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Corporal Alexander Stewart Burton’, Anzac Day

Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 45

Life before the war:

Son of George Ronald Ingram, farmer, and his wife Charlotte, née Hubbard, both Victorian-born. Educated at Lilydale State School, he was apprenticed as a carpenter and joiner. He later went to Caulfield, Melbourne, and worked as a carpenter until 1914. On 19 January 1910, at East Prahran, he had married Jane Francis Nichols with Congregational forms. There were no children of the marriage which was dissolved in 1926 with Ingram as petitioner, the grounds being desertion by his wife. In 1905-14 Ingram was a member of the militia forces and was attached to the Australian Garrison Artillery.

245

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Murrumbeena, Victoria [electorate of Higgins].246

Enlistment date: 12 January 1916.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery and initiative during the attack on Montbrehain, east of Peronne, on 5th October, 1918. When early in the advance his platoon was held up by a strong point, Lt. Ingram, without hesitation, dashed out and rushed the post at the head of his men, capturing nine machine guns and killing 42 enemy after stubborn resistance. Later, when the company had suffered severe casualties from enemy posts, and many leaders had fallen, he at once took control of the situation, rallied his men under intense fire, and led them forward. He himself rushed the first post, shot six of the enemy, and captured a machine gun, thus overcoming serious resistance. On two subsequent occasions he again displayed great dash and resource in the capture of enemy posts, inflicting many casualties and taking 62 prisoners. Throughout the whole day he showed the most inspiring example of courage and leadership, and freely exposed himself regardless of danger.

247

Unit at time of action: 24th Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Life after the war:

In April 1919 he returned to Melbourne and on his discharge became general foreman with E. A. and Frank Watts Pty Ltd, building contractors. He married a widow, Lillian Wakeling, née Hart, on 10 February 1927 at the Methodist parsonage, Malvern, giving his occupation as farmer. After the completion of Melbourne’s Shrine of Remembrance, he became a guard there. During World War II he served with the Royal Australian Engineers and attained the rank of captain. Ingram’s second wife died in May 1951 and on 24 December he married another widow, Myrtle Lydia Thomas, née Cornell, at Brunswick Methodist Church. Survived by his wife and their son, and a son from his second marriage, he died of coronary vascular disease at his home at Hastings on 30 June 1961 and was buried in Frankston cemetery.

248

Died: 30 June 1961, Hastings, Victoria [electorate of Flinders].249

Place of burial or cremation: Frankston Cemetery, Victoria [electorate of Dunkley].

Walter Peeler Born: 9 August 1887, Barker’s Creek, near Castlemaine, Victoria [electorate of Bendigo].250

Life before the war:

Eighth surviving child of William Peeler, a farmer and miner from Tasmania, and his English-born wife Mary Ellen, née Scott. His education is not recorded but he worked on his parents’ orchard at Barker’s Creek, then at

244. D McIntyre, ‘Ingram, George Mawby (1889-1961)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 245. Ibid. 246. AIF Project, ‘George Morby Ingram’, 2010, accessed 26 March 2010. 247. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31108, 3 January 1919, pp. 306-307, accessed 26 March 2010. 248. D McIntyre, ‘Ingram, George Mawby (1899-1961)‘, op. cit. 249. AIF Project, ‘George Morby Ingram‘, op. cit.; MM Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London,

2005, p. 651. 250. A Staunton, ‘Peeler, Walter (1887-1968)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 46

Thompson’s Foundry, Castlemaine, and in the Leongatha district. He married Kathleen Emma Hewitt, née McLeod, on 10 July 1907 at the Congregational parsonage, Castlemaine. 251

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Leongatha, Victoria [electorate of McMillan].252

Enlistment date: 17 February 1916. (Cited as 22 February 1916 on Nominal Roll).

Description of action for which VC awarded: 20 September 1917—Ypres, Belgium.

For most conspicuous bravery when, with a Lewis gun, accompanying the first wave of the assault, he encountered an enemy party sniping the advancing troops from a shell-hole. L./Cpl. Peeler immediately rushed the position, and accounted for nine of the enemy, and cleared the way for the advance. On two subsequent occasions, he performed similar acts of valour, and each time accounted for a number of the enemy. During operations, he was directed to a position from which an enemy machine gun was being fired on our troops. He located and killed the gunner, and the remainder of the enemy party ran into a dugout close by. From this shelter they were dislodged by a bomb, and ten of the enemy ran out. These he disposed of. This non-commissioned officer actually accounted for over thirty of the enemy. He displayed an absolute fearlessness in making his way ahead of the first wave of the assault, and the fine example which he set insured the success of the attack against most determined opposition.

253

Unit at time of action: 3rd Pioneer Battalion, AIF.

Life after the war:

Peeler arrived back in Australia on 11 October and was discharged on 10 December. He worked with the Victorian Department of Lands for six years and then took up an orchard, but returned to Melbourne to work on the staff of the Sunshine Harvester Works. He was appointed custodian of Victoria’s Shrine of Remembrance in 1934. During World War II Peeler, understating his age by fourteen years, enlisted in the 2nd AIF in 1940 and saw service in the Syrian campaign as company quartermaster sergeant of ‘D’ Company, 2/2nd Pioneer Battalion. In June 1941 he led a patrol to recover four Australian wounded. His battalion was part of a small Australian force hastily landed in Java in February 1942 to assist the Dutch against the rapid Japanese advance; after the island’s surrender to the Japanese he survived a long period on the Burma Railway.

He was one of only three [Australian] World War I VC winners then serving overseas, the others being Walter Brown and Arthur Blackburn. He returned to Australia in October 1945 to learn that his son Donald had been killed on Bougainville in December 1944 while serving with the 15th Battalion. Wally Peeler resumed duty as custodian of the

Shrine of Remembrance and was an early member of the Victorian Corps of Commissionaires. He was awarded the British Empire Medal in 1961 and retired in 1964. Survived by his wife (d.1969) and four of his children, he died at South Caulfield on 23 May 1968 and was buried in Brighton cemetery. His medals are on display in the Hall of Valour at the Australian War Memorial.

254

Died: 23 May 1968, South Caulfield, Victoria [electorate of Goldstein].255

Place of burial or cremation: Brighton Cemetery, Melbourne [electorate of Melbourne Ports].

William John Symons (later Penn-Symons) Born: 12 July 1889, Eaglehawk, Victoria [electorate of Bendigo].256

Life before the war:

Son of William Samson Symons (d.1904), miner, and his wife Mary Emma, née Manning. Educated at Eaglehawk State School, in 1906 he moved with his family to Brunswick, Melbourne, and worked as a commercial traveller. He served for eight years in the militia (5th and 60th battalions) before enlisting in the Australian Imperial Force on 17

251. Ibid. 252. AIF Project, ‘Walter Peeler’, 2010, accessed 8 April 2010. 253. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30400, 23 November 1917, p. 12329, accessed 8 April 2010.

254. A Staunton, ‘Peeler, Walter (1887-1968)‘, op. cit. 255. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 666. 256. A Staunton, ‘Symons, William John (1889-1948)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 47

August 1914. 257 Previous military service: Served for five years in the 5th Battalion, Citizen Military Forces, and three years in the 60th Battalion, CMF.

258

Place of residence at time of enlistment: East Brunswick, Victoria [electorate of Willis].

Enlistment date: 17 August 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery on the night of 8th-9th August, 1915, at Lone Pine trenches, in the Gallipoli Peninsula. He was in command of the right section of the newly captured trenches held by his battalion, and repelled several counter attacks with great coolness. At about 5 a.m. on 9 th

August a series of determined attacks

were made by the enemy on the isolated sap, and six officers were in succession killed or severely wounded, a portion of the sap being lost. Lieutenant Symons then led a charge and retook the lost sap, shooting two Turks with his revolver. The sap was under hostile fire from three sides, and Lieutenant Symons withdrew some fifteen yards to a spot where some overhead cover could be obtained, and, in the face of heavy fire, built up a sand barricade. The enemy succeeded in setting fire to the fascines and woodwork of the head cover, but Lieutenant Symons extinguished the fire and rebuilt the barricade. His coolness and determination finally compelled the enemy to discontinue their attacks.

259

Unit at time of action: 7th Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Life after the war:

In 1918 he adopted the surname of Penn Symons. With his family he later settled at Kenton, Hampshire, where he became a director of several engineering and construction companies. He served as a lieutenant-colonel in the home guard in 1941-44. Survived by his wife and three daughters, he died of a brain tumour on 24 June 1948 in London. His VC and medals are in the Hall of Valour at the Australian War Memorial, Canberra

260

Died: 24 June 1948, Paddington, London, United Kingdom.261

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Golders Green Crematorium.

Robert Cuthbert Grieve Born: 19 June 1889, Brighton, Melbourne, Victoria [electorate of Goldstein].262

Life before the war:

Son of John Grieve, clerk and later warehouseman, and his wife Annie Deas, née Brown, both Victorian-born. Educated at Caulfield Grammar School and Wesley College, he became an interstate commercial traveller in the softgoods trade. 263

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Brighton, Melbourne, Victoria [electorate of Goldstein].264

Enlistment date: 23 February 1916.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 7 June 1917— Messines, Belgium.

257. A Staunton, ‘Symons, William John (1889-1948)’, op. cit. 258. AIF Project, ‘William John Symons’, 2010, accessed 8 April 2010. 259. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29328, 15 October 1915, pp. 10153-10154, accessed 8 April 2010. 260. A Staunton, ‘Symons, William John (1889-1948) ‘, op. cit. 261. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 676. 262. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner— Captain Robert Cuthbert Grieve’, Anzac Day

Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 263. D McIntyre, ‘Grieve, Robert Cuthbert (1889-1957)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 264. AIF Project, ‘Robert Cuthbert Grieve’, 2010, accessed 25 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 48

For most conspicuous bravery. During an attack on the enemy’s position, in the face of heavy artillery and machine gun fire and after all his officers had been wounded and his company had suffered very heavy casualties, Capt. Grieve located two hostile machine guns which were holding up his advance. He then, single handed, under continuous fire from these two machine guns, succeeded in bombing and killing the two crews, re-organised the remnants of his company, and gained his original objective. Cpt. Grieve, by his utter disregard of danger, and his coolness in mastering a very difficult position, set a splendid example, and when he finally fell wounded the position had been secured and the few remaining enemy were in full flight.

265

Unit at time of action: 37th Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Life after the war:

He was evacuated to England and returned to his unit on 29 October but soon afterwards suffered acute trench nephritis and double pneumonia and was invalided to Australia in May 1918. On 7 August, at Scots Church, Sydney, he married Sister May Isabel Bowman of the Australian Army Nursing Service who had nursed him during his illness. She died some years later and there were no children of the marriage. After demobilization Grieve established the business of Grieve, Gardner & Co., softgoods warehousemen, in Flinders Lane, Melbourne, and was managing director until 4 October 1957 when he died of cardiac failure; he had suffered from nephritis since 1917. He was buried with military honours in Springvale cemetery. He was a staunch supporter of Wesley College to which his Victoria Cross was presented in 1959.

266

Died: 4 October 1957, Melbourne, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne].267

Place of burial or cremation: Springvale Cemetery, Victoria [electorate of Bruce].

Richard Kelliher Born: 1 September 1910, Ballybranagh, Tralee, County Kerry, Ireland.268

Life before the war:

Son of Michael Kelliher, labourer, and his wife Mary Anne, née Talbot. Dick attended technical college at Tralee and worked as a mechanic in his brother’s garage. In 1929 he emigrated to Brisbane with his 15-year-old sister Norah. She later said that, although he was good natured and ‘not a very big fellow’, he ‘wouldn’t take it if anyone were nasty’. During the Depression he worked at a variety of jobs: he was sacristan at St Stephen’s Cathedral before moving to the country where he was employed as a farmhand. Sickness dogged him, and he contracted typhoid and meningitis.

269

Place of residence at time of enlistment: New Farm, Queensland [electorate of Brisbane].270

Enlistment date: 21 February 1941.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

During an attack by this soldier's platoon on an enemy position at Nadzab, New Guinea, on the morning of I3th September, 1943, the platoon came under heavy fire from a concealed enemy machine-gun post approximately 50 yards away. Five of the platoon were killed and three wounded and it was found impossible to advance without further losses. In the face of these casualties Private Kelliher suddenly, on his own initiative, and without orders, dashed towards the post and hurled two grenades at it, killing some of the enemy but not all. Noting this, he then returned to his section, seized a Bren gun, again dashed forward to within 30 yards of the post, and with accurate fire completely silenced it. Returning from his already gallant action Private Kelliher next requested permission to go forward again and rescue his wounded section leader. This he successfully accomplished, though under heavy rifle fire from another position. Private Kelliher, by these actions, acted as an inspiration to everyone in his platoon, and

265. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30215, 31 July 1917, p. 7905, accessed 25 March 2010. 266. D McIntyre, ‘Grieve, Robert Cuthbert (1889-1957),’ op. cit. 267. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 646. 268. National Archives of Australia (NAA): Department of Defence; B883, Second Australian Imperial Force personnel dossiers, 1939-1947;

QX500601, Kelliher Richard, 1939-1948. 269. RE Reid, ‘Kelliher, Richard (1910-1963)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 19 February 2010. 270. NAA: Kelliher Richard, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 49

not only enabled the advance to continue but also saved his section leader's life. His most conspicuous bravery and extreme devotion to duty in the face of heavy enemy fire resulted in the capture of this strong enemy position. 271

Unit at time of action: 2/25th Battalion (Queensland), Australian Military Forces.

Life after the war:

After further spells in hospital with malaria, he was sent to Brisbane in November and posted to the 11th Australian Advanced Workshop next month. He took part in his old battalion’s march through the city on 8 August 1944 and was discharged from the AIF on 20 August 1945. In 1946 he was selected in the Australian contingent for the victory

parade in London. King George VI presented him with his VC; the Kelliher family from County Kerry attended the investiture. Kelliher returned to London in 1953 for the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II and in 1956 for the VC centenary celebrations. On each occasion he visited Tralee. At Epworth Lodge, Bowen Hills, Brisbane, on 30 August 1949 Kelliher had married with Methodist forms Olive Margaret Hearn, a 19-year-old machinist. They moved to Melbourne where he worked as a gardener. He died of cerebral thrombosis on 28 January 1963 in the Repatriation General Hospital, Heidelberg, and was buried in Springvale cemetery with Catholic rites and military honors; his wife, son and two daughters survived him. Olive remarried. In 1966 she sold Kelliher’s VC and campaign medals to his battalion association which donated them to the Australian War Memorial, Canberra.

272

Died: 28 January 1963, Heidelberg, Victoria [electorate of Jagajaga].273

Place of burial or cremation: Springvale Lawn Cemetery, Victoria [electorate of Bruce].274

Lawrence (Laurence) Dominic McCarthy Born: 21 January 1892, York, Western Australia [electorate of Pearce].275

Life before the war:

Son of Florence McCarthy of Cork, Ireland, and his wife Anne, née Sherry. His parents died when he was very young and he was brought up in Clontarf Orphanage, Perth, and educated in Catholic schools. McCarthy was working as a contractor when he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 16 October 1914. 276

Previous military service:

Served for 2.5 years in the 18th Australian Light Horse. 277

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Lion Mill, Mt Helena, Western Australia [electorate of Pearce].

Enlistment date: 23 September 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 23 August 1918 — Madame Wood, France.

For most conspicuous bravery, initiative, and leadership on the morning of the 23 August 1918, in attack near Madame Wood, east of Vernandovilliers (north of Chaulnes). Although the objectives of his battalion were attained without serious opposition, the battalion on the left flank was heavily opposed by well posted machine guns. Lt. McCarthy, realising the situation, at once engaged the nearest machine gun post, but still the attacking troops failed to get forward. This officer then determined to attack the nearest post. Leaving his men to continue the fire fight, he, with two others, dashed across the open and succeeded in reaching the block. Although single handed, as he had out distanced his comrades, and despite serious opposition and obstacles, he captured the gun and continued to fight his way down the trench, inflicting heavy casualties, and capturing three more machine guns. At this stage, being some 700 yards from his starting point, he was joined by one of his men, and together they continued to bomb up the trench until touch was establishing with an adjoining unit. Lt. McCarthy, during this most daring advance, single handed killed twenty of the enemy and captured in addition five machine guns and fifty prisoners.

271. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 36305, 28 December 1943, p. 5649, accessed 9 April 2010. 272. RE Reid, ‘Kelliher, Richard (1910-1963)’, op. cit. 273. Ibid. 274. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 653. 275. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 657. 276. WH Connell, ‘McCarthy, Lawrence Dominic (1892-1975)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February

2010.

277. AIF Project, ‘Lawrence McCarthy’, 2010, accessed 1 April 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 50

By his gallant and determined action he saved a critical situation, prevented many casualties, and was mainly, if not entirely, responsible for the final objective being taken. 278

Unit at time of action: 16th Infantry Battalion (South Australia and Western Australia), AIF.

Life after the war:

On 21 November 1918 McCarthy was again evacuated, ill, to England. He returned home on 20 December 1919 and his AIF appointment ended on 6 August 1920. In England, on 25 January 1919, he had married Florence (Flossie) Minnie Norville, at Weston-super-Mare, Somerset. Their only child Lawrence Norville was killed in action on Bougainville in 1945. ‘Mac’ moved from Western Australia to Victoria in 1926 where he joined the staff of the Sunshine Harvester Works. He remained with the company, mostly as a traveller in the Mallee, until the Depression forced staff reductions in 1934. From 1935 until his retirement in 1969 he was superintendent of the Trustees, Executors & Agency Co. Ltd building, Melbourne. He attended the V.C. centenary celebrations in London in 1956 and was present at the opening of V.C. Corner at the Australian War Memorial, Canberra, in 1964. A most popular, generous and unassuming man, he took a keen interest in community affairs. Laurie McCarthy died at Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital, Melbourne, on 25 May 1975 and was cremated with full military honours. He was survived by his wife who donated his V.C. and medals to the Australian War Memorial, which also holds his portrait by Charles Wheeler.

279

Died: 25 May 1975, Melbourne, Victoria [electorate of Jagajaga].280

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Springvale Crematorium, Melbourne [electorate of Bruce].

Percy Herbert Cherry Born: 4 June 1895, Drysdale, Victoria [either electorate of Corangamite or electorate of Corio].281

Life before the war:

Son of John Gawley Cherry and his wife Elizabeth, née Russel, both Victorian-born. When he was 7 the family moved to Tasmania and took up an apple orchard near Cradoc. Percy attended the local state school until he was 13 and was then privately tutored. He played the cornet in the Franklin brass band, sang in the Anglican church choir and belonged to the local cadet corps. He worked with his father and became an expert apple-packer, winning a championship title in case-making at Launceston Fruit Show. In 1913 he was commissioned in the 93rd Infantry Regiment.

282 Previous military service: Served as Lieutenant, 93rd Senior Cadets; still serving at time of AIF enlistment. 283

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Huon, Tasmania [electorate of Franklin].

Enlistment date: 5 March 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 26 March 1917—Lagnicourt, France.284

For most conspicuous bravery, determination and leadership when in command of a company detailed to storm and clear a village. After all the officers of his company had become casualties, [Captain Cherry] carried on with care and determination, in the face of fierce opposition, and cleared the village of the enemy. He sent frequent reports of progress made, and when held up for some time by an enemy strong point he organised machine gun and bomb parties and captured the position. His leadership, coolness, and bravery set a wonderful example to his men. Having cleared the village, he took charge of the situation and beat off the most resolute and heavy counter attack made

278. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31067, 13 December 1918, p. 14776, accessed 1 April 2010. 279. WH Connell, ‘McCarthy, Lawrence Dominic (1892-1975)’, op. cit. 280. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 657. 281. AIF Project, ‘Percy Herbert Cherry’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 282. R Clark, ‘Cherry, Percy Herbert (1895-1917)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 283. AIF Project, ‘Percy Herbert Cherry‘, op. cit. 284. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 265.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 51

by the enemy. Wounded about 6.30 a.m., he refused to leave his post, and there remained, encouraging all to hold out at all costs, until, about 4.30 p.m., this very gallant officer was killed by an enemy shell. 285

Unit at time of action: 26th Infantry Battalion (Queensland and Tasmania), AIF.

Died: 26 March 1917, Lagnicourt, France.286

Place of burial or cremation: Quéant Road Cemetery (Plot VIII, Row C, Grave No. 10), Buissy, France.287

Albert Jacka Born: 10 January 1893, Layard, Winchelsea, Victoria [electorate of Corangamite].288

Life before the war:

Fourth child of Nathaniel Jacka, a Victorian-born labourer, later a farmer and contractor, and his English wife Elizabeth, née Kettle. The family moved to Wedderburn when Albert was 5. After elementary schooling, Bert worked as a labourer with his father, then for the Victorian State Forests Department. He was a shy youth, but excelled at sports, especially cycling.

289

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Wedderburn, Victoria [electorate of Murray].290

Enlistment date: 18 September 1914. (15 September 1914 on Nominal Roll)

Description of action for which VC awarded: 19-20 May 1915 — Courtney’s Post, Gallipoli, Turkey.

For most conspicuous bravery on the night of the 19th-20th May, 1915, at ‘Courtney’s Post’ Gallipoli Peninsula. Lance-Corporal Jacka, while holding a portion of our trench with four other men, was heavily attacked. When all except himself were killed or wounded, the trench was rushed and occupied by seven Turks. Lance Corporal Jacka at once most gallantly attacked them single handed, and killed the whole party, five by rifle fire and two with the bayonet.

291

Unit at time of action: 14th Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Following the evacuation of Gallipoli and some time in Egypt, Jacka proceeded to the Western Front, where he would receive further gallantry awards: At Pozieres, on 7 August 1916, the Germans overran a portion of the line which included Jacka’s dug-out. He charged a large number of enemy who were rounding up prisoners and a furious close quarter fight ensued in which he was wounded three times, once through the neck. Inspired by Jacka, the captured men turned on their captors: many Germans were taken prisoner and the line was retaken. For his actions Jacka received the Military Cross. CEW Bean wrote of this day that Jacka’s counter-attack ‘stands as the most dramatic and effective act of individual audacity in the history of the AIF’. At Bullecourt, on 8 April 1917, when the 4th Division was preparing to attack the Hindenburg line, Jacka, then intelligence officer of the 14th, made a dangerous night reconnaissance of the wire in front of the objective. He got through the wire in two places, brought back a report, and then went out to lay tapes on the assault line. As he was doing so, two Germans approached. He attempted to fire his revolver as they came at him, but nothing happened. Jacka rushed them, seizing the officer first, and eventually brought both in as prisoners. The attacking Australian troops then assembled unseen on the tapes and Jacka’s action undoubtedly saved them from bombardment and heavy fire. For this he received a bar to the Military Cross. There has been speculation as to whether Jacka merited two bars to his Victoria Cross. CEW Bean wrote: ‘Everyone who knows the facts, knows that Jacka earned the Victoria Cross three times’.

On other occasions Jacka exhibited considerable military skill. At Messines he made a valuable reconnaissance and led his company in taking 800 metres of territory and capturing a field gun. At Polygon Wood, just after Jacka had returned from Britain where he was sent to recover from a wound he had received in July 1917, he was virtually

285. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30064, 11 May 1917, p. 4587, accessed 25 March 2010. 286. R Clark, ‘Cherry, Percy Herbert (1895-1917)’, op. cit. 287. AIF Project, ‘Percy Herbert Cherry‘, op. cit. 288. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 651. 289. KJ Fewster, ‘Jacka, Albert (1893-1932)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 290. AIF Project, ‘Albert Jacka’, 2010, accessed 26 March 2010. 291. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29240, 23 July 1915, p. 7279, accessed 26 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 52

responsible for controlling the 14th, which had for some time been known as ‘Jacka’s Mob’. At the end of May 1918 Jacka was badly gassed and a missile passed through his trachea. He was evacuated to No. 20 Casualty Clearing Station at Vignacourt and it was thought for a time that he would not recover. When he did he was sent to Britain for two operations and a long recuperative period.

292

Life after the war:

In September 1919 he embarked for Australia aboard the Euripides. A large crowd, including the governor-general, greeted the ship when it berthed at Melbourne and a convoy of eighty-five cars with Jacka at its head drove to the town hall where men from the 14th Battalion welcomed their famous comrade. He was demobilized in January 1920. Shortly after his return Jacka, RO Roxburgh and EJL Edmonds (both former members of the 14th Battalion) established the electrical goods importing and exporting business, Roxburgh, Jacka & Co. Pty Ltd. Jacka contributed £700 of the firm’s paid up capital. The company’s other directors were John Wren and his associate ‘Dick’ Lean, while Wren’s brother Arthur held over three-quarters of the company’s shares. In 1923 the business name was altered to Jacka Edmonds & Co. when Roxburgh withdrew. On 17 January 1921 at St Mary’s Catholic Church, St Kilda, Jacka had married Frances Veronica Carey, a typist from his office. They settled at St Kilda and later adopted a daughter. In September 1929 Jacka was elected to the St Kilda Council and became mayor a year later. He devoted most of his energies on council to assisting the unemployed. His own business flourished until 1929 when the Scullin government increased import tariffs and the company went into voluntary liquidation in September 1930. It was rumoured that the company’s difficulties stemmed in part from Wren removing his support after Jacka refused to follow his wishes. Jacka then became a commercial traveller with the Anglo-Dominion Soap Co. He fell ill, entered Caulfield Military Hospital on 18 December 1931 and died on 17 January 1932 of chronic nephritis. Nearly 6000 people filed past his coffin when it lay in state in Anzac House. The funeral procession, led by over 1000 returned soldiers flanked by thousands of onlookers, made its way to St Kilda cemetery where he was buried with full military honours in the Presbyterian section. Eight Victoria Cross winners were his pallbearers.

At his funeral Bert Jacka was described as ‘Australia’s greatest front-line soldier’. Few would challenge this assessment. Bean and the men of the 14th Battalion (‘Jacka’s Mob’) shared the belief that he had earned three VCs. He might have risen higher in the AIF but his blunt, straightforward manner frequently annoyed his superiors. ‘He said what he meant, and meant what he said’, recalls one friend. As an officer he invariably won respect by his example. It was claimed that he preferred to punch an offender than to place him on a charge. ‘His methods could not have been adopted generally in the AIF without disaster’, Bean noted. Nevertheless Jacka seemed to epitomize the Anzac creed of mateship, bravery, fairness and an absence of pretentiousness. Many sought to exploit his fame. In 1916 and 1918 he spurned offers from Prime Minister Hughes to return to Australia and assist with recruiting campaigns. His name was also used by (Sir) Keith Murdoch in the 1916 conscription referendum. His father promptly stated publicly that Bert had never declared himself in favour of conscription. The anti-conscriptionists made much of this denial but on balance it seems probable that Jacka did support conscription. His standing remained so high that a memorial plaque and sculpture for his grave was paid for by public subscription while £1195 was raised towards buying his widow a house. His portrait, by GJ Coates, is in the Australian War Memorial. Two of his brothers had AIF service.

293

Died: 17 January 1932, Caulfield, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne Ports].

Place of burial or cremation: St Kilda Cemetery, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne Ports]. 294

James Ernest Newland Born: 22 August 1881, Highton, Geelong, Victoria [electorate of Corangamite].295

Life before the war:

Son of William Newland, labourer and later railway employee, and his wife Louisa Jane, née Wall, both Victorian born. No details of his education are known. Newland embarked as a private in the 4th Battalion, Australian Commonwealth Horse, for service in the South African War on 26 March 1903. His unit arrived at Cape Town shortly before the peace treaty was signed and was soon back in Australia. He served with the Royal Australian Artillery in

292 L Wigmore in collaboration with B Harding, They dared mightily, 2nd edition, revised and condensed by J Williams and A Staunton, Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1986, pp. 74-75. 293. KJ Fewster, ‘Jacka, Albert (1893-1932)’, op. cit. 294. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 651. 295. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Captain James Ernest Newland’, Anzac Day Commemoration

Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 53

Victoria from July 1903 until September 1907 and was a policeman in Tasmania from March 1909 until August 1910 when he rejoined the regular army there. He served with the Australian Instructional Corps until enlisting in the Australian Imperial Force on 17 August 1914 as regimental quartermaster sergeant, 12th Battalion. On 27 December 1913, at Sheffield, Tasmania, he had married Florence May Mitchell.

296 Previous military service: Previously served

in South Africa (six months); Royal Australian Artillery, Victoria, for 4 years; Instructional Staff at time of AIF enlistment. 297

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Sheffield, Tasmania [electorate of Lyons].

Enlistment date: 17 August 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 8-9 April 1917 — Bapaume, France; 15 April 1917 — Lagnicourt, France.298

For most conspicuous bravery, and devotion to duty, in the face of heavy odds, on three separate occasions. On the first occasion [Captain Newland] organised the attack by his company on a most important objective, and led personally, under heavy fire, a bombing attack. He then rallied the company, which had suffered heavy casualties, and he was one of the first to reach the objective. On the following night his company, holding the captured

position, was heavily counter attacked. By personal exertion, utter disregard of fire, and judicious use of reserves, he succeeded in dispersing the enemy and regaining the position. On a subsequent occasion, when the company on his left was overpowered, and his own company attacked from the rear, he drove off a combined attack which had developed from these directions. These attacks were renewed three or four times, and it was Capt. Newland’s tenacity and disregard for his own safety that encouraged the men to hold out. The stand made by this officer was of the greatest importance, and produced far reaching results.

299

Unit at time of action: 12th Infantry Battalion (South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania), AIF.

Life after the war:

His AIF appointment ended in Victoria on 2 March 1918. He carried out full-time duty as a captain (Reserve of Officers) until 31 December 1921 but this service was not recognized until 1927 as continuous employment in the military forces in a permanent capacity. Newland’s wife died of tuberculosis in 1924 and on 30 April 1925, at St Paul’s Anglican Church, Bendigo, he married Heather Vivienne Broughton. Newland was promoted quartermaster and honorary major in 1930 and was awarded the Meritorious Service Medal in 1935. He retired from the army in 1941 and from April to September was deputy commissioner of the Northern Territory division of the Australian Red Cross Society. On 2 January 1942 he joined the inspection staff at Ammunition Factory, Footscray, Melbourne. Survived by his wife and their daughter, he died suddenly of heart failure at Caulfield on 19 March 1949 and was buried in the Methodist section of Brighton cemetery. In 1984 his daughter presented his VC and medals to the Australian War Memorial.

300

Died: 19 March 1949, Caulfield, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne Ports].301

Place of burial or cremation: East Brighton General Cemetery, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne Ports].

Frederick William Bell Born: 3 April 1875 in Perth, Western Australia [electorate of Perth].302

Life before the war:

296. A Staunton, ‘Newland, James Ernest (1881-1949)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 297. AIF Project, ‘James Ernest Newland’, 2010, accessed 8 April 2010. 298. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 273. 299. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30122, 8 June 1917, p. 5702, accessed 8 April 2010. 300. A Staunton, ‘Newland, James Ernest (1881-1949)‘, op. cit. 301. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 664. 302. HJ Gibbney, ‘Bell, Frederick William (1875 - 1954)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 1 March

2010; M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal , 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 627.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 54

Son of Henry Thomas Bell, clerk, and his wife Alice Agnes, née Watson. Educated at A. D. Letch’s preparatory school and at the government school, Perth, he joined the Western Australian Public Service in November 1894 as a cadet in the Department of Customs where he later became a cashier. 303

Place of residence at time of Enlistment: Queenscliff, Victoria [electorate of Corangamite].304

Enlistment date: 5 January 1892.

Description of Action for which VC awarded:

At Brakpan on the 16th May, 1901, when retiring through a heavy fire after holding the right flank, Lieutenant Bell noticed a man dismounted and returned and took him up behind him. The horse not being equal to the weight fell with them, Lieutenant Bell then remained behind and covered the man’s retirement till he was out of danger. 305

Unit at time of Action: West Australian Mounted Infantry.

Life after the war:

After his discharge in May 1902, Bell joined the Australian section of the coronation escort for King Edward VII. He then settled in Perth but returned to England, joined the colonial service in 1905 and was appointed to British Somaliland as an assistant district officer in April. Made an assistant political officer later that year [and] he held the post until 1910. While in Somaliland he took up big-game hunting and in 1909 narrowly escaped death when he was badly mauled by a lion. He was assistant resident in Nigeria in 1910-12 and from then until the outbreak of World War I was an assistant district commissioner in Kenya. In 1914 Bell, who had been commissioned in the 4th Reserve Regiment of Cavalry in August 1907, served in France with the Royal Irish Dragoon Guards. He was mentioned in dispatches and promoted captain in October 1915. On his return to England he was made commandant of a rest camp and promoted major; later, in the rank of lieutenant-colonel, he commanded an embarkation camp at Plymouth. Two of his three brothers were killed in action with the Australian Imperial Force. After the war Bell returned to the colonial service as a district commissioner in Kenya. In May 1922 in London he married a divorcee Mabel Mackenzie Valentini, née Skinner, and in 1925 went into retirement in England. His wife died in 1944 and on 20 February 1945 he married a widow Brenda Margaret Cracklow, née Illingworth. He revisited Western Australia in 1947. His wife survived him when he died at Bristol on 28 April 1954.

306

Died: 28 April 1954 in Bristol, Avon.307

Place of Burial: Canford Cemetery, Bristol, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom.

Robert Matthew Beatham Born: 16 June 1894, Glassonby, Penrith, Cumberland, United Kingdom.308

Life before the war:

Son of John Beatham, papermaker’s foreman, and his wife Elizabeth, née Allison. While still in his teens he migrated alone to Australia. 309

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Geelong, Victoria [electorate of Corio].310

Enlistment date: 8 January 1915.

303. HJ Gibbney, ‘Bell, Frederick William (1875-1954)‘, op. cit. 304. National Archives of Australia: Department of Defence; B4717, Permanent Military Force and Army Militia Personnel dossiers, 1901-1940; Bell, Frederick William 837, 1884-1970. 305 ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 27362, 4 October 1901, p. 6,481, accessed 1 March 2010. 306. HJ Gibbney, ‘Bell, Frederick William (1875-1954)’, op. cit. 307. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 627. 308. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 627. 309. R C Thompson, ‘Beatham, Robert Matthew (1894-1918)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 1 March 2010. 310. AIF Project, ‘Robert Matthew Beatham’, 2010, accessed 24 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 55

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery and self-sacrifice during the attack north of Rosieres, east of Amiens, on 9th August, 1918. When the advance was held up by heavy machine gun fire, Pte Beatham dashed forward and assisted by one man, bombed and fought the crews of four enemy machine guns, killing ten of them and capturing ten others, thus facilitating the advance and saving many casualties. When the final objective was reached, although previously wounded, he again dashed forward and bombed a machine gun, being riddled with bullets and killed in doing so. The valour displayed by this gallant soldier inspired all ranks in a wonderful manner.

311

Unit at time of action: 8th Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Died: 9 August 1918, Lihons, France.312

Place of burial or cremation: Heath Cemetery, Harbonnières, France.313

Clifford William King Sadlier Born: 11 June 1892, Camberwell, Victoria [either electorate of Higgins or electorate of Kooyong].314

Life before the war:

Fourth child of Irish-born Thomas George Sadlier, salesman and later indent agent, and his wife Mary Ann, née Roberts, from Adelaide. After attending University High School he accompanied his family to Perth where they settled at Subiaco. Sadlier was working as a commercial traveller when he enlisted as a private in the Australian Imperial Force in May 1915.

315

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Subiaco, Western Australia [electorate of Curtin].316

Enlistment date: 25 May 1915. (26 May 1915 on Nominal Roll)

Description of action for which VC awarded: 24-25 April 1918 — Villers-Bretonneux, France.

For conspicuous bravery during a counter attack by his battalion on strong enemy positions. Lieutenant Sadlier’s platoon, which was on the left of the battalion, had to advance through a wood where a strong enemy machine gun post caused casualties and prevented the platoon from advancing. Although himself wounded, he at once collected his bombing section, led them against the machine guns, and succeeded in killing the crews and capturing two of the guns. By this time, Lieutenant Sadlier’s party were all casualties, and he alone attacked a third enemy machine gun with his revolver, killing the crew of four and taking the gun. In doing so, he was again wounded. The very gallant conduct of this officer was the means of clearing the flank and allowing the battalion to move forward, thereby saving a most critical situation. His coolness and utter disregard of danger inspired all.

317

Unit at time of action: 51st Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Life after the war:

On 24 October Sadlier was invalided to Australia and his AIF appointment ended on 4 March 1919. On 23 August 1922, at St Mary’s Anglican Church, Perth, he married Maude Victoria Moore. Throughout the 1920s he worked as a manufacturer’s agent and in 1929 briefly ran his own indent agency. Next year he unsuccessfully contested the State seat of Nedlands as a Nationalist. His marriage ended in divorce in 1934 and on 17 July 1936 he married Alice Edith Smart at the Presbyterian manse, Subiaco. From then until 1949 he was a clerk in the Repatriation Department in Perth. Invalided out of the public service, he moved to Busselton where gardening became his chief

311. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31067, 13 December 1918, p. 14779, accessed 24 March 2010. 312. R C Thompson, ‘Beatham, Robert Matthew (1894-1918)’, op. cit. 313. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 627. 314. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 671. 315. M Lincoln, ‘Sadlier, Clifford William King (1892-1964)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006. 316. AIF Project, ‘Clifford William King Sadlier’, 2010, accessed 8 April 2010. 317. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30790, 9 July 1918, p. 8156, accessed 8 April 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 56

interest. Survived by his wife, he died there, childless, on 28 April 1964 and was cremated; for ten years he had suffered from emphysematic bronchitis. 318

Died: 28 April 1964, Busselton, Western Australia [electorate of Forrest].319

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Karrakatta Crematorium, Perth, Western Australia [electorate of Curtin].

Albert David (Alby) Lowerson Born: 2 August 1896, Myrtleford, Victoria [electorate of Indi].320

Life before the war:

Sixth child of English-born Henry Lowerson, engine driver and later farmer, and his Victorian wife Mary Jane, née McMaster. Alby Lowerson had been dredging for gold at Adelong, New South Wales, before enlisting in the Australian Imperial Force in Melbourne on 16 July 1915; he was allotted to the 5th Reinforcements of the 21st Battalion which embarked in September.

321

Enlistment date: 16 July 1915.322 (12 July 1915 on Nominal Roll)

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery and tactical skill on the 1st September, 1918, during the attack on Mt St Quentin, north of Peronne, when very strong opposition was met with early in the attack, and every foot of ground was stubbornly contested by the enemy. Regardless of heavy enemy machine gun fire, Sjt. Lowerson moved about fearlessly directing his men, encouraging them to still greater effort, and finally led them on to the objective. On reaching the objective he saw that the left attacking party was held up by an enemy strong post heavily manned with twelve machine guns. Under the heaviest sniping and machine gun fire, Sjt. Lowerson rallied seven men as a storming party, and directing them to attack the flanks of the post, rushed the strong point, and, by effective bombing, captured it, together with twelve machine guns and thirty prisoners. Though severely wounded in the right thigh, he refused to leave the front line until the prisoners had been disposed of, and the organisation and consolidation of the post had been thoroughly completed. Throughout a week of operations, his leadership and example had a continual influence on the men serving under him, whilst his prompt and effective action at a critical juncture allowed the forward movement to be carried on without delay, thus ensuring the success of the attack.

323

Unit at time of action: 21st Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Life after the war:

He received the Victoria Cross from King George V at Buckingham Palace on 1 March 1919; a month later he embarked for Australia and was discharged on 8 July. Between the wars Lowerson was a dairy and tobacco farmer on a Victorian soldier settlement block. He named his property, on Merriang estate near Myrtleford, St Quentin. He married Edith Larkins at St Patrick’s Cathedral, Melbourne, on 1 February 1930. Re-enlisting on 5 July 1940, he served as a sergeant in various training units throughout Australia until discharged in 1944. Survived by his wife and daughter, he died of leukaemia at Myrtleford on 15 December 1945 and was buried there after a Methodist service. A memorial headstone was unveiled in 1949 and local returned servicemen make an annual pilgrimage to the grave. Myrtleford in 1966 named the AD Lowerson Memorial Swimming Pool in his honour.

324

Died: 15 December 1945, Myrtleford, Victoria [electorate of Indi].325

318. M Lincoln, ‘Sadlier, Clifford William King (1892-1964)‘, op. cit. 319. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 671. 320. AIF Project, ‘Albert David Lowerson’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 321. A Staunton, ‘Lowerson, Albert David (Alby) (1896-1945)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February

2010.

322. AIF Project, ‘Albert David Lowerson’, op. cit. 323. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31067, 13 December 1918, p. 14777, accessed 1 April 2010. 324. A Staunton, ‘Lowerson, Albert David (Alby) (1896-1945)’, op. cit. 325. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 656.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 57

Place of burial or cremation: Myrtleford Cemetery [electorate of Indi].

Leslie Cecil Maygar Born: 26 May 1872, Dean Station, Kilmore, Victoria [electorate of McEwen].326

Life before the war:

Born on 26 May 1871 or 1872 at Dean Station, Kilmore, Victoria, son of Edwin Willis Maygar, grazier, and his wife Helen, née Grimshaw, both from Bristol, England. His father’s family were originally political refugees from Hungary. Leslie was educated at Alexandra and Kilmore State schools and privately … He, his father and three brothers owned Strathearn station, Euroa. A very fine horseman, Maygar enlisted in the Victorian Mounted Rifles in March 1891.

327

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Euroa, Victoria [electorate of Indi].

Enlistment Date: March 1891.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

At Geelhoutboom, on the 23rd November, 1901, Lieutenant Maygar galloped out and ordered the men of a detached post, which was being outflanked, to retire. The horse of one of them being shot under him, when the enemy were within 200 yards, Lieutenant Maygar dismounted and lifted him on to his own horse, which bolted into boggy ground, causing both of them to dismount. On extricating the horse and finding that it could not carry both, Lieutenant Maygar again put the man on its back, and told him to gallop for cover at once, he himself proceeding on foot. All this took place under a very heavy fire.

328

Unit at time of action: 5th Victorian Mounted Rifles, Australian Forces.

Life after the war:

Resuming work as a grazier at Euroa, Maygar also served as a lieutenant in the 8th (later 16th) Light Horse, VMR, and was promoted captain in 1905. He enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force soon after World War I broke out, on 20 August 1914 was appointed a captain in the 4th Light Horse Regiment and sailed for Egypt in October. On Gallipoli, with the dismounted light horse, he was promoted major. On 17 October 1915 he was given temporary command of the 8th LHR, both rank of lieutenant-colonel and command being confirmed in December. During the evacuation of Gallipoli Maygar, left in command of forty men, was instructed to hold the trenches, at all costs, till 2.30 am. He wrote: ‘I had my usual good luck to be given command of the last party to pull out of the trenches, the post of honour for the 3rd L.H. Brigade’.

Maygar led his regiment throughout its service in Sinai and Palestine until his death and was a much-admired leader. During the 2nd battle of Gaza, on 19 April 1917, the 8th was in a most exposed sector and suffering heavy casualties. Maygar rode about the battlefield all day on his grey charger and ‘in every crisis stirred the spirit of his regiment by his example in the firing line’. Sir Henry Gullett records that Maygar was ‘always very bold in his personal leadership’ and writes of 19 April: ‘It was a day when true leaders recognised that their men needed inspiration, and Maygar gave it in the finest manner’. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order in June 1917, and was thrice mentioned in dispatches in 1916-18. When Brigadier General J. R. Royston was invalided home, Colonel Maygar acted as brigadier general in command of the 3rd Light Horse Brigade. Late on the day of the battle of Beersheba, 31 October 1917, a German aeroplane, using bombs and machine-guns, hit Maygar whose arm was shattered. The grey bolted into the darkness and was found later by 8th Regiment troopers but Maygar was not with him. ‘He was picked up during the night by other troops … and, having lost too much blood, died the next day at Karm’. LC Maygar, ‘Elsie’ as he was affectionately known, was ‘a true fighting commander’.

329

Died: Beersheba, Palestine, 31 October 1917.

326. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner— Lieutenant Leslie Cecil Maygar’, accessed 1 March 2010; M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 661; AIF Project, ‘Leslie Cecil Maygar’, accessed 19 May 2014.

327. E Mitchell, ‘Maygar, Leslie Cecil (1868-1917)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 1 March 2010. 328. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 27405, 11 February 1902, p. 843, accessed 24 March 2010. 329. E Mitchell, ‘Maygar, Leslie Cecil (1872-1917)‘, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 58

Place of burial or cremation: Beersheba War Cemetery.330

Frederick Harold Tubb Born: 28 November 1881, St Helena, Longwood, Victoria [electorate of Indi].331 (Date of birth noted as 10 July 1889 on the Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website).332

Life before the war:

Fifth child of Harry Tubb, teacher, and his wife Emma Eliza, née Abbott, both English born. His father, head teacher at the local school, subsequently took up a selection in the area. Fred obtained his merit certificate and left school to manage the farm; he later worked his own land. He was 5 ft 5 ins (167 cm) tall, an extrovert and a born leader. After volunteer service with the Victorian Mounted Rifles (1900-02) and the Australian Light Horse (1902-11), he joined the 60th Battalion, Australian Military Forces, and was commissioned second lieutenant in 1912. He transferred to the 58th Battalion in 1913.

333 Previous military service: Served for fourteen years including 2 years

commissioned service, 58th Infantry (Essendon Rifles), Citizen Military Forces; Victoria Rifle Brigade, later with Light Horse Brigade. 334

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Longwood, Victoria [electorate of Indi].

Enlistment date: 24 August 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty at Lone Pine trenches, in the Gallipoli Peninsula, on 9th August, 1915. In the early morning the enemy made a determined counter attack on the centre of the newly captured trench held by Lieutenant Tubb. They advanced up a sap and blew in a sandbag barricade, leaving only one foot of it standing; but Lieutenant Tubb led his men back, repulsed the enemy, and rebuilt the barricade. Supported by strong bombing parties, the enemy succeeded in twice again blowing in the barricade; but on each occasion Lieutenant Tubb, although wounded in the head and arm, held his ground with the greatest coolness and rebuilt it, and finally succeeded in maintaining his position under very heavy bomb fire.

335

Unit at time of action: 7th Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Died: 20 September 1917, Menin Road, Ypres, Belgium.336

Place of burial or cremation: Lijssenthoek Military Cemetery (Plot XIX, Row C, Grave No. 5), Belgium.

William Ruthven Born: 21 May 1893, Collingwood, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne].337

Life before the war:

Son of Peter Ruthven, carpenter, and his wife Catherine Charlotte, née Bedwell, both Victorian born. He was educated at the Vere Street State School, Collingwood, and became a mechanical engineer. Ruthven was employed in the timber industry when he enlisted as a private in the Australian Imperial Force on 16 April 1915. 338

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Collingwood, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne]

330. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 661. 331. AIF Project, ‘Frederick Harold Tubb’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 332. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Captain Frederick Harold Tubb’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 333. HM Hamilton, ‘Tubb, Frederick Harold (1881-1917)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010. 334. AIF Project, ‘Frederick Harold Tubb‘, op. cit. 335. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29328, 15 October 1915, p. 10154, accessed 26 March 2010. 336. AIF Project, ‘Frederick Harold Tubb’, op. cit. 337. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Sergeant William Ruthven’, accessed 1 March 2010. 338. M Higgins, ‘Ruthven, William (1893-1970)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 59

Enlistment date: 16 April 1915.339 (19 April 1915 on Nominal Roll)

Description of action for which VC awarded: 19 May 1918 — Ville-sur-Ancre, France.340

For most conspicuous bravery and initiative in action. During the advance Sjt. Ruthven’s company suffered numerous casualties, and his company commander was severely wounded. He thereupon assumed command of this portion of the assault, took charge of the company headquarters, and rallied the section in his vicinity. As the leading wave approached its objective it was subjected to heavy fire from an enemy machine gun at close range. Without hesitation, he at once sprang out, threw a bomb which landed beside the post, and rushed the position, bayoneting one of the crew and capturing the gun. He then encountered some of the enemy coming out of a shelter. He wounded two, captured six others in the same position, and handed them over to an escort from the leading wave, which had now reached the objective. Sjt. Ruthven then reorganised the men in his vicinity and established a post in the second objective. Observing enemy movement in a sunken road nearby, he, without hesitation and armed only with a revolver, went over the open alone and rushed the position, shooting two enemy who refused to come out of their dugouts. He then single handed mopped up this position and captured the whole of the garrison, amounting in all to thirty two and kept them until assistance arrived to escort them back to our lines. During the remainder of the day this gallant non-commissioned officer set a splendid example of leadership moving up and down his position under fire, supervising consolidation and encouraging his men. Throughout the whole operation he showed the most magnificent courage and determination, inspiring every one by his fine fighting spirit, his remarkable courage and his dashing action.

341

Unit at time of action: 22nd Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Life after the war:

He returned to Australia in October with several other Victoria Cross winners to assist recruiting and received a hero’s welcome in Melbourne. He was promoted lieutenant and on 11 December his AIF appointment ended. Ruthven resumed work as a wood machinist and on 20 December 1919 married Irene May White at St Philip’s Anglican Church, Abbotsford; they had a daughter and a son. In the mid-1920s the family moved to a soldier-settlement block at Werrimull. Bad seasons and poor health forced Ruthven back to Collingwood in 1931. He became a carrier and later worked with the State Rivers and Water Supply Commission. He was elected to the Collingwood Council and became mayor in 1945. During World War II, from December 1941 Ruthven served with the 3rd Australian Garrison Battalion and other garrison units, including those centred at Murchison, Victoria’s largest prisoner-of-war camp.

In August 1944 he ceased full-time duty, as major. He sat in the Victorian Legislative Assembly during 1945-55 as the Labor member for Preston, then following a redistribution represented Reservoir until his retirement in 1961.‘Rusty’ Ruthven retained close links with other Victoria Cross winners and the Returned Sailors’ and Soldiers’ Imperial League of Australia. In 1932 he was one of the pallbearers at Albert Jacka’s funeral and he attended the 1956 Victoria Cross centenary celebrations in London. He was president of the Werrimull and Collingwood RSSILA sub-branches, a life member of the Preston sub-branch and a trustee of Melbourne’s Shrine of Remembrance and the St Kilda Memorial Hall. Ruthven was also official timekeeper for the Collingwood Football Club and a foundation member of its social club. The war, however, had severely affected his health; illness forced his retirement from politics. Survived by his wife and children, he died on 12 January 1970 in Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital and was cremated with military honours. The Ruthven Soldiers’ Club had been opened at Broadmeadows in 1959 and in 1963 a new railway station near Reservoir was named after him. His medals and a portrait by George Bell are displayed in the Australian War Memorial’s Hall of Valour.

342

Died: 12 January 1970, Heidelberg, Victoria [electorate of Jagajaga].343

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Fawkner Crematorium, Victoria [electorate of Wills].

Maurice Vincent Buckley (alias Gerald Sexton) Born: 13 April 1891, Hawthorn, Melbourne, Victoria [electorate of Kooyong].344

339. AIF Project, ‘William Ruthven’, 2010, accessed 8 April 2010. 340. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 311. 341. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30790, 9 July 1918, p. 8156, accessed 8 April 2010. 342. M Higgins, ‘Ruthven, William (1893-1970)’, op. cit. 343. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 671.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 60

Life before the war:

Son of Timothy Buckley, brickmaker, and his wife Honora Mary Agnes, née Sexton. His father was a native of Cork, Ireland; his mother was Victorian-born. Educated at the Christian Brothers’ school, Abbotsford, he became a coach-trimmer and was working at Warrnambool when he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 18 December 1914.

345

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Warrnambool, Victoria [electorate of Wannon].

Enlistment date: 18 December 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery during the attack near Le Verguier, north-west of St. Quentin, on the 18th September, 1918. During the whole period of the advance, which was very seriously opposed, Sgt. Sexton was to the fore dealing with enemy machine guns; rushing enemy posts, and performing great feats of bravery and endurance without faltering or for a moment taking cover. When the advance had passed the ridge at La Verguier, Sgt. Sexton's attention was directed to a party of the enemy manning a bank, and to a field gun causing casualties and holding up a company. Without hesitation, calling to his section to follow, he rushed down the bank and killed the gunners of the field gun. Regardless of machine-gun fire, he returned to the bank, and after firing down some dugouts induced about thirty of the enemy to surrender. When the advance was continued from the first to the second objective the company was again held up by machine guns on the flanks. Supported by another platoon, he disposed of the enemy guns, displaying boldness which inspired all. Later, he again showed the most conspicuous initiative in the capture of hostile posts and machine guns, and rendered invaluable support to his company digging in.

346

Having been declared a deserter in January 1916 when he went missing from a containment camp in Australia, he re-enlisted in May 1916 under the name Gerald Sexton. Gerald was the name of his deceased brother and Sexton was his mother’s maiden name. The Gazette of 14 December 1919 confirmed that he was permitted to reassume the name Maurice Buckley.

347

Unit at time of action: 13th Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

Buckley returned to Australia and was discharged in December 1919; [the] next year he began work as a road-contractor in Gippsland. 348 After the war, in 1920, Buckley was one of the 14 Victoria Cross winners who marched on St Patrick’s Day in Melbourne to support Archbishop Daniel Mannix who had been outspoken against the war. (Opponents had tried unsuccessfully to prevent the parade.)

349 On 15 January 1921 he was injured when he tried to

jump his horse over the railway gates at Boolarra. He died twelve days later in hospital at Fitzroy, and after a requiem mass in St Patrick’s Cathedral was buried in Brighton cemetery with full military honours. Ten Victoria Cross winners were pallbearers. Buckley was unmarried. A friend described him as a ‘modest, unassuming young man, with a great fondness for horses and an open-air life’.

350

Died: 27 January 1921, Fitzroy, Melbourne, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne].

Place of burial or cremation: Brighton Cemetery, Melbourne, Victoria, after a funeral with ten Victoria Cross recipients as pall-bearers [electorate of Melbourne Ports].351

344. AIF Project, ‘Gerald Sexton’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 345. DM Horner, ‘Buckley, Maurice Vincent (1891-1921)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 10 February 2010. 346. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31067, 13 December 1918, p. 14777, accessed 25 March 2010. 347. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 342. 348. DM Horner, ‘Buckley, Maurice Vincent (1891-1921)‘, op. cit. 349. Australian War Memorial, ‘Fifty Australians: Sexton VC’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 350. DM Horner, ‘Buckley, Maurice Vincent (1891-1921)‘, op. cit. 351. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner— Sergeant Maurice Vincent Buckley (alias Gerald Sexton)’,

Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 61

Claud Charles Castleton Born: 12 April 1893, Kirkley, Suffolk, United Kingdom.352

Life before the war:

Son of Thomas Charles Castleton, bricklayer, and his wife Edith Lucy, née Payne. He was educated at Lowestoft municipal secondary school and worked as a pupil-teacher in the local council school before migrating to Australia at the age of 19. He reached Melbourne in the autumn of 1912, then travelled through the eastern States and on to New Guinea. According to his father, his interest in nature and geography led to his migration and his journeys after arrival. When World War I broke out Castleton was in Port Moresby and, on offering his services to the Papuan administration, worked with native troops preparing for coastal defence; he also helped to man the Moresby wireless station.

353

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Port Moresby, New Guinea.354

Enlistment date: 10 March 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 28-29 July 1916 — Pozières, France.355

For most conspicuous bravery. During an attack on the enemy’s trenches the infantry was temporarily driven back by the intense machine gun fire opened by the enemy. Many wounded were left in ‘No Man’s Land’ lying in shell holes. Sjt. Castleton went out twice in face of this intense fire, and each time brought in a wounded man on his back. He went out a third time, and was bringing in another wounded man, when he himself was hit in the back, and killed instantly. He set a splendid example of courage and self-sacrifice.

356

Unit at time of action: 5th Company, Machine-Gun Corps, AIF.

Died: 28 July 1916, Pozières, France.357

Place of burial or cremation: Pozières British Cemetery (Plot IV, Row L, Grave No. 43), Ovillers-la-Boisselle, France.358

Samuel George Pearse Born: 16 July 1897 in Penarth, Glamorgan, Wales.359

Life before the war:

Son of George Stapleton Pearse, labourer, and his wife Sarah Ann, née Sellick, and was educated at Penarth Boarding School. The family migrated to Australia with Sam accompanying his father and a brother about 1911 while the rest of the family followed after George Pearse had obtained a property at Koorlong, Victoria. Sam took work fruit-picking, labouring, trapping, and as a deck-hand on the paddle-steamer Viola.

360

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Koorlong, Victoria [electorate of Mallee].361

Enlistment date: 5 July 1915.

352. JK Haken, ‘Castleton, Claud Charles (1893-1916)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 353. Ibid. 354. AIF Project, ‘Claude Charles Castleton’, 2010, accessed 25 March 2010. 355. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 251. 356. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29765, 26 September 1916, p. 9418, accessed 25 March 2010. 357. JK Haken, ‘Castleton, Claud Charles (1893-1916)‘, op. cit. 358. AIF Project, ‘Claude Charles Castleton‘, op. cit. 359. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 666. 360. Ibid. 361. AIF Project, ‘Samuel George Pearce’, 2010, accessed 18 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 62

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery, devotion to duty and self-sacrifice during the operation against the enemy battery position north of Emtsa (North Russia) on the 29th August, 1919. Serjeant Pearse cut his way through the enemy barbed wire under very heavy machine-gun and rifle fire and cleared a way for the troops to enter the battery position. Seeing that a blockhouse was harassing our advance and causing us casualties, he charged the blockhouse single-handed, killing the occupants with bombs. This gallant non-commissioned officer met his death a minute later, and it was due to him that the position was carried with so few casualties.

362

Unit at time of action: 45th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers, attached North Russia Relief Force.

Died: 29 August 1919, during VC action, near Emptsa, Russia. 363

Place of burial or cremation: Archangel Allied Cemetery, Russia.

Thomas Cooke Born: 5 July 1881, Kaikoura, Marlborough, New Zealand.364

Life before the war:

Son of Tom Cooke, an English-born carpenter, and his wife Caroline Ann, née Cooper. Educated at Kaikoura Demonstration High School, he later moved to Wellington with his family and became a carpenter. There, on 4 June 1902, he married Maud Elizabeth Elliott. Cooke’s main hobby was band music: he was an excellent cornetist and belonged to the city’s garrison band. In 1912, with his wife and three children, he migrated to Victoria, settling in the Melbourne suburb of Richmond. Cooke worked as a builder until World War I.

365 Previous military service:

Served in the Wellington Garrison Band, New Zealand. 366

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Richmond, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne].

Enlistment date: 15 February 1915. (16 February on Nominal Roll)

Description of action for which VC awarded: (22-26 July 1916—Pozières, France).

For most conspicuous bravery. After a Lewis gun had been disabled, [Private Cooke] was ordered to take his gun and gun-team to a dangerous part of the line. Here he did fine work, but came under very heavy fire, with the result that finally he was the only man left. He still stuck to his post, and continued to fire his gun. When assistance was sent he was found dead beside his gun. He set a splendid example of determination and devotion to duty.

367

Unit at time of action: 8th Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Died: 25 July 1916, Pozières, France.368 War record states 28 July 1916.369

Place of burial or cremation: No known grave. He is commemorated at the Australian National Memorial, Villers-Bretonneux, France.

William Thomas Dartnell (alias Wilbur Taylor Dartnell) Born: 6 April 1885, Collingwood, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne].370

362. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31613, 23 October 1919, p. 12979, accessed 8 April 2010. 363. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 666. 364. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 635; Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Private Thomas Cooke’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 25 March

2010.

365. PA Pedersen, ‘Cooke, Thomas (1881-1916)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 366. AIF Project, ‘Thomas Cooke’, 2010, accessed 25 March 2010. 367. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29740, 8 September 1916, p. 8870, accessed 25 March 2010. 368. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Private Thomas Cooke’, op. cit.; M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 635. 369. AIF Project, ‘Thomas Cooke‘, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 63

Life before the war:

Son of English-born Henry Dartnell, fruiterer, and his native-born wife Rose Ann, née Hanley. He was educated in Melbourne and became an actor … At 16 he had served in the South African War with the 5th Victorian (Mounted Rifles) Contingent. … On 15 April 1907, at Queen Street, Melbourne, he married Elizabeth Edith Smyth with Presbyterian forms; they settled at Fitzroy.

371

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Fitzroy, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne].

Description of action for which VC awarded: 3 September 1915—near Maktau, Kenya.

For most conspicuous bravery near Maktau (East Africa) on 3rd September, 1915. During a mounted infantry engagement the enemy got within a few yards of our men, and it was found impossible to get the more severely wounded away. Lieutenant Dartnell, who was himself being carried away wounded in the leg, seeing, the situation, and knowing that the enemy's black troops murdered the wounded, insisted on being left behind in the hopes of being able to save the lives of the other wounded men. He gave his own life in the gallant attempt to save others.

372

Unit at time of action: 25th (Service) Battalion (Frontiersmen), the Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment).

Died: 3 September 1915, Maktau, British East Africa (Kenya).373

Place of burial or cremation: Voi Cemetery, Kenya.374

William Donovan Joynt Born: 19 March 1889, Elsternwick, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne Ports].375

Life before the war:

Third son of Edward Kelly Joynt, a commercial traveller from Ireland, and his Victorian-born wife Alice, née Woolcott. He attended the Grange Preparatory School, South Yarra, and Melbourne Church of England Grammar School (1904) before taking office jobs, including one with an accountancy firm in 1906-07. In 1909 he sailed for Rockhampton, Queensland, walked to Mackay, joined a coastal steamer bound for Cairns, and did bush and farm jobs in North Queensland. He then worked in the Victorian Mallee and in Western Australia, and was dairying and digging potatoes on Flinders Island, off Tasmania, when World War I began.

376

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Elsternwick, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne Ports].377

Enlistment date: 5 May 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 23 August 1918—Herleville Wood, France.

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during the attack on Herleville Wood, near Chuignes, Peronne, on 23rd August, 1918. His company commander, having been killed early in the advance, he immediately took charge of the company, which he led with courage and skill. On approaching Herleville Wood, the troops of the leading battalion which his battalion was supporting, suffered very heavy casualties and were much shaken. Lt. Joynt, grasping the situation, rushed forward under very heavy machine gun and artillery fire, collected and reorganised the remnant of the battalion, and kept them under cover pending the arrival of his own company. He then made a personal reconnaissance and found that the fire from the wood was checking the whole advance and causing heavy casualties to troops on his flanks. Dashing out in front of his men, he inspired and led a magnificent frontal bayonet attack on the wood. The enemy were staggered by this sudden onslaught, and a very critical

370. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 637. 371. M Lincoln, ‘Dartnell, William Thomas (1885-1915)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 372. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29414, 21 December 1915, p. 12797, accessed 25 March 2010.

373. M Lincoln, ‘Dartnell, William Thomas (1885-1915)‘, op. cit. 374. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 637. 375. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 653. 376. B Gammage, ‘Joynt, William Donovan (1889-1986)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 377. AIF Project, ‘William Donovan Joynt’, 2010, accessed 26 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 64

situation was saved. Later at Plateau Wood, this very gallant officer again, with a small party of volunteers, rendered invaluable service, and after severe hand to hand fighting turned a stubborn defence into an abject surrender. His valour and determination was conspicuous throughout, and he continued to do magnificent work until badly wounded by a shell.

378

Unit at time of action: 8th Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Life after the war:

He was seriously wounded in the buttock on 26 August 1918 and evacuated to England. Promoted to captain in October, he was posted to AIF Headquarters, London, in March 1919. In February 1920 he returned to Melbourne, where his AIF appointment terminated on 11 June. His elder brother Gerald, a lieutenant in the 57th Battalion, had been killed at Polygon Wood, Belgium, on 25 September 1917. Joynt had studied agriculture and sheep-breeding in England in 1919, and in 1920 he became a soldier settler, dairy farming near Berwick. By 1926 he had a manager on his block, and when it was resumed in 1929 was pursuing interests in Melbourne. He was a pioneer of colour printing in Australia. About 1920 he had formed Queen City Printers Pty Ltd and with Walter Dexter arranged an exhibition of war photographs in colour, and printed its catalogue. He then formed Colarts Studios Pty Ltd and bought the rights to a German colour-printing process. The business failed during the Depression, but under various business names Joynt remained a printer and publisher for over sixty years. He called himself a ‘master printer’ when he married Edith Amy Garrett, a trained nurse, in a civil ceremony at Hawthorn on 19 March 1932, his forty-third birthday.

An inaugural member of Melbourne Legacy in 1923, Joynt helped to lead the club’s successful campaign to have Melbourne’s Shrine of Remembrance built in its present form on its present site. He was active in the Militia in 1926-33, being promoted to major in February 1930. Mobilised on 26 September 1939, he commanded the 3rd Garrison Battalion at Queenscliff and then, from March 1941, Puckapunyal camp. From June 1942 he was camp staff officer then quartermaster at Seymour camp. He was placed on the Retired List as an honorary lieutenant colonel on 10 October 1944. He and his wife rented then bought Tom Roberts’s old home, Talisman, at Kallista and lived there until they built their own home nearby. Joynt wrote three autobiographical books: To Russia and Back Through Communist Countries (1971), Saving the Channel Ports, 1918 (1975) and Breaking the Road for the Rest (1979).

Short and dark, with twinkling grey eyes, Donovan Joynt was a chirpy cock sparrow of a man, self-reliant, dogmatic, conservative, a nominal Anglican, a Freemason from 1924, a dedicated advocate of returned-soldier causes, a special constable during the 1923 Melbourne police strike, a keen club-man and a life member of the Naval and Military Club. In 1979 he described himself as a ‘Royalist’ with a ‘love of all things British’, while an old Legacy comrade called him ‘a dedicated King’s Man, a true-blue adherent of all the best traditions and heritages of his British ancestry’. His wife died in 1978. The last surviving of Australia’s World War I VC winners, he died on 5 May 1986 at Windsor and was buried with full military honours in Brighton cemetery. He had no children.

379

Died: 5 May 1986, Windsor, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne Ports].380

Place of burial or cremation: Brighton Lawn Cemetery, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne Ports].

William Ellis (Bill) Newton Born: 8 June 1919, St Kilda, Victoria [electorate of Melbourne Ports].381

Life before the war:

Son of Australian-born parents Charles Ellis Newton, dentist, and his second wife Minnie, née Miller. Bill was educated to Intermediate certificate level at Melbourne Church of England Grammar School, where his masters regarded him as having qualities of leadership. Six ft 3 ins (191 cm) tall and 16 stone (102 kg) in weight, he was a fine all-round sportsman who played cricket for the Victorian second XI. He worked in the silk-warehouse of Makower, McBeath & Co. Pty Ltd before enlisting in the Royal Australian Air Force on 5 February 1940.

378. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31034, 26 November 1918, p. 14040, accessed 26 March 2010. 379. B Gammage, ‘Joynt, William Donovan (1889-1986)‘, op. cit. 380. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 653. 381. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 664.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 65

Enlistment date: 5 February 1940.

Description of action for which VC awarded: May 1942-March 1943 — New Guinea.

Flight Lieutenant Newton served in New Guinea from May 1942 to March 1943 and completed 52 operational sorties. Throughout, he displayed great courage and an iron determination to inflict the utmost damage on the enemy. His splendid offensive flying and fighting were attended with brilliant success. Disdaining evasive tactics when under the heaviest fire, he always went straight to his objectives. He carried out many daring machine-gun attacks on enemy positions involving low-flying over long distances in the face of continuous fire at point-blank range. On three occasions, he dived through intense anti-aircraft fire to release his bombs on important targets on the Salamaua Isthmus. On one of these occasions, his starboard engine failed over the target, but he succeeded in flying back to an airfield 160 miles away.

When leading an attack on an objective on 16th March, 1943, he dived through intense and accurate shell fire and his aircraft was hit repeatedly. Nevertheless, he held to his course and bombed his target from a low level. The attack resulted in the destruction of many buildings and dumps, including two 40 000-gallon fuel installations. Although his aircraft was crippled, with fuselage and wing sections torn, petrol tanks pierced, main-planes and engines seriously damaged, and one of the main tyres flat, Flight Lieutenant Newton managed to fly it back to base and make a successful landing. Despite this harassing experience, he returned next day to the same locality. His target, this time a single building, was even more difficult but he again attacked with his usual courage and resolution, flying a steady course through a barrage of fire. He scored a hit on the building but at the same moment his aircraft burst into flames.

Flight Lieutenant Newton maintained control and calmly turned his aircraft away and flew along the shore. He saw it as his duty to keep the aircraft in the air as long as he could so as to take his crew as far away as possible from the enemy's positions. With great skill, he brought his blazing aircraft down on the water. Two members of the crew were able to extricate themselves and were seen swimming to the shore, but the gallant pilot is missing. According to other air crews who witnessed the occurrence, his escape-hatch was not opened and his dinghy was not inflated. Without regard to his own safety, he had done all that man could do to prevent his crew from falling into enemy hands. Flight Lieutenant Newton’s many examples of conspicuous bravery have rarely been equalled and will serve as a shining inspiration to all who follow him.

382

Unit at time of action: 22 Squadron, RAAF.

Died: 29 March 1943, Kila Point, New Guinea.383

Place of burial or cremation: Lae War Cemetery, Papua New Guinea. There is a memorial panel in the Presbyterian Church, St Kilda, Victoria.384

Francis Hubert (Frank) McNamara Born: 4 April 1894, Rushworth, Victoria [electorate of Murray].385

Life before the war:

Son of William Francis McNamara, an officer of the Department of Lands, and his wife Rosanna, née O’Meara, both Victorian born. Educated at Rushworth local school and Shepparton Agricultural High School, he was appointed a junior teacher in the State Education Department in March 1911 and in 1913-14 studied at the Teachers’ Training College, Melbourne, for a diploma. After graduating he was a temporary teacher in 1915 at four schools. McNamara had joined the senior cadets while still at school and in 1913 was commissioned in the 46th Infantry Battalion (Brighton Rifles). He was mobilized on the outbreak of World War I and carried out garrison duty at Queenscliff and Point Nepean fixed defences before attending the Officers’ Training School, Broadmeadows, in December 1914. He was then an instructor at the Australian Imperial Force’s training depot, Broadmeadows, until August 1915, when he was selected for the military aeronautics course at Point Cook Flying School. He graduated as a pilot in October

382. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 36215, 15 October 1943, p. 4617, accessed 9 April 2010. 383. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 664. 384. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland , ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Flight Lieutenant William Ellis Newton’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010.

385. AD Garrisson, ‘McNamara, Frank Hubert (Francis) (1894-1961)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 66

and after attending an advanced officers’ course was posted to No.1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps, as adjutant when that unit was being formed in Melbourne as part of the AIF. 386 Previous military service: Served in the 46th

and 47th Infantry; posted to the Australian Flying Corps, Citizen Military Forces.

Enlistment date: 6 January 1916.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 20 March 1917 — Tel-el-Hesi, Egypt.

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during an aerial bomb attack upon a hostile construction train, when one of our pilots was forced to land behind the enemy’s lines. Lt. McNamara, observing the pilot’s predicament and the fact that hostile cavalry were approaching, descended to his rescue. He did this under heavy rifle fire and in spite of the fact that he himself had been severely wounded in the thigh. He landed about 200 yards from the damaged machine, the pilot of which climbed on to Lt. McNamara’s machine, and an attempt was made to rise. Owing, however, to his disabled leg, Lt. McNamara was unable to keep his machine straight, and it turned over. The two officers, having extricated themselves, immediately set fire to the machine and made their way across to the damaged machine, which they succeeded in starting. Finally Lieutenant McNamara, although weak from loss of blood, flew this machine back to the aerodrome, a distance of seventy miles, and thus completed his comrade’s rescue.

387

Unit at time of action: 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps.

Life after the war:

In April 1917 McNamara was appointed flight commander and promoted captain but was invalided to Australia in September and demobilized in January 1918. However, he was reappointed to the AFC on 9 September, as lieutenant (honorary captain), as a flying instructor, an appointment which was then with the army and known as the Aviation Instruction Staff. When the (Royal) Australian Air Force was formed in March 1921 he transferred with the rank of flight lieutenant. He served at RAAF Headquarters, Melbourne, as staff officer, Operations and Intelligence, until July 1922, when he was appointed officer commanding, No.1 Flying Training School, at Point Cook; he was promoted squadron leader in March 1924. On 29 April, at St Patrick’s Cathedral, Melbourne, he married Hélène Marcelle Bluntschli of Brussels whom he had met in Egypt during the war; his groomsman was Squadron Leader A Murray Jones. McNamara was posted to Britain in 1925 on exchange duty with the Royal Air Force, returning to Australia in November 1927 and a re-posting to No.1 Flying Training School, initially as second-in-command, and then as commanding officer in October 1930. He was promoted wing commander in October 1931 but remained in command of No.1 Flying Training School until February 1933, when he was posted to command of No.1 Aircraft Depot and RAAF Station, Laverton, Victoria.

McNamara was promoted group captain three years later and in 1937 was sent to the United Kingdom to attend the Imperial Defence College; he was then posted to Australia House as the Australian air liaison officer with the Air Ministry. On the outbreak of World War II he was promoted air commodore and in 1942 was appointed air officer commanding RAAF, London, with the rank of air vice marshal. He was later attached on loan to the RAF where he was air officer commanding British forces at Aden in 1942-45. On returning to London he became RAAF representative at the British Ministry of Defence, and, in 1946, director of education at headquarters, British Occupation Administration, Westphalia, Germany. He retired from the RAAF that year, and was a member of the National Coal Board, London, in 1947-59. Survived by his wife, a son and a daughter, he died of hypertensive heart failure at Amersham, Buckinghamshire, on 2 November 1961; a large congregation attended his funeral at St Joseph’s Priory, Austin Wood, Gerrard’s Cross. McNamara was a genial, ‘cheery, unruffled soul’, unassuming and perennially courteous. Air Vice Marshal AT Cole, who had served with him in Egypt, described him as ‘quiet, scholarly, loyal and beloved by all … the last Officer for whom that high honour [the VC] would have been predicted’. He was appointed CB. in 1938 and CB in 1945. In 1928 he had resumed studies interrupted by war service and graduated BA from the University of Melbourne in 1933.

388

Died: 2 November 1961, Amersham, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom.

Place of burial or cremation: St Joseph’s Priory, Austin Wood, Gerrards Cross, Bucks.389

386. Ibid. 387. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30122, 8 June 1917, p. 5703, accessed 9 April 2010. 388. AD Garrisson, ‘McNamara, Frank Hubert (Francis) (1894-1961)’, op. cit.

389. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Lieutenant Frank Hubert McNamara’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 9 April 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 67

Robert Mactier Born: 17 May 1890, Tatura, Victoria [electorate of Murray].390

Life before the war:

Son of Scottish-born Robert Mactier, farmer, and his Victorian wife Christina, née Ross. Seventh child in a close-knit Presbyterian family of ten, he was educated at Tatura State School and later worked on his father’s properties at Tatura and Caniambo. Stocky and athletic, he excelled at football and shooting; his ‘irrepressible sense of humour’ and ‘gentlemanly disposition’ made him popular among the locals.

391

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Tatura, Victoria [electorate of Murray].392

Enlistment date: 1 March 1917.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 1 September 1918 — Mont St Quentin, France.

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty on the morning of the 1st September, 1918, during the attack on the village of Mt St Quentin. Prior to the advance of the battalion, it was necessary to clear up several enemy strong points close to our line. This the bombing patrols sent forward failed to effect, and the battalion was unable to move. Pte. Mactier, single handed, and in daylight, thereupon jumped out of the trench, rushed past the block, closed with and killed the machine gun garrison of eight men with his revolver and bombs, and threw the enemy machine gun over the parapet. Then, rushing forward about 20 yards, he jumped into another strong point held by a garrison of six men, who immediately surrendered. Continuing to the next block through the trench, he disposed of an enemy machine gun which had been enfilading our flank advancing troops, and was then killed by another machine gun at close range. It was entirely due to this exceptional valour and determination of Pte. Mactier that the battalion was able to move on to its ‘jumping off’ trench and carry out the successful operation of capturing the village of Mt St Quentin a few hours later.

393

Unit at time of action: 23rd Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Died: 1 September 1918, Mont St Quentin, France.394

Place of burial or cremation: Hem Farm Cemetery (Plot II, Row J, Grave 3), Hem-Monacu, France.

Edward ‘Ted’ Kenna Born: 6 July 1919, Hamilton, Victoria [electorate of Wannon].395

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Hamilton, Victoria [electorate of Wannon].

Enlistment date: 9 August 1940

Description of action for which VC awarded: 15 May 1945 — Wewak, New Guinea.

In the South West Pacific at Wewak on 15th May, 1945, during the attack on the Wirui Mission features, Private Kenna’s company had the task of capturing certain enemy positions. The only position from which observation for supporting fire could be obtained was continuously swept by enemy heavy machine gun fire and it was not possible to bring Artillery or Mortars into action. Private Kenna’s platoon was ordered forward to deal with the enemy machine gun post, so that the company operation could proceed. His section moved as close as possible to the bunker in order to harass any enemy seen, so that the remainder of the platoon could attack from the flank. When the attacking sections came into view of the enemy they were immediately engaged at very close range by heavy

390. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 659. 391. M Lincoln, ‘Mactier, Robert (Bob) (1890-1918)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 392. AIF Project, ‘Robert Mactier’, 2010, accessed 1 April 2010.

393. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31067, 13 December 1918, pp. 14778-14779, accessed 26 March 2010.

394. AIF Project, ‘Robert Mactier’, op. cit. 395. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 653.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 68

automatic fire from a position not previously disclosed. Casualties were suffered and the attackers could not move further forward.

Private Kenna endeavoured to put his Bren gun into a position where he could engage the bunker, but was unable to do so because of the nature of the ground. On his own initiative and without orders Private Kenna immediately stood up in full view of the enemy less than fifty yards away and engaged the bunker, firing his Bren gun from the hip. The enemy machine gun immediately returned Private Kenna’s fire and with such accuracy that bullets actually passed between his arms and his body. Undeterred, he remained completely exposed and continued to fire at the enemy until his magazine was exhausted. Still making a target of himself, Private Kenna discarded his Bren gun and called for a rifle. Despite the intense machine gun fire, he seized the rifle and, with amazing coolness, killed the gunner with his first round.

A second automatic opened fire on Private Kenna from a different position and another of the enemy immediately tried to move into position behind the first machine gun, but Private Kenna remained standing and killed him with his next round. The result of Private Kenna’s magnificent bravery in the face of concentrated fire, was that the bunker was captured without further loss, and the company attack proceeded to a successful conclusion, many enemy being killed and numerous automatic weapons captured. There is no doubt that the success of the company attack would have been seriously endangered and many casualties sustained but for Private Kenna’s magnificent courage and complete disregard for his own safety. His action was an outstanding example of the highest degree of bravery.

396

Unit at time of action: 2/4th Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), Australian Military Forces.

Life after the war:

He spent more than a year in hospital before being discharged from the AIF in December 1946. The following year he married Marjorie Rushberry, who had nursed him at Heidleberg Military Hospital. After his discharge from hospital, Kenna returned to Hamilton. Proud of their Victoria Cross winner, the people of the Hamilton district raised sufficient funds to build Kenna and his wife a house which remains the family home. The Kennas had four children. After the war he worked with the local council and played Australian Rules football for the local team. He has attended many Victoria Cross reunions in London and has led the annual Anzac Day march in Melbourne. In the 1980s Kenna had his portrait painted by Sir William Dargie and in July 2000 he was featured on a postage stamp as part of an issue commemorating Australia’s living Victoria Cross winners.

397 Edward Kenna died on 8 July 2009,

being the last surviving VC winner from the Second World War. 398

Died: 8 July 2009, Geelong, Victoria [electorate of Corio].

Buried: Following a state funeral in Melbourne, Ted Kenna was buried in Hamilton, Victoria [electorate of Wannon].

Queensland electorates Bonner Henry Dalziel (1893-1965; WWI) buried Bernard Sidney Gordon (1891-1963; WWI) buried Henry William Murray (1880-1966; WWI) buried Brisbane John Carroll (1891-1971; WWI) born in ‘Brisbane’ Richard Kelliher (1910-63; WWII) resided on enlistment Capricornia John Leak (1892?-1972; WWI) resided on enlistment Dawson Keith Payne (1933; Vietnam) currently living

396. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette.’, London Gazette, no. 37253, 4 September 1945, pp. 4467-4468, accessed 9 April 2010. 397. Australian War Memorial, ‘Who’s who in Australian military history: Private Edward (Ted) Kenna, VC’, Australian War Memorial website, accessed 1 March 2010. 398. M Hedge, ‘Farewell to Ted Kenna, VC’, The Daily Telegraph, 17July 2009, accessed 19 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 69

Fairfax Daniel Alan Keighran (1983-) born Griffith Henry Dalziel (1893-1965; WWI) died Herbert Bernard Sidney Gordon (1891-1963; WWI) resided on enlistment Hinkler Bernard Sidney Gordon (1891-1963; WWI) died Kennedy Henry Dalziel (1893-1965; WWI) born, and resided on enlistment Keith Payne (born 1933; Vietnam) born, and resided on enlistment Maranoa John Alexander French (1914-42; WWII) born, and resided on enlistment Henry William Murray (1880-1966; WWI) died Edgar Thomas Towner (1890-1972; WWI) born, resided on enlistment, died, and buried Petrie Keith Payne (born 1933; Vietnam) resided on enlistment

Henry Dalziel Born: 18 February 1893, Irvinebank, Queensland [electorate of Kennedy].399

Life before the war:

Son of James Dalziel, miner, and his wife Eliza Maggie, née McMillan, both of whom were native-born. He was educated at Irvinebank and became a fireman on the Cairns-Atherton railway. 400

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Atherton, Queensland [electorate of Kennedy].401

Enlistment date: 22 January 1915. (16 January 1915 on Nominal Roll)

Description of action for which VC awarded: 4 July 1918 — Hamel, France.

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty when in action with a Lewis gun section: His company met with determined resistance from a strong point which was strongly garrisoned, manned by numerous machine guns, and undamaged by our artillery fire, was also protected by strong wire entanglements. A heavy concentration of machine gun fire caused many casualties, and held up our advance. His Lewis gun having come into action and silenced enemy guns in one direction, an enemy gun fire opened from another direction. Private Dalziel dashed at it, and with his revolver killed and captured the entire crew and gun, and allowed our advance to continue. He was severely wounded in the hand, but carried on and took part in the capture of the final objective. He twice went over open ground under heavy enemy artillery and machine gun fire to secure ammunition, though suffering from considerable loss of blood. He filled magazines and served his gun until severely wounded through the head. His magnificent bravery and devotion to duty was an inspiring example to all his comrades, and his dash and unselfish courage at a most critical time undoubtedly saved many lives, and turned what could have been a severe check into a splendid success.

402

Unit at time of action: 15th Infantry Battalion (Queensland and Tasmania), AIF.

Life after the war:

Dalziel’s wound was so severe that his skull was smashed and the brain exposed. He received extensive medical treatment in England before returning to Australia in January 1919. While travelling home by train, he received a hero’s welcome at every station from Townsville to Atherton. On 8 April 1920, at the Congregational manse, South

399. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 637. 400. H Mays, ‘Dalziel, Henry (1893-1965)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 401. AIF Project, ‘Henry Dalziel’, 2010, accessed 25 March 2010.

402. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30849, 16 August 1918, p. 9660, accessed 25 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 70

Brisbane, he married Ida Maude Ramsay, a nurse who had served with the 17th Australian General Hospital. They took up a soldier-settlement block, which they named Zenith, on the Tolga railway line. As Dalziel was unable to cope with the day-to-day duties of a small mixed farm his wife assumed most of the work-load. His interest in farming waned after a few years and Dalziel left her to run Zenith and moved south. He worked in a Sydney factory in the late 1920s but by 1933 had settled in Brisbane where he was out of work for some time; he later received a war pension. In the early 1930s he joined the Citizen Military Forces, becoming a sergeant in the 9th/15th Battalion. He developed an interest in song-writing, cultivated at first during long periods of hospitalization; some of his songs, such as A Song of the Tableland and Love Time, Merry Love Time, were published in England. In 1956 he went to London for the VC centenary celebrations.

403

Died: 24 July 1965, Greenslopes, Brisbane, Queensland [electorate of Griffith].

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Mount Thompson Crematorium, Brisbane [electorate of Bonner].404

Bernard Sidney Gordon Born: 16 August 1891, Launceston, Tasmania [electorate of Bass].405

Life before the war:

Son of Charles Gordon, cabman and later hotel proprietor, and his wife Mary, née Rowlands. After schooling at Deloraine and Devonport he worked as a cooper’s machinist at Beaconsfield. He later went to Townsville, Queensland, where he was in charge of remounts en route to India. 406

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Townsville, Queensland [electorate of Herbert].407

Enlistment date: 27 September 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 26-27 August 1918 — east of Bray, France.

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty on 26th-27th August, 1918, east of Bray. [Lance Corporal Gordon] led his section through heavy shell fire to the objective, which he consolidated. Single handed, he attacked an enemy machine gun which was enfilading the company on his right, killed the man on the gun, and capturing the post, which contained one officer and ten men. He then cleared up a trench, capturing twenty nine prisoners and two machine guns. In clearing up further trenches he captured twenty two prisoners, including one officer, and three machine guns. Practically unaided, he captured, in the course of these operations, two officers and sixty one other ranks, together with six machine guns, and displayed throughout a wonderful example of fearless initiative.

408

Unit at time of action: 41st Infantry Battalion (Queensland), AIF.

Life after the war:

Gordon was again wounded on 1 September while the battalion was advancing in the Mont St Quentin area. He returned to Australia in January 1919, and was discharged in Queensland in April. He ran a grocer’s shop at Clayfield but then took up a dairy farming and Jersey stud property, Lincolnfield, near Beaudesert, where he farmed for forty-three years. A keen amateur rider, he was also a good horse-breaker and keen sportsman, a promoter of racing, cycling, boxing and football; he won many amateur boxing tournaments and medals for his achievements. He was a popular man in any company, with a ready wit and a keen sense of humour, and was well known for his stories and anecdotes. In 1956 he attended the Victoria Cross centenary celebrations in London, and in 1960, in his honour, the Gordon Soldiers’ Club was opened at Cabarlah, Queensland. Gordon remained at Lincolnfield until ill health forced him to move to Hervey Bay early in 1962. He had suffered for years from pulmonary tuberculosis. He died at Torquay, Queensland, on 19 October 1963, and was cremated in Brisbane with Methodist forms. Gordon had married Evelyn Catherine Lonergan on 29 December 1915 at Launceston, with Catholic rites; there were six children

403. H Mays, ‘Dalziel, Henry (1893-1965)‘, op. cit. 404. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 637. 405. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 644. 406. JW Courtney, ‘Gordon, Bernard Sidney (1891-1963)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 407. AIF Project, ‘Bernard Sidney Gordon‘, 2010, accessed 25 March 2010. 408. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31082, 24 December 1918, p. 15118, accessed 25 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 71

of this marriage. He was a widower when he married Caroline Edith Manley, née Victorsen, a widow, on 15 September 1938, at Ann Street Presbyterian Church, Brisbane; they had two sons and one daughter. Gordon was survived by his second wife and eight of his children. 409

Died: 19 October 1963, Torquay, Queensland [electorate of Hinkler].410

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Mount Thompson Crematorium, Queensland [electorate of Bonner].

Henry William Murray Born: 1 December 1880, Evandale, Tasmania [electorate of Lyons].411

Life before the war:

Son of Edward Kennedy Murray, farmer, and his wife Clarissa, née Littler. His father died when he was young and after leaving Evandale State School Harry helped to run the family farm. His military career began with six years’ service in the Australian Field Artillery (militia) at Launceston. At 19 or 20 he moved to Western Australia, working as a mail courier on the goldfields, travelling by bicycle or on horseback. When he enlisted as a private in the Australian Imperial Force on 13 October 1914, describing himself as a ‘bushman’, he was employing men cutting timber for the railways in the south-west of the State.

412 Previous military service: Six years’ service in the

Australian Field Artillery (militia) in Launceston. 413

Enlistment date: 30 September 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 4-5 January 1917 — Guedecourt, France.

For most conspicuous bravery when in command of the right flank company in attack. [Captain Murray] led his company to the assault with great skill and courage, and the position was quickly captured. Fighting of a very severe nature followed, and three heavy counter attacks were beaten back, these successes being due to Captain Murray’s wonderful work. Throughout the night his company suffered heavy casualties through concentrated enemy shell fire, and on one occasion gave ground for a short way. This gallant officer rallied his command and saved the situation by sheer valour. He made his presence felt throughout the line, encouraging his men, heading bombing parties, leading bayonet charges, and carrying wounded to places of safety. His magnificent example inspired his men throughout.

414

Unit at time of action: 13th Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

After the Armistice he toured Britain studying agricultural methods and on return to Australia began looking for a sheep-farming property. His AIF appointment ended on 9 March 1920. After discharge in Tasmania he moved to Queensland and became a grazier at Blairmack, Muckadilla. On 13 October 1921, at Bollon, he married an estate agent, Constance Sophia Cameron. They lived at Muckadilla until 1925 when they separated and Murray went to New Zealand. Their marriage was dissolved on 11 November 1927 and on 20 November, at the Registrar’s Office, Auckland, Murray married Ellen Purdon Cameron. They returned to Queensland and in April 1928 Murray bought Glenlyon station, Richmond, a 74,000-acre (29,947 ha) grazing property where he lived for the rest of his life. In World War II he commanded the 26th Battalion in North Queensland until April 1942; in August he became lieutenant-colonel commanding his local battalion of the Volunteer Defence Corps; he retired from military service on 8 February 1944. Although a shy man who shunned publicity he attended the VC centenary celebrations in London in 1956. Survived by his wife and their son and daughter, he died on 7 January 1966 in Miles District Hospital, Queensland, after a car accident. He was cremated with Presbyterian forms.

The historian of the 16th Battalion wrote of him: ‘To Murray belongs the honour of rising from a machine-gun private to the command of a machine-gun battalion of 64 guns, and of receiving more fighting decorations than any

409. JW Courtney, ‘Gordon, Bernard Sidney (1891-1963)‘, op. cit. 410. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 644. 411. M Lincoln, ‘Murray, Henry William (1880-1966)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 412. Ibid. 413. AIF Project, ‘Henry William Murray’, 2010, accessed 8 April 2010. 414. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29978, 9 March 1917, p. 2451, accessed 8 April 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 72

other infantry soldier in the British Army in the Great War’. The 13th Battalion historian noted: ‘Not only was the 13th proud of him but the whole brigade was, from general to Digger. His unconscious modesty won him still greater admiration … Murray’s courage was not a reckless exposure to danger like that of Jacka or Sexton who didn’t know fear’. He was a sensitive man who believed in discipline and wrote that ‘it transformed thousands of men - nervy and highly-strung like myself - enabling them to do the work which without discipline, they would have been quite incapable of performing’. Bean called him ‘the most distinguished fighting officer in the AIF’

415

Died: 7 January 1966, Darling Downs, Queensland [electorate Maranoa].

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Mount Thompson Crematorium, Queensland [electorate of Bonner].416

John Carroll Born: 16 August 1891, Brisbane, Queensland [electorate of Brisbane].417

Life before the war:

Son of John Carroll, labourer, and his wife Catherine, née Wallace, both Irish-born. When he was 2 the family moved to Donnybrook, Western Australia, and then to Yarloop. About 1905 they settled at Kurrawang where John and his father joined the Goldfields Firewood Supply Co. as labourers. Tall and well built, John was a good athlete and a prominent member of the local football club; he was working as a railway guard on the Kurrawang line when he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force as a private on 27 April 1916.

418

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Blackboy Hill, Western Australia [electorate of Pearce].419

Enlistment date: 27 April 1916.420

Description of action for which VC awarded: 7-12 January 1917 — St Yves, France.421

For most conspicuous bravery: During an attack, immediately the barrage lifted, Private John Carroll rushed the enemy’s trench and bayoneted four of the enemy. He then noticed a comrade in difficulties, and at once proceeded to his comrade’s assistance and killed one of the enemy. He continued working ahead with great determination until he came across a machine gun and team of four men in a shell hold. Single handed he attacked the entire team, killing three of the men and capturing the gun. Later on, two of his comrades were buried by a shell, and, in spite of very heavy shelling and machine gun fire, he managed to extricate them. During the 96 hours the battalion was in the line, Private Carroll displayed most wonderful courage and fearlessness. His magnificent example of gallantry and devotion to duty inspired all ranks in his battalion.

422

Unit at time of action: 33rd Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

After demobilization Carroll resumed work as a guard on the Kurrawang line. He married Mary Brown in the Catholic Cathedral, Perth, on 23 April 1923; they had no children. In the mid-1920s he moved to the Yarloop district and in November 1927, when he was working as a railway truck examiner at Hoffman’s Mill, he slipped while boarding a train during shunting operations and crushed his right foot; it was amputated but he continued working for many years as a labourer and railway employee. In 1956 he went to London for the Victoria Cross centenary celebrations, then retired to the Perth suburb of Bedford. He died in the Repatriation General Hospital, Hollywood, on 4 October 1971 and was buried in Karrakatta cemetery with full military honours. His wife had predeceased him. Carroll, who was known among his AIF comrades as ‘the wild Irishman’, was casual and happy-go-lucky by nature.

415. M Lincoln, ‘Murray, Henry William (1880-1966)’, op. cit. 416. AIF Project, ‘Henry William Murray’, op. cit. 417. AIF Project, ‘John Carroll’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 418. R Clark, ‘Carroll, John (1891-1971)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 419. AIF Project, ‘John Carroll’, op. cit. 420. R Clark, ‘Carroll, John (1891-1971)‘, op. cit. 421. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, pp. 278-79. 422. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30215, 31 July 1917, pp. 7907-7908, accessed 25 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 73

He missed three dates for his investiture with the VC and had to be sent for on the fourth occasion; after the ceremony he amused himself by exercising the Victoria Cross winners’ right to turn out the Buckingham Palace Guard. He was also known as ‘Referendum Carroll’ because he rarely said anything but yes or no. Two of his brothers served as privates in the AIF.

423

Died: 4 October 1971, Hollywood, Perth, Western Australia [electorate of Curtin].

Place of burial or cremation: Karrakatta Cemetery, Perth [electorate of Curtin].424

John Leak Born: 1892?, Portsmouth, Hampshire, United Kingdom.425 War record states that he was born in 1896.426

Life before the war:

Son of James Leak, miner. He migrated to Australia before World War I, becoming a teamster at Rockhampton, Queensland. 427

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Brisbane, Queensland [electorate of Brisbane].428

Enlistment date: 28 January 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: (25 July 1916—Pozières, France).

For most conspicuous bravery. He was one of a party which finally captured an enemy strong point. At one assault, when the enemy’s bombs were outranging ours, Private Leak jumped out of the trench, ran forward under heavy machine gun fire at close range, and threw three bombs into the enemy’s bombing post. He then jumped into the post and bayoneted three unwounded enemy bombers. Later, when the enemy in overwhelming numbers was

driving his party back he was always the last to withdraw at each stage, and kept on throwing bombs. His courage and energy had such an effect on the enemy that, on the arrival of reinforcements, the whole trench was recaptured. 429

Unit at time of action: 9th Infantry Battalion (Queensland), AIF.

Life after the war:

Late in life, he suffered from bronchitis and emphysema. He married Beatrice May Chapman on 30 December 1918 in the Parish Church of St John Baptist, Cardiff, Wales. On 9 February 1919 Leak embarked for Australia and was discharged from the AIF in Queensland on 31 May. After two years in Queensland he moved to New South Wales for two and a half years. Further moves took him to South Australia and then to Esperance in Western Australia where he became a mechanic and garage proprietor. He was married again on 19 January 1927 to Ada Victoria Bood-Smith. On retirement he settled at Crafers, South Australia. Survived by four sons and three daughters, he died at Redwood Park on 20 October 1972 and was buried in Stirling cemetery.

430

Died: 20 October 1972, Redwood Park, South Australia [electorate of Makin].431

Place of burial or cremation: Stirling District Cemetery, Adelaide [electorate of Mayo].

423. R Clark, ‘Carroll, John (1891-1971)‘, op. cit. 424. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 632. 425. AIF Project, ‘John Leak’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010; Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner— Private John Leak’, accessed 1 April 2010.

426. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 655. 427. H Mays, ‘Leak, John (1892?-1972)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 13 February 2010. 428. AIF Project, ‘John Leak‘, op. cit.

429. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29740, 8 September 1916, p. 8871, accessed 1 April 2010. 430. H Mays, ‘Leak, John (1892?-1972)’, op. cit. 431. M. Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 655.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 74

Keith Payne Born: 30 August 1933 at Ingham, Queensland [electorate of Kennedy].432

Place of residence at time of enlistment in 1951: East Ingham, Queensland [electorate of Kennedy].

Place of residence at time of enlistment in 1969: Stafford Heights, Queensland [electorate of Petrie].

Enlistment date: 7 March or 2 August 1951.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

On 24th May 1969, in Kontum Province, Warrant Officer Payne was Commanding 212th Company of 1st Mobile Strike Force Battalion when the battalion was attacked by a North Vietnamese force of superior strength. Under this heavy attack the indigenous soldiers began to fall back. Directly exposing himself to the enemy’s fire, Warrant Officer Payne, through his own efforts, temporarily held off the assaults by alternately firing his weapon and running from position to position collecting grenades and throwing them at the assaulting enemy. While doing this he was wounded in the hand and arms. Despite his outstanding efforts, the indigenous soldiers gave way under the enemy’s increased pressure and the Battalion Commander, together with several advisors and a few soldiers, withdrew. Paying no attention to his wounds and under extremely heavy enemy fire, Warrant Officer Payne covered his withdrawal by throwing grenades and firing his own weapon at the enemy who were attempting to follow up. Still under fire, he then ran across exposed ground to head off his own troops who were withdrawing in disorder. He successfully stopped them and organised the remnants of his and the second company into a temporary defensive perimeter by nightfall.

Having achieved this, Warrant Officer Payne of his own accord and at great personal risk, moved out of the perimeter into the darkness alone in an attempt to find the wounded and other indigenous soldiers. He finally collected forty lost soldiers, some of whom had been wounded and returned with this group to the temporary defensive position he had left, only to find that the remainder of the battalion had moved back. Undeterred by this setback and personally assisting a seriously wounded American advisor he led the group through the enemy to the safety of his battalion base. His sustained and heroic personal efforts, in this action were outstanding and undoubtedly saved the lives of a large number of his indigenous soldiers and several of his fellow advisors. Warrant Officer Payne’s repeated acts of exceptional personal bravery and unselfish conduct in this operation were an inspiration to all Vietnamese, United States and Australian soldiers who served with him. His conspicuous gallantry was in the highest traditions of the Australian Army.

433

Unit at time of action: Australian Army Training Team Vietnam.

Life after the war:

He was evacuated to Brisbane in September [1969] suffering from an illness, receiving a warm reception at the airport before entering hospital. In January 1970 Payne was posted to the Royal Military College Duntroon as an instructor. Payne received his VC from the Queen aboard the royal yacht, Britannia, in Brisbane. He was made a Freeman of the city and of the shire in which his hometown was located. A park in Stafford, Brisbane, where Payne lived was also named after him … He retired from the army in 1975, but saw further action as a captain with the Army of the Sultan of Oman in the Dhofar War. Payne returned to Australia and became active in the veteran community, particularly in counselling sufferers of post-traumatic stress disorder. Payne and his wife raised five sons and are now living at Mackay in Queensland [electorate of Dawson].

434

Daniel Alan Keighran Born: 18 June 1983, Nambour, Queensland [electorate of Fairfax].

Life before the war:

Daniel Alan Keighran was born in Nambour, Queensland on 18 June 1983 and spent his formative years in regional Queensland. He enlisted in the Australian Army on 5 December 2000 and completed his Initial Employment Training at the School of Infantry in Singleton, New South Wales. In 2001, Corporal Keighran was posted to the 6th Battalion,

432. Department of Veterans’ Affairs, ‘Payne, Keith’, Nominal Roll of Vietnam Veterans, accessed 9 April 2010. 433. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 44938, 19 September 1969, p. 9703, accessed 23 February 2010. 434. Australian War Memorial, ‘Warrant Officer Class 2 Keith Payne, VC’, Australian War Memorial website, accessed 1 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 75

the Royal Australian Regiment (6 RAR), where he served as a Rifleman in Delta Company. He deployed to Rifle Company Butterworth Malaysia in 2001, on Operation CITADEL - East Timor in 2003/2004 and again to Rifle Company Butterworth Malaysia in 2004. Corporal Keighran was promoted to Lance Corporal in 2005 and then served within Mortar Platoon, Support Company, 6 RAR. In 2006, he deployed on Operation CATALYST Iraq where he served as a Bushmaster driver, a role he also filled on deployment to Afghanistan with Operation SLIPPER in 2007, where he served in support of the Special Operations Task Group Rotation 4/5. In 2009, he was promoted to Corporal and posted back to Delta Company, 6 RAR.

435

Enlistment date: 5 December 2000.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For the most conspicuous acts of gallantry and extreme devotion to duty in action in circumstances of great peril at Derapet, Uruzgan Province, Afghanistan as part of the Mentoring Task Force One on Operation SLIPPER. Corporal Keighran deployed to Afghanistan in February 2010 with the 6th Battalion Royal Australian Regiment. On 24 August 2010 he was a member of a partnered fighting patrol with soldiers of the Afghan National Army’s 1st Kandak, 4th Brigade, 205th (Hero) Corps which was engaged by a numerically superior and coordinated enemy attack from multiple firing points in three separate locations. The attack was initiated by a high volume of sustained and accurate machine-gun and small-arms fire which pinned down the combined Australian and Afghan patrol and caused a loss of momentum. In the early stages of the attack, and upon realising that the forward elements of the patrol needed effective fire support, Corporal Keighran and another patrol member moved under sustained and accurate enemy fire to an exposed ridgeline to identify enemy locations and direct the return fire of both Australian and Afghan machine guns. On reaching this position and with complete disregard for his own wellbeing, Corporal Keighran deliberately drew enemy fire by leaving the limited cover he had and moved over the ridgeline in order to positively identify targets for the machine gunners of the combined patrol. After identifying some of the enemy firing positions, Corporal Keighran, under persistent enemy fire continued to lead and mentor his team and move around the ridge to both direct the fire of the Afghan and Australian machine gunners and to move them to more effective firing positions.

As the intensity of enemy fire grew, Corporal Keighran returned to the crest of the ridgeline to identify targets and adjust the fire of Australian Light Armoured vehicles. His actions resulted in the effective suppression of enemy firing points, which assisted in turning the fight in the favour of the combined patrol. Moving to a new position, Corporal Keighran deliberately and repeatedly again exposed himself to heavy enemy fire to assist in target identification and the marking of the forward line of troops for fire support elements whilst simultaneously engaging the enemy. Realising that the new position provided a better location for the patrol’s joint fire controller, Corporal Keighran moved over 100 metres across exposed parts of the ridgeline, attracting a high volume of accurate enemy fire, to locate and move the fire controller to the new position. He then rose from cover again to expose his position on four successive occasions, each movement drawing more intense fire than the last in order to assist in the identification of a further three enemy firing points that were subsequently engaged by fire support elements. During one of these occasions, when his patrol sustained an Australian casualty, Corporal Keighran with complete disregard for his own safety, left his position of cover on the ridgeline to deliberately draw fire away from the team treating the casualty. Corporal Keighran remained exposed and under heavy fire while traversing the ridgeline, in order to direct suppressing fire and then assist in the clearance of the landing zone to enable evacuation of the casualty.

Corporal Keighran’s acts of the most conspicuous gallantry to repeatedly expose himself to accurate and intense enemy fire, thereby placing himself in grave danger, ultimately enabled the identification and suppression of enemy firing positions by both Australian and Afghan fire support elements. These deliberate acts of exceptional courage in circumstances of great peril were instrumental in permitting the withdrawal of the combined Australian and Afghan patrol with no further casualties. His valour is in keeping with the finest traditions of the Australian Army and the Australian Defence Force.

436

Unit at the time of action: 6th Battalion Royal Australian Regiment

Life after the war:

Corporal Keighran transferred to the Active Reserve in 2011, at the same time commencing a civilian career in the mining industry. He is currently posted to the 11th/28th Battalion, the Royal Western Australia Regiment (11/28 RWAR), a Reserve infantry battalion of the Australian Army. He is married to Kathryn. 437

435. Department of Defence, ‘Corporal Daniel Alan Keighran, VC’, accessed 12 May 2014. 436. Ibid. 437. Ibid.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 76

John Alexander French Born: 15 July 1914, Crows Nest, Queensland [electorate of Maranoa].438

Life before the war:

Third of five children of Albert French, hairdresser, and his wife Lucy Fanny May, née Donaldson, both native-born. Educated at Crows Nest State School and Toowoomba Technical College, Jack entered his father’s barber-and-tobacconist business. On 22 October 1939 he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force and was posted to the 2nd/9th Battalion, then being formed at Redbank. Quiet, unassuming and of a serious disposition, French was a ‘big fair chap’, a good sportsman and well liked.

439

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Crows Nest, Queensland [electorate of Maranoa].440

Enlistment date: 22 October 1939.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

At Milne Bay on the afternoon of the 4th September, 1942, a company of an Australian Infantry Battalion attacked the Japanese position East of the Buna Mission where it encountered terrific rifle and machine-gun fire. The advance of the section of which Corporal French was in command was held up by the fire from three enemy machine-gun posts, whereupon Corporal French, ordering his section to take cover, advanced and silenced one of the posts with grenades. He returned to his section for more grenades and again advanced and silenced the second post. Armed with a Thompson sub-machine gun, he then attacked the third post, firing from the hip as he went forward. He was seen to be badly hit by the fire from this post, but he continued to advance. The enemy gun then ceased to fire and his section pushed on to find that all members of the three enemy gun crews had been killed and that Corporal French had died in front of the third gun pit. By his cool courage and disregard of his own personal safety, this non-commissioned officer saved the members of his section from heavy casualties and was responsible for the successful conclusion of the attack.

441

Unit at time of action: 2/9th Infantry Battalion (Queensland), Australian Military Forces.

Died: during VC action, 4 September 1942, Milne Bay, New Guinea.442

Place of burial or cremation: Port Moresby War Cemetery, Papua New Guinea. The French Memorial Library is located at Crows Nest, Queensland.443

Edgar Thomas Towner Born: 19 April 1890, Glencoe Station, near Blackall, Queensland [electorate of Maranoa].444

Life before the war:

Son of Tasmanian-born Edgar Thomas Towner, grazier, and his second wife Greta, née Herley, from Ireland. His parents were among the first settlers on the Barcoo River. Edgar was educated at home, at Blackall State School and at Rockhampton. In 1912 he took up his own selection which he optimistically named Valparaiso; before developing it, he enlisted on 4 January 1915 as a private in the Australian Imperial Force.

445

438. National Archives of Australia (NAA): Department of Defence; B883, Second Australian Imperial Force personnel dossiers, 1939-1947; QX1071, French John Alexander, 1939-1948. 439. A Staunton, ‘French, John Alexander (1914-1942)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010. 440. NAA: French John Alexander, op. cit. 441. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 35862, 12 January 1943, p. 319, accessed 9 April 2010. 442. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 643. 443. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Corporal John Alexander French’, Anzac Day

Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 444. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Lieutenant Edgar Thomas Towner’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 445. R Gorrell, ‘Towner, Edgar Thomas (1890-1972)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 77

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Yelleroi, Queensland [electorate of Maranoa].446

Enlistment date: 4 January 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 1 September 1918 — Mont St Quentin, France.

For most conspicuous bravery, initiative and devotion to duty on 1st September, 1918, in the attack on Mont St Quentin, near Peronne, when in charge of four Vickers guns. During the early stages of the advance he located and captured single handed an enemy machine gun which was causing casualties, and by turning it on the enemy

inflicted severe losses. Subsequently, by the skilful, tactical handling of his guns, he cut off and captured twenty five of the enemy. Later, by fearless reconnaissance under heavy fire, and by the energy, foresight, and promptitude with which he brought fire to bear on various enemy groups, he gave valuable support to the infantry advance. Again, when short of ammunition, he secured an enemy machine gun, which he mounted and fired in full view of the enemy, causing the enemy to retire further, and enabling our infantry to advance. Under intense fire, although wounded, he maintained the fire of this gun at a very critical period. During the following night he steadied and gave valuable support to a small detached post, and by his coolness and cheerfulness inspirited the men in a great degree. Throughout the night he kept close watch by personal reconnaissance on the enemy movement, and was evacuated exhausted thirty hours after being wounded. The valour and resourcefulness of Lt. Towner undoubtedly saved a very critical situation, and contributed largely to the success of the attack.

447

Unit at time of action: 2nd Battalion, Australian Machine Gun Corps, AIF.

Life after the war:

The hero returned to Australia in April 1919, but was unable to raise sufficient funds to stock his property. He gave up Valparaiso, went jackerooing and did itinerant work for three years from 1922. Entering into a partnership in Kaloola station (near Longreach) in 1925, Towner thenceforward made the pastures and lands of central Queensland the focus of his life and successfully built up Russleigh Pastoral Co., Isisford. He took on the bush just as he had accepted the challenges of battle and stuck it out through hard times, preserving his stock as best he could. Towner made himself an expert on the frontier environments of western Queensland and Central Australia, as well as on the exploits of Sir Thomas Mitchell who had mapped and named parts of the country. By 1946 Towner had successfully lobbied the Commonwealth government for a postage stamp to commemorate Mitchell. In 1955 he crowned his lifelong geographical work with an address to the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia in Brisbane; his efforts were rewarded with the James Park Thomson gold medal and a fellowship of the society; next year his address was published as a booklet entitled Lake Eyre and its Tributaries Edgar Towner was a big man with an imposing personality. In military kit he was burly and tough-looking, but out of it he was shy and distant, engrossed in thought. Without wife or children, he was deemed a loner. A younger generation regarded him as eccentric: always to be seen wearing a suit and frequently disappearing into the outback for long periods of study or exploration.

448

Died: 18 August 1972, Longreach, Queensland [electorate of Maranoa].

Place of burial or cremation: Longreach Cemetery, Queensland [electorate of Maranoa].449

James Heather (Hannah) Gordon Born: 7 March 1909, Rockingham, Western Australia [electorate of Brand].450

Life before the war:

Fifth of eight surviving children of Australian-born parents William Beattie Gordon, member (1901-11) of the Legislative Assembly and later farmer, and his wife Harriett Ann, née Scott. (Sir) John Hannah Gordon was his uncle.

446. AIF Project, ‘Edgar Thomas Towner‘, op. cit. 447. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31067, 13 December 1918, p. 14775, accessed 8 April 1918. 448. R Gorrell, ‘Towner, Edgar Thomas (1890-1972)’, op. cit. 449. AIF Project, ‘Edgar Thomas Towner‘, op. cit. 450. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 644. The World War II Nominal Roll

lists his date of birth as 7 March 1908; See Department of Veterans’ Affairs, ‘Gordon, James Heather’, World War II Nominal Roll, 2002, accessed 19 February 2010. The Australian Dictionary of Biography lists his date of birth as 7 March 1907; J Horner, ‘Gordon, James Hannah (Jim) (1907-1986)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 19 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 78

Jim grew up on his parents’ properties at Namban, near Moora, and (from 1917) at Gingin. Educated at local state schools, he worked as a drover, rouseabout and farmer. He was employed on the goldfields as a battery worker when World War II broke out. On 26 April 1940 Gordon understated his age and enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force, giving his middle name as Heather. He was 5 ft 9 ins (175 cm) tall and of medium build, with brown eyes and dark hair. At St Edmund’s Church of England, Wembley Park, Perth, on 14 June that year he married Myrtle Anzac Troy.

451

Place of residence at time of Enlistment: Yalgoo, Western Australia [electorate of Durack].452

Enlistment date: 26 April 1940.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 10 July 1941 — Djezzine, Lebanon.

On the night of 10th July 1941 during an attack on ‘Greenhill’, North of Djezzine, Private Gordon’s Company came under intense machine-gun fire and its advance was held up. Movement even by single individuals became impossible, one officer and two men being killed and two men being wounded in the effort to advance. The enemy machine-gun position which had brought the two forward platoons to a halt was fortified and completely covered the area occupied by our forces. Private Gordon, on his own initiative, crept forward over an area swept by machine-gun and grenade fire and succeeded in approaching close to the post; he then charged it from the front and killed the four machine-gunners with bayonet. His action completely demoralised the enemy in this sector and the Company advanced and took the position. During the remainder of the action that night and on the following day, Private Gordon, who has throughout operations shown a high degree of courage, fought with equal gallantry.

453

Unit at time of action: 2/31st Infantry Battalion (Queensland and Victoria), Australian Military Forces.

Life after the war:

Corporal Gordon arrived back in Australia with his unit in March 1942. Having recovered from a bout of malaria, he reached Papua late in November, by which time the 2/31st was fighting the Japanese around Gona. In January 1943 he returned to Australia and was made acting sergeant. He was confirmed in the rank en route to Port Moresby in July. During the advance towards Lae, New Guinea, in September, he led a charge against a machine-gun nest. It is likely that he was considered for a further decoration, perhaps another VC, but no award was forthcoming. ‘Just as well, too’, he later said. ‘Imagine what my cobbers would have called me then’. After taking part in the subsequent operations in the Markham and Ramu valleys, he came home to Australia in January 1944. He spent more time in hospital with malaria and performed administrative duties before being discharged on 17 February 1947. His brothers Talbot and Ken also served in the AIF; Talbot was killed at El Alamein, Egypt, in 1942.

Finding that a job with the State Electricity Commission of Western Australia did not suit him, and missing army life, Gordon joined the Australian Regular Army on 2 December 1947. Employed as an instructor of cadets in Western Australia, he was promoted to temporary warrant officer, class two, in October 1949 (confirmed 1 February 1950). He retired from the army on 1 August 1968, then worked as a groundsman at Campbell Barracks, Swanbourne, until 1975. A quiet, unassuming man, Gordon often hid his VC ribbon in his pocket after ceremonial occasions. He enjoyed fishing and gardening, liked cricket and avidly followed Australian Rules football. Survived by his wife and their son, he died on 19 July 1986 at the Repatriation General Hospital, Nedlands, and was cremated with full military honours. (Sir) William Dargie’s portrait (1941) of Gordon, which won the 1942 Archibald prize, is held by the Australian War Memorial, Canberra.

454

Died: 19 July 1986, Nedlands, Western Australia [electorate of Curtin].

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Karrakatta Crematorium, Western Australia [electorate of Curtin].

451. J Horner, ‘Gordon, James Hannah (Jim) (1907-1986)’, op. cit. 452. Department of Veterans’ Affairs, ‘Gordon, James Heather’, op. cit. 453. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 35325, 24 October 1941, p. 6237, accessed 9 April 2010. 454. J Horner, ‘Gordon, James Hannah (Jim) (1907-1986)’, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 79

Thomas Leslie ‘Jack’ Axford Born: 18 June 1894, Carrieton, South Australia [electorate of Grey].455

Life before the war:

Son of Walter Richard Axford, an auctioneer from Tasmania, and his South Australian-born wife Margaret Ann, née McQuillan. The family moved to Coolgardie, Western Australia, when he was 2. Educated at the local state school, he worked as a labourer for the Boulder City Brewery Co. Ltd. 456

Previous military service: Served in the 84th

Infantry, Citizen Military Forces. 457

Place of residence at time of Enlistment: Coolgardie, Western Australia [electorate O’Connor].458

Enlistment date: 19 July 1915.

Description of Action for which VC awarded: 4 July 1918—Vaire and Hamel Woods, France.459

For most conspicuous bravery and initiative during operations. When the barrage lifted and the Infantry advance commenced, his platoon was able to reach the first enemy defences through gaps which had been cut in the wire. The adjoining platoon being delayed in un-cut wire, enemy machine guns got into action, and inflicted many casualties, including the Company Commander. Lance-Corporal Axford, with great initiative and magnificent courage, at once dashed to the flank, threw his bombs amongst the machine-gun crews, jumped into the trench, and charged with his bayonet. Unaided he killed ten of the enemy and took six prisoners: he threw the machine guns over the parapet, and called out to the delayed platoon to come on. He then rejoined his own platoon, and fought with it during the remainder of the operations. Prior to the incidents above mentioned he had assisted in the laying out of the tapes for the jumping off position, which was within 100 yards of the enemy. When the tapes were laid he remained out as a special patrol to ensure that the enemy did not discover any unusual movement on our side. His initiative and gallantry undoubtedly saved many casualties, and most materially assisted towards the complete success of his company in the task assigned to it.

460

Unit at time of Action:16th Infantry Battalion (South Australia and Western Australia), AIF.

Life after the war:

In December 1918 Axford came home to Australia on furlough. Discharged from the army on 6 February 1919, he recommenced work as a labourer. At St Mary’s Cathedral, Perth, on 27 November 1926 he married Lily Maud Foster, a shop assistant. They lived at Mount Hawthorn and had five children. Axford was employed by Hugh McKay (Massey Harris) Pty Ltd and became a clerk. On 25 June 1941 he was mobilised in the Militia and posted to the District Records Office, Perth. Rising to sergeant in February 1943, he was discharged on 14 April 1947. In his leisure time ‘Jack’ regularly attended the races. Axford attended the VC centenary celebrations in London in 1956. He was returning from a reunion of the Victoria Cross and George Cross Association when he died on 11 October 1983 on an aircraft between Dubai and Hong Kong. His wife had died three months earlier. Survived by their two sons and three daughters, he was cremated with full military honours. In 1985 his VC and other medals were presented to the Australian War Memorial, Canberra.

461

Died: 11 October 1983.462

Place of burial: Cremated at Karrakatta Crematorium, Perth, Western Australia [electorate of Curtin].

455. AIF Project, ‘Thomas Leslie Axford’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 456. PL Edgar, ‘Axford, Thomas Leslie (Jack) (1894 - 1983)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 1 March 2010. 457. AIF Project, ‘Thomas Leslie Axford‘, op. cit. 458. PL Edgar, ‘Axford, Thomas Leslie (Jack) (1894-1983)‘, op. cit. 459. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 312. 460. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette.’, London Gazette, no. 30849, 16 August 1918, p. 9660, accessed 24 March 2010. 461. PL Edgar, ‘Axford, Thomas Leslie (Jack) (1894-1983)‘, op. cit. 462. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., pp. 625-26.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 80

Martin O’Meara Born: 6 November 1885, Lorrha, County Tipperary, Ireland.463 War record states that he was born on 31 December 1882, Terryglass, County Tipperary, Ireland.464

Life before the war:

Son of Michael O’Meara, labourer, and his wife Margaret, née Connor. He arrived in Western Australia as a youth, having worked his passage as a stoker. Giving his occupation as sleeper-hewer, he joined the Australian Imperial Force in Perth on 19 August 1915. 465

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Bowling Pool via Collie, Western Australia [electorate of Forrest].466

Enlistment date: 19 August 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 9-12 August 1916 — Pozières, France.467

For most conspicuous bravery. During four days of very heavy fighting [Private O’Meara] repeatedly went out and brought in wounded officers and men from ‘No Man’s Land’ under intense artillery and machine gun fire. He also volunteered and carried up ammunition and bombs through a heavy barrage to a portion of the trenches, which was being heavily shelled at the time. He showed throughout an utter contempt of danger, and undoubtedly saved many lives.

468

Unit at time of action: 16th Infantry Battalion (South Australia and Western Australia), AIF.

Life after the war:

In November 1918 he returned to Australia and was discharged from the AIF in Perth in November 1919. His war experiences caused a complete breakdown in his health for he spent the rest of his life in military hospitals, suffering from chronic mania. He was too ill to attend a special Armistice Day dinner in 1929 given by the governor of Western Australia for the State’s VC winners. He died in Claremont Mental Hospital, Perth, on 20 December 1935. His death certificate gave his occupation as ‘returned soldier’. He was buried with full military honours in Karrakatta Catholic cemetery by Fr John Fahey. The mourners included three VC winners, C Sadlier, J Woods and T Axford. Senator Sir George Pearce was a pallbearer. In 1917 O’Meara had revisited his native Ireland where money was raised as a testimonial to him from Lorrha and neighbouring parishes; he left it to the parish for restoring historic Lorrha Abbey. That task being beyond this sum, it was instead applied to repairs of the existing parish church. In 1986 his VC was donated to the West Australian Army Museum. Little is known about O’Meara personally but one officer of the 16th described him at Mouquet Farm as ‘always cheerful and optimistic’, willing ‘to volunteer for any job’. He was unmarried.

469

Died: 20 December 1935, Western Australia [electorate of Curtin].470

Place of burial or cremation: Karrakatta Cemetery, Perth [electorate of Curtin].

Leslie Thomas Starcevich Born: 5 September 1918 at Subiaco, Western Australia [electorate of Curtin].471

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Norseman, Western Australia [electorate of O’Connor].

463. R Reid, ‘O’Meara, Martin (1885-1935)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 464. AIF Project, ‘Martin O’Meara’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 465. R Reid, ‘O’Meara, Martin (1885-1935)’, op. cit. 466. AIF Project, ‘Martin O’Meara’, op. cit. 467. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 252. 468. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29740, 8 September 1916, p. 8871, accessed 8 April 2010. 469. R Reid, ‘O’Meara, Martin (1885-1935)’, op. cit. 470. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 665. 471. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 675.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 81

Enlistment date: 9 April 1941.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 28 June 1945 — Beaufort, Borneo.

Private L. Starcevich was a member of 2/43rd Australian Infantry Battalion during the capture of Beaufort, North Borneo. During the approach along a thickly wooded spur, the enemy was encountered at a position where movement off the single track leading into the enemy defences was difficult and hazardous. When the leading section came under fire from two enemy machine-gun posts and suffered casualties, Private Starcevich, who was a Bren gunner, moved forward and assaulted each post in turn. He rushed each post firing his Bren gun from the hip, killed five enemy and put the remaining occupants of the posts to flight. The advance progressed until the section came under fire from two machine gun posts which halted the section temporarily. Private Starcevich again advanced fearlessly, firing his Bren gun from the hip and ignoring the hostile fire, captured both posts single handed, disposing of seven enemy. These daring efforts enabled the Company to increase the momentum of its attack and so relieve pressure on another Company which was attacking from another direction. The outstanding gallantry of Private Starcevich in carrying out these attacks single handed with complete disregard of his own personal safety resulted in the decisive success of the action.

472

Unit at time of action: 2nd/43rd Australian Infantry Battalion (South Australia), Australian Military Forces.

Life after the war:

Leslie Starcevich married Katherine Betty Warr, ‘a blue eyed blond’, in the Perth Registry Office on 19 December 1947. 473 According to a Sydney Morning Herald article from 11 November 1964, Starcevich spent the first four

years [after the war] as a motor salesman in Perth. He then obtained a 4300-acre War Service farm at Carnamah, on the Geraldton line, which he now works with his elder brother, Joe. They grow wheat and wool... He wanted to enlist during the Korean War but his wife talked him out of it. On his VC action in Borneo, a 70 year old Starcevich was quoted in April as saying humbly: It was mainly survival. If you back off, you are a sitting duck. It was mainly a matter of self-preservation.

Died: 17 November 1989, Carnamah, Western Australia [electorate of Durack].

Place of burial or cremation: Esperance Public Lawn Cemetery, Western Australia [electorate of O’Connor].

Hugo Vivian Hope Throssell Born: 26 October 1884, Northam, Western Australia [electorate of Pearce].474

Life before the war:

Youngest son of George Throssell, storekeeper and later premier, and his wife Anne, née Morrell. One of fourteen children, Hugo was educated at Prince Alfred College, Adelaide, where he captained the football team and became a champion athlete and boxer. He then worked as a jackeroo on cattle stations in the north of the State. In 1912 he and his brother, Frank Erick (Ric) Cottrell (b.1881), took up land at Cowcowing in the Western Australian wheat-belt. Severe drought during the next two years strengthened the bond between them; they were later described as ‘David and Jonathan’ in their devotion to one another. Hugo was tall, with a long face and strong features.

475

Previous military service: Served for 6.6 years as Trooper, 18th Australian Light Horse; four months as Sergeant, 10th Australian Light Horse. 476

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Northam, Western Australia [electorate of Pearce].

Enlistment date: 29 September 1914. (5 October 1914 on Nominal Roll).

Description of action for which VC awarded: 29-30 August 1915 — Hill 60, Gallipoli, Turkey.

472. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 37340, 8 November 1945, pp. 5431-5432, accessed 23 February 2010. 473. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 675. 474. AIF Project, ‘Hugo Vivian Hope Throssell’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 475. S Welborn, ‘Throssell, Hugo Vivian Hope (1884-1933)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010. 476. AIF Project, ‘Hugo Vivian Hope Throssell’, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 82

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during operations on the Kaiakij Aghala (Hill 60) in the Gallipoli Peninsula, 29th and 30th August, 1915. Although severely wounded in several places during a counter attack, [2 nd

Lieutenant Throssell] refused to leave his post or to obtain medical assistance till all danger was past, when he had his wounds dressed and returned to the firing line until ordered out of action by the medical officer. By his personal courage and example he kept up the spirits of his party, and was largely instrumental in saving the situation at a critical period.

477

Unit at time of action: 10th Light Horse Regiment, AIF.

Life after the war:

On 28 January 1919 in the Collins Street registry office, Melbourne, Throssell married the Australian author Katharine Susannah Prichard whom he had met in England. They settled on a 40-acre (16 ha) mixed farm at Greenmount, near Perth. His wife wrote that those early years of marriage with Hugo, whom she called Jim, were her happiest. When she became a foundation member of the Communist Party of Australia in 1920, Hugo joined her as a speaker supporting unemployed and striking workers. He claimed that the war had made him a socialist and a pacifist. The combination of her award-winning novels and Communism, and his Victoria Cross, brought them fame and notoriety. Hugo acted as soldiers’ representative on the Returned Soldiers’ Land Settlement Board, became a real estate agent and worked temporarily in the Department of Agriculture in Western Australia.

Hard times came in the Depression. Katharine believed that her political activities lost Hugo his job with the settlement board, and that his passion to own land led him to borrow recklessly from the banks. He joined the search for gold at Larkinville in the early 1930s. When that proved unsuccessful, he devised a scheme which he hoped would prove a money-spinner. While Katharine was on a six-month visit to Russia, he organized a rodeo on his Greenmount property on a Sunday, not knowing that it was illegal to charge entry fees on the sabbath. The only money Hugo raised from the 2000 people who attended was a meagre silver collection for charity. The episode plunged him further into debt and shattered his optimism. Imagining that he could better provide for his wife and 11-year-old son if he left them a war service pension, he shot himself on 19 November 1933 at Greenmount. Friends blamed his melancholy on an attack of meningitis at Gallipoli and saw it as the cause of his suicide. He was buried with full military honours in the Anglican section of Karrakatta cemetery, Perth.

478

Died: 19 November 1933, Greenmount, Western Australia [electorate of Pearce].

Place of burial or cremation: Karrakatta Cemetery, Perth [electorate of Curtin]. A memorial plaque was unveiled at Greenmount on 25 February 1954.479

James Park Woods Born: 4 January 1896, Two Wells, South Australia [electorate of Wakefield].480 War record states he was born on 2 January 1891, Gawler, South Australia [electorate of Wakefield].481

Life before the war:

Son of James Woods, blacksmith, and his wife Ester, née Johnson. After his parents’ death James was reared by a stepsister and, with his brothers, worked on a vineyard. Soon after war broke out in 1914 Woods tried to enlist in Adelaide, but was rejected because of his height (5 ft 4 ins, 163 cm). He travelled to Western Australia with his brother Will, and carted timber and fenced in the Katanning area before becoming a vigneron at Caversham. Following further unsuccessful attempts, James eventually enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 29 September 1916 when the height requirements had been lowered. He left Australia in December as a reinforcement for the 48th Battalion.

482

477. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29328, 15 October 1915, p. 10154, accessed 26 March 2010. 478. S Welborn, ‘Throssell, Hugo Vivian Hope (1884-1933)’, op. cit. 479. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Second Lieutenant Hugo Vivian Hope Throssell’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010.

480. M Higgins, ‘Woods, James Park (1886-1963)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010. 481. AIF Project, ‘James Park Woods’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 482. M Higgins, ‘Woods, James Park (1886-1963)’, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 83

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Caversham, Western Australia [electorate of Hasluck].483

Enlistment date: 29 September 1916.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 18 September 1918 — Le Verguier, France.

For conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty near Le Verguier, north-west of St. Quentin, on the 18th September, 1918, when, with a weak patrol, [Private Woods] attacked and captured a very formidable enemy post, and subsequently, with, two comrades, held the same against heavy enemy counterattacks. Although exposed to heavy fire of all descriptions, he fearlessly jumped on the parapet and opened fire on the attacking enemy, inflicting severe casualties. He kept up his fire and held up the enemy until help arrived, and throughout the operations displayed a splendid example of valour, determination and initiative.

484

Unit at time of action: 48th Infantry Battalion (South Australia), AIF.

Life after the war:

Returning to Australia in August 1919, he took up a small vineyard and orchard in the Swan Valley. On 30 April 1921 at the Caversham Methodist Church, Perth, he married Olive Adeline Wilson. Like many veterans of the AIF, Woods did not return home unscathed: he was plagued with ill health as a result of gassing and chest infections in the trenches. In 1937 he was granted a full pension and, although given only a few years to live, enjoyed a quiet retirement for the next twenty-six years. A keen cricketer when younger, Woods now took up fishing as a hobby. For a time he was president of the Caversham sub-branch of the Returned Sailors’, Soldiers’ and Airmen’s Imperial League of Australia. In 1956 he joined other Australian VC winners in attending the VC centenary celebrations in London. His sons Gordon and Norman served in the Royal Australian Air Force during World War II; Gordon (the first-born) was killed in October 1943. Late in life Woods lived at Claremont, Perth. Survived by his wife, three sons and three daughters, he died on 18 January 1963 in Hollywood Repatriation Hospital and was buried in Karrakatta cemetery.

485

Died: 18 January 1963, Claremont, Western Australia [electorate of Curtin].486

Place of burial or cremation: Karrakatta Cemetery, Western Australia [electorate of Curtin].

Arthur Stanley Gurney Born: 15 December 1908, Day Dawn, Murchison, Western Australia [electorate of Durack].487

Life before the war:

Fourth of five children of George Gurney, miner, and his wife Jane, née Roberts, both from South Australia. Educated at the local state school and at Stott’s Business College, Perth, Stan began work with a real-estate agent. From June 1927 he was employed as a clerk and meter-fixer with the City of Perth Electricity and Gas Department. An enthusiastic cyclist, he won a number of road-races and officiated at fixtures conducted by the League of Western Australian Wheelmen.

488

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Victoria Park, Western Australia [electorate of Swan].489

Enlistment date: 6 December 1940.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 22 July 1942 — Tel El Eisa, Egypt.

483. AIF Project, ‘James Park Woods’, op. cit. 484. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31082, 24 December 1918, p. 15119, accessed 8 April 2010. 485. M Higgins, ‘Woods, James Park (1886-1963)‘, op. cit. 486. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 681. 487. National Archives of Australia (NAA): Department of Defence; B883, Second Australian Imperial Force personnel dossiers, 1939-1947;

NX54224, Gurney Arthur Stanley, 1939-1948. 488. P Brune, ‘Gurney, Arthur Stanley (1908-1942)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 19 February 2010. 489. NAA: Gurney Arthur Stanley, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 84

For gallantry and unselfish bravery in silencing enemy machine guns by bayonet assault at Tel El Eisa, on 22nd July, 1942, thus allowing his Company to continue the advance. During an attack on a strong German position in the early morning of 22nd July, 1942, the Company to which Private Gurney belonged was held up by intense machine gun fire from posts less than a hundred yards ahead, heavy casualties being inflicted on our troops, all the officers being killed or wounded. Grasping the seriousness of the situation and without hesitation, Private Gurney charged the nearest enemy machine gun post, bayoneted three men and silenced the post. He then continued on to the second post, bayoneted two men and sent out a third as prisoner. At this stage a stick of grenades was thrown at Private Gurney which knocked him to the ground. He rose again, picked up his rifle and charged a third post using the bayonet with great vigour. He then disappeared from view and later his body was found in an enemy post. By this single handed act of gallantry in the face of determined enemy action, Private Gurney enabled his company to press forward to its objective inflicting heavy losses upon the enemy. The successful outcome of this engagement was almost entirely due to Private Gurney’s heroism at the moment when it was needed.

490

Unit at time of action: 2/48th Infantry Battalion (South Australia), Australian Military Forces.

Died: 22 July 1942, during VC action, Tel-el-Eisa, Egypt.491

Place of burial or cremation: El Alamein War Cemetery, Egypt. The Stan Gurney VC Memorial Bike Race, held annually in Western Australia, commemorates him.492

Western Australian electorates Ben Roberts-Smith (1978-; Afghanistan) Brand James Heather Gordon (1909-1986; WWII) born Curtin Thomas Leslie Axford (1894-1983; WWI) buried John Carroll (1891-1971; WWI) died and buried Hughie Idwal Edwards (1914-82; WWII) buried James Heather Gordon (1909-1986; WWII) died and buried George Julian Howell (1893-1964; WWI) died, and buried Martin O’Meara (1885-1935; WWI) died, and buried Clifford William King Sadlier (1892-1964; WWI) resided on enlistment, and buried Leslie Thomas Starcevich (1918-1989; WWII) born Hugo Vivian Hope Throssell (1884-1933; WWI) buried James Park Woods (1886-1963; WWI) died, and buried Durack Arthur Stanley Gurney (1908-1942; WWII) born James Heather (Hannah) Gordon (1909-1986; WWII) resided on enlistment Leslie Thomas Starcevich (1918-1989; WWII) died Forrest Martin O’Meara (1885-1935; WWI) resided on enlistment Clifford William King Sadlier (1892-1964; WWI) died Fremantle Hughie Idwal Edwards (1914-82; WWII) born, and resided on enlistment Hasluck James Park Woods (1886-1963; WWI) resided on enlistment O’Connor Alfred Edward Gaby (1892-1918; WWI) resided on enlistment Percival Eric Gratwick (1902-1942; WWII) born Leslie Thomas Starcevich (1918-1989; WWII) resided on enlistment, and buried Pearce John Carroll (1891-1971; WWI) resided on enlistment Lawrence Dominic McCarthy (1892-1975; WWI) born, resided on enlistment

490. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette.’, London Gazette, no. 35698, 8 September 1942, p. 3953, accessed 9 April 2010. 491. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 646. 492. P Brune, ‘Gurney, Arthur Stanley (1908-1942)’, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 85

Hugo Vivian Hope Throssell (1884-1933; WWI) born, resided on enlistment, and died Perth Frederick William Bell (1875-1954; Boer War) born Percival Eric Gratwick (1902-1942; WWII) resided on enlistment Charles Pope (1883-1917; WWI) resided on enlistment Swan Arthur Stanley Gurney (1908-1942; WWII) resided on enlistment

Ben Roberts-Smith Born: 1 November 1978, Perth, Western Australia [electorate information unknown].

Life before the war:

Roberts-Smith graduated from Hale School in Perth in 1995, and enlisted in the Australian Army in 1996. 493

[Roberts-Smith] completed his training at the School of Infantry, Singleton, New South Wales. In 1997, Corporal Roberts-Smith was posted to the 3rd Battalion, the Royal Australian Regiment (3RAR) where he served as a Rifleman in C Company, before advancing on to be a section commander in Direct Fire Support Weapons platoon. During his tenure with 3RAR, Corporal Roberts-Smith deployed twice as part of the Rifle Company Butterworth Malaysia, and conducted two operational tours of East Timor including INTERFET in 1999. In 2003, Corporal Roberts-Smith completed the SASR selection course and was selected to commence the Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) reinforcement cycle. On completion of the reinforcement cycle, he was posted to 3 Squadron, where he served as a member of the Tactical Assault Group West and the Contingency Squadron.

While with 3 Squadron, Corporal Roberts-Smith was a member of a number of training and assistance teams throughout South East Asia. He was deployed on operations to Fiji in 2004, and has also deployed on Recovery Operations, as well as a number of personnel security detachments in Iraq throughout 2005/2006. 2006 saw Corporal Roberts-Smith deployed as part of the Special Operations Task Group (SOTG) in Afghanistan where he was subsequently awarded the Medal for Gallantry. He was again deployed with the SOTG in Afghanistan in 2007, and on his return was posted to Operational Support Squadron as a member of the Selection Wing where he took part in the training of SASR Reinforcements. In 2009, Corporal Roberts-Smith was then posted to 2 Squadron where he deployed as a patrol second in command to Afghanistan. Upon his return, Corporal Roberts-Smith completed the SASR Patrol Commanders Course, and in 2010 was again deployed with the SOTG in Afghanistan.

494

Enlistment date: 11 November 1996.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For the most conspicuous gallantry in action in circumstances of extreme peril as Patrol Second-in-Command, Special Operations Task Group on Operation SLIPPER. Corporal Benjamin Roberts-Smith enlisted in the Australian Regular Army in 1996. After completing the requisite courses, he was posted the 3rd Battalion, the Royal Australian Regiment where he saw active service in East Timor. In January 2003, he successfully completed the Australian Special Air Service Regiment Selection Course. During his tenure with the Regiment, he deployed on Operation

VALIANT, SLATE, SLIPPER, CATALYST and SLIPPER II. Corporal Benjamin Roberts-Smith was awarded the Medal for Gallantry for his actions in Afghanistan in 2006. On the 11th June 2010, a troop of the Special Operations Task Group conducted a helicopter assault into Tizak, Kandahar Province, in order to capture or kill a senior Taliban commander.

Immediately upon the helicopter insertion, the troop was engaged by machine gun and rocket propelled grenade fire from multiple, dominating positions. Two soldiers were wounded in action and the troop was pinned down by fire from three machine guns in an elevated fortified position to the south of the village. Under the cover of close air support, suppressive small arms and machine gun fire, Corporal Roberts-Smith and his patrol manoeuvred to within 70 metres of the enemy position in order to neutralise the enemy machine gun positions and regain the initiative. Upon commencement of the assault, the patrol drew very heavy, intense, effective and sustained fire from the enemy position. Corporal Roberts-Smith and his patrol members fought towards the enemy position until, at a range of 40 metres, the weight of fire prevented further movement forward. At this point, he identified the opportunity to exploit some cover provided by a small structure.

493. S Cowen and N Taylor, ‘WA digger awarded VC medal’, The West Australian, 22 January 2011, accessed 18 June 2012. 494. Department of Defence, ‘Corporal Benjamin Roberts-Smith, VC, MG’, accessed 18 June 2012.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 86

As he approached the structure, Corporal Roberts-Smith identified an insurgent grenadier in the throes of engaging his patrol. Corporal Roberts-Smith instinctively engaged the insurgent at point-blank range resulting in the death of the insurgent. With the members of his patrol still pinned down by the three enemy machine gun positions, he exposed his own position in order to draw fire away from his patrol, which enabled them to bring fire to bear against the enemy. His actions enabled his Patrol Commander to throw a grenade and silence one of the machine guns. Seizing the advantage, and demonstrating extreme devotion to duty and the most conspicuous gallantry, Corporal Roberts-Smith, with a total disregard for his own safety, stormed the enemy position killing the two remaining machine gunners.

His act of valour enabled his patrol to break-in to the enemy position and to lift the weight of fire from the remainder of the troop who had been pinned down by the machine gun fire. On seizing the fortified gun position, Corporal Roberts-Smith then took the initiative again and continued to assault enemy positions in depth during which he and another patrol member engaged and killed further enemy. His acts of selfless valour directly enabled his troop to go on and clear the village of Tizak of Taliban. This decisive engagement subsequently caused the remainder of the Taliban in Shah Wali Kot District to retreat from the area. Corporal Roberts-Smith’s most conspicuous gallantry in a circumstance of extreme peril was instrumental to the seizure of the initiative and the success of the troop against a numerically superior enemy force. His valour was an inspiration to the soldiers with whom he fought alongside and is in keeping with the finest traditions of the Australian Army and the Australian Defence Force.

495 A personal account of this action is contained in an interview Roberts-Smith gave to Wartime Magazine in January 2012. 496

Unit at time of action: Special Operation Task Group.

Life after the war:

Corporal Roberts-Smith transferred to the Army Reserve on 4 November 2013 after 17 years of service with the Australian Regular Army, including 10 years with the Special Air Service Regiment. 497

Percival Eric Gratwick Born: 19 October 1902, Katanning, Western Australia [electorate of O’Connor].498

Life before the war:

Fifth son of native-born parents Ernest Albert Gratwick, postmaster, and his wife Eva Mary, née Pether. After Ernest died in 1911, the family battled to make ends meet. Percy attended state schools at Katanning, Boulder and Perth, and left school at 16. He worked in Perth, at one stage as a messenger at Parliament House, until about 1922 when he went north to the Pilbara and learned droving and blacksmithing on Indee station, 30 miles (48 km) south of Port Hedland. Then he moved to Yandeyarra station, 30 miles (48 km) further south, as a stationhand. He gradually built up a droving plant, got a team of mostly Aboriginal stockmen together, and took contracts. Stopped by drought in 1931, he turned to prospecting while employed part time on White Springs station, next to Yandeyarra. In the mid-1930s he settled at nearby Wodgina, a tantalite mine, blacksmithing, prospecting and occasionally working cattle for White Springs. He was his own man, well used to looking after himself in that tough country. Early in World War II Gratwick tried to enlist in the Australian Imperial Force, but was rejected because his nose had been broken years before. He paid a lot of money to have it fixed, tried again, and was accepted on 20 December 1940.

499

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Perth, Western Australia [electorate of Perth].500

Enlistment date: 20 December 1940.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 25-26 October 1942 — El Alamein, Egypt.

495. Ibid. 496. P Pederson, ‘The falling leaves of Tizak: interview with Corporal Ben Roberts Smith’, Wartime, issue 57, January 2012, accessed 18 January 2012. 497. Department of Defence, ‘Corporal Benjamin Roberts-Smith, VC, MG’, op. cit.

498. National Archives of Australia (NAA): Department of Defence; B883, Second Australian Imperial Force personnel dossiers, 1939-1947; WX10426, Gratwick Percival Eric, 1939-1948. 499. B Gammage, ‘Gratwick, Percival Eric (1902-1942)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 19 February 2010. 500. NAA: Gratwick Percival Eric, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 87

During the attack on Trig 29 at Miteiriya Ridge on the night of October 25th-26th, the company to which Private Gratwick belonged, met with severe opposition from a strong enemy position which delayed the capture of the company’s objective, and caused a considerable number of casualties. Private Gratwick’s platoon was directed at these strong positions, but its advance was stopped by intense enemy fire at short range. Withering fire of all kinds killed the platoon Commander, the Platoon Sergeant and many other ranks, and reduced the total strength of the platoon to seven. Private Gratwick grasped the seriousness of the situation, and, acting on his own initiative, with utter disregard for his own safety, at a time when the remainder of the platoon were pinned down, charged the nearest post and completely destroyed the enemy with hand grenades, killing among others, a complete mortar crew. As soon as this task was completed, and again under heavy machine-gun fire, he charged the second post with rifle and bayonet. It was from this post that the heaviest fire had been directed. He inflicted further casualties, and was within striking distance of his objective when he was killed by a burst of machine-gun fire. By his brave and determined action, which completely unnerved the enemy, and by his successful reduction of the enemy’s strength, Private Gratwick’s company was able to move forward and mop up its objective. Private Gratwick’s unselfish courage, his gallant and determined efforts against the heaviest of opposition, changed a doubtful situation into the successful capture of his company’s final objective.

501

Unit at time of action: 2/48th Infantry Battalion (South Australia), Australian Military Forces.

Died: 26 October 1942, during VC action, El Alamein, Egypt.502

Place of burial or cremation: El Alamein War Cemetery (Plot 22, Row A, Grave 6), Egypt. A number of places have been named in honour of Gratwick, including a hill in White Springs, the Gratwick Soldiers’ Club at Campbell Barracks, Perth and, in Port Hedland, a hall, swimming pool and street are named after him.503

South Australian electorates Adelaide Peter John Badcoe (1934-67; Vietnam) born Fredrick (or Frederick) Birks (1894-1917; WWI) resided on enlistment Arthur Seaforth Blackburn (1892-1960; WWI) resided on enlistment and buried Phillip Davey (1896-1953; WWI) born and buried Thomas Currie Derrick (1914-45; WWII) born and resided on enlistment Reginald Roy Inwood (1890-1971; WWI) died and buried Joergen Christian Jensen (1891-1922; WWI) died and buried Arthur Percy Sullivan (1896-1937; Russia) born Barker Reginald Roy Inwood (1890-1971; WWI) born Boothby Phillip Davey (1896-1953; WWI) died Grey Thomas Leslie Axford (1894-1983; WWI) born Arthur Percy Sullivan (1896-1937; Russia) resided on enlistment Hindmarsh William Henry Kibby (1905-42; WWII) resided on enlistment Makin John Leak (1892?-1972; WWI) died Lawrence Carthage Weathers (1890-1918; WWI) resided on enlistment Mayo Arthur Seaforth Blackburn (1892-1960; WWI) died John Leak (1892?-1972; WWI) buried Port Adelaide Arthur Seaforth Blackburn (1892-1960; WWI) born Phillip Davey (1896-1953; WWI) resided on enlistment

501. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette.’, London Gazette, no. 35879, 26 January 1943, pp. 523-524, accessed 9 April 2010. 502. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 645. 503. B Gammage, ‘Gratwick, Percival Eric (1902-1942)’, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 88

Wakefield James Park Woods (1886-1963; WWI) born

Fredrick (or Frederick) Birks Born: 16 August 1894, Buckley, Flintshire, Wales.504

Life before the war:

Son of Samuel Birks, groom, and his wife Mary, née Williams. His father died in a coal-mining accident when he was 8. Educated at the local St Matthew’s Anglican parish school he later worked as a labourer and steel-rollerman in the near-by town of Shotton. In 1913 Birks migrated to Australia and worked as a labourer in Tasmania, South Australia and Victoria.

505 Previous military service: Served for two years in the Royal Artillery (Welsh), British Army. 506

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Norwood, South Australia [electorate of Adelaide].

Enlistment date: 18 August 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 20 September 1917 — Glencorse Wood, Ypres, Belgium.507

For most conspicuous bravery in attack when accompanied by only a corporal, he rushed a strong point which was holding up the advance. The corporal was wounded by a bomb, but 2nd Lt. Birks went on by himself killed the remainder of the enemy occupying the position, and captured a machine gun. Shortly afterwards he organised a small party and attacked another strong point which was occupied by about twenty-five of the enemy, of whom many were killed and an officer and fifteen men captured. During the consolidation this officer did magnificent work in reorganising parties of other units which had been disorganised during the operations. By his wonderful coolness and personal bravery 2nd Lt. Birks kept his men in splendid spirits throughout. He was killed at his post by a shell whilst endeavouring to extricate some of his men who had been buried by a shell.

508

Unit at time of action: 6th Infantry Battalion (Victoria), AIF.

Died: 21 September 1917.509

Place of burial or cremation: Perth Cemetery, China Wall, Belgium. Birks is also commemorated at Ypres, Belgium and at a memorial erected in his honour in St Matthew’s schoolyard, Buckley, Wales.510

Arthur Seaforth Blackburn Born: 25 November 1892, Woodville, Adelaide, South Australia [electorate of Port Adelaide].511

Life before the war:

Youngest child of Rev. Thomas Blackburn and his second wife Margaret Harriette Stewart, née Browne. He was educated at Pulteney Grammar School, the Collegiate School of St Peter and the University of Adelaide (LL.B., 1913). He had been articled to CB Hardy and was admitted as a legal practitioner in 1913. 512

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Hyde Park, Adelaide [electorate of Adelaide].513

504. AIF Project, ‘Fredrick Birks’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 505. L Ward, ‘Birks, Frederick (1894 - 1917)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 8 February 2010. 506. AIF Project, ‘Fredrick Birks‘, op. cit. 507. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 286. 508. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette.’, London Gazette, no. 30372, 6 November 1917, p. 11568, accessed 24 March 2010. 509. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 628. 510. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner— 2nd Lieutenant Frederick Birks’, Anzac Day Commemoration

Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010 and L Ward, ‘Birks, Frederick (1894-1917)‘, op. cit. 511. AIF Project, ‘Arthur Seaforth Blackburn’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 512. RA Blackburn, ‘Blackburn, Arthur Seaforth (1892-1960)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 1 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 89

Enlistment date: 19 August 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 23 July 1916 — Pozières, France.514

For most conspicuous bravery. [2 nd Lieutenant Blackburn] was directed with fifty men to drive the enemy from a strong point. By dogged determination he eventually captured their trench after personally leading four separate parties of bombers against it, many of whom became casualties. In face of fierce opposition he captured 250 yards of trench. Then, after crawling forward with a Serjeant to reconnoitre, he returned, attacked and seized another 120 yards of trench, establishing communication with the battalion on his left.

515

Unit at time of action: 10th Infantry Battalion (South Australia), AIF.

Life after the war:

Invalided to Adelaide, on 22 March 1917 Blackburn married Rose Ada Kelly in his old college chapel, and was shortly afterwards discharged on medical grounds. He returned to legal practice and took an active part in the pro-conscription campaigns. In 1918-21 he was Nationalist member for Sturt in the House of Assembly. His speeches usually related to serving and returned soldiers; an exception was a resolution, passed on his motion, in favour of a system of profit-sharing for employees in industry. He continued his practice, but found parliamentary duties a heavy burden and did not seek re-election in 1921. He was a founding member of the Returned Sailors’, Soldiers’ and Airmen’s Imperial League in South Australia and president of the State branch in 1917-21. In 1933-47 he was city coroner, in which office he encountered and ignored criticism for refusing to offer public explanation for any decision not to hold an inquest.

In 1939, having served as a militia officer for fifteen years, Blackburn was promoted lieutenant-colonel and took command of a motorized cavalry regiment. In 1940 he ceased legal practice and was appointed to command the 2nd/3rd Australian Machine-Gun Battalion, AIF, which fought under his command in Syria in 1941. Blackburn, as the senior Allied officer present, accepted the surrender of Damascus on 21 June, and after the campaign was a member of the Allied Control Commission for Syria. In February 1942 a small Australian force including his battalion was hastily landed in Java; he was promoted temporary brigadier and appointed to command ‘Black Force’, with orders to assist the Dutch against the rapid Japanese advance. After three weeks vigorous but fruitless resistance, and in spite of Blackburn’s reluctance, the Allied forces surrendered: he was a prisoner until September 1945 when he was liberated in Mukden, Manchuria, weakened but not broken in health. In 1946 he was appointed CBE (Military) for distinguished service in Java.

In 1947-55 Blackburn served as a conciliation commissioner in the Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration. In 1955 he became a member of the Australian National Airlines Commission and a company director. He had again been the State president of the RSL in 1946-49, and was chairman of trustees of the Services Canteen Trust Fund from 1947 to his death; for these and other community services he was appointed CMG in 1955. Next year he attended the gathering of VC winners in London. He died suddenly at Crafers of ruptured aneurism of the common iliac artery on 24 November 1960, survived by his wife, two sons and two daughters, and was buried with full military honours in West Terrace cemetery.

516

Died: 24 November 1960, Crafers, Adelaide [electorate of Mayo].517

Place of burial or cremation: West Terrace AIF Cemetery, Adelaide [electorate of Adelaide].

Phillip Davey Born: 10 October 1896, Unley, Adelaide, South Australia [electorate of Adelaide].518

Life before the war:

513. AIF Project, ‘Arthur Seaforth Blackburn‘, op. cit. 514. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 250. 515. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 29740, 8 September 1916, p. 8870, accessed 24 March 2010. 516. RA Blackburn, ‘Blackburn, Arthur Seaforth (1892-1960)‘, op. cit. 517. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 628. 518. P Burness, ‘Davey, Phillip (1896-1953)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 90

Son of William George Davey, carpenter, and his wife Elizabeth, née O’Neill. Educated at Flinders Street Model School and Goodwood Public School, he worked as a horse-driver at the time of his enlistment in the Australian Imperial Force at Morphettville on 22 December 1914. 519

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Exeter, South Australia [electorate of Port Adelaide].520

Enlistment date: 22 December 1914.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 28 June 1918 — Merris, France.

For most conspicuous bravery and initiative in attack. In a daylight operation against the enemy position, his platoon advanced 200 yards, capturing part of the enemy line, and whilst the platoon was consolidating the enemy pushed a machine gun forward under cover of a hedge and opened fire from close range, inflicting heavy casualties and hampering work. Alone Corporal Davey moved forward in the face of a fierce point blank fire, and attacked the gun with hand grenades, putting half the crew out of action. Having used all available grenades, he returned to the original jumping off trench, secured a further supply and again attacked the gun, the crew of which had in the meantime been reinforced. He killed the crew, eight in all, and captured the gun. This very valiant NCO then mounted the gun in the new post and used it in repelling a determined counter attack, during which he was severely wounded. By his determination, Corporal Davey saved the platoon from annihilation, and made it possible to consolidate and hold a position of vital importance to the success of the whole operation.

521

Unit at time of action: 10th Infantry Battalion (South Australia), AIF.

Life after the war:

After the war Davey had three separate periods of employment as a labourer and linesman with the South Australian Railways: from 27 April 1926 to 4 October 1938; from 6 March 1939 to 12 February 1942; and from 17 December 1943 to 22 February 1946. He married Eugene Agnes Tomlinson on 25 August 1928, they had no children. He suffered from bronchitis and emphysema for years before his death from a coronary occlusion at the Repatriation General Hospital, Springbank, on 21 December 1953.

522

Died: 21 December 1953, Springbank, Adelaide, South Australia [electorate of Boothby].523

Place of burial or cremation: West Terrace AIF Cemetery, Adelaide [electorate of Adelaide].524

Thomas Currie Derrick Born: 20 March 1914 in Medindie, South Australia [electorate of Adelaide].525

Life before the war:

Eldest son of David Derrick, a labourer from Ireland, and his native-born wife Ada, née Whitcombe. The Derricks were battlers. Tom walked, often barefooted, to two primary schools in succession—Sturt Street Public School in the city and Le Fevre Peninsula School, Port Adelaide. He left school as soon as he could, aged 14. By then he was a bit of a larrikin around the Port, venturesome and quick-witted, keen on boxing, Australian Rules football, cricket and gambling. During the Depression his cheeriness found him odd jobs, fixing bikes, selling newspapers and working for a local baker. Early in 1931 he and some mates rode their bikes about 140 miles (225 km) to Berri, on the Murray River, chasing work. ‘Diver’, as he was now nicknamed, did long spells in the local ‘susso’ camp, once living on grapes for a week, but in late 1931 talked his way into work on a vineyard at Winkie. He stayed nine years. In the presbytery of St Laurence’s Catholic Church, North Adelaide, on 24 June 1939 Derrick married Clarance Violet (‘Beryl’) Leslie. As with CJ Dennis’s Ginger Mick, whom in peace and war Derrick so much resembled, marriage gave

519. Ibid. 520. AIF Project, ‘Phillip Davey’, 2010, accessed 25 March 2010. 521. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30849, 16 August 1918, p. 9659, accessed 25 March 2010.

522. P Burness, ‘Davey, Phillip (1896-1953)‘, op. cit. 523. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 637. 524. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner— Corporal Phillip Davey’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010.

525. B Gammage, ‘Derrick, Thomas Currie (Tom) (1914-1945)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 91

his life a more serious purpose. He did not volunteer for the Australian Imperial Force until 26 June 1940 and enlisted on 5 July. Although never overtly religious, he became a convert to Catholicism (his wife’s religion) in early 1945. When Tom was at the war, Beryl walked almost every day to the post office, hoping for news of him. 526

Place of residence at time of enlistment: North Adelaide, South Australia [electorate of Adelaide].527

Enlistment date: 5 July 1940.

Description of action for which VC awarded: November 1943 — Satelberg, New Guinea.

For most conspicuous courage, outstanding leadership and devotion to duty during the final assault on Satelberg in November, 1943. On 24th November, 1943, a company of an Australian Infantry Battalion was ordered to outflank a strong enemy position sited on a precipitous cliff-face and then to attack a feature 150 yards from the township of Satelberg. Sergeant Derrick was in command of his platoon of the company. Due to the nature of the country, the only possible approach to the town lay through an open kunai patch situated directly beneath the top of the cliffs. Over a period of two hours many attempts were made by our troops to clamber up the slopes to their objective, but on each occasion the enemy prevented success with intense machine-gun fire and grenades. Shortly before last light it appeared that it would be impossible to reach the objective or even to hold the ground already occupied and the company was ordered to retire. On receipt of this order, Sergeant Derrick, displaying dogged tenacity, requested one last attempt to reach the objective. His request was granted. Moving ahead of his forward section he personally destroyed, with grenades, an enemy post which had been holding up this section. He then ordered his second section around on the right flank. This section came under heavy fire from light machine-guns and grenades from six enemy posts. Without regard for personal safety he clambered forward well ahead of the leading men of the section and hurled grenade after grenade, so completely demoralising the enemy that they fled leaving weapons and grenades. By this action alone the company was able to gain its first foothold on the precipitous ground.

Not content with the work already done, he returned to the first section, and together with the third section of his platoon advanced to deal with the three remaining posts in the area. On four separate occasions he dashed forward and threw grenades at a range of six to eight yards until these positions were finally silenced. In all, Sergeant Derrick had reduced ten enemy posts. From the vital ground he had captured the remainder of the Battalion moved on to capture Satelberg the following morning. Undoubtedly Sergeant Derrick’s fine leadership and refusal to admit defeat, in the face of a seemingly impossible situation, resulted in the capture of Satelberg. His outstanding gallantry, thoroughness and devotion to duty were an inspiration not only to his platoon and company but to the whole Battalion.

528

Unit at time of action: 2/48th Infantry Battalion, Australian Military Forces.

Died: 24 May 1945, Tarakan, Borneo, Netherlands East Indies.529

Place of burial or cremation: Labuan War Cemetery, Borneo.530

Derrick looked the archetypal digger: a fine photo of him on the dustjacket [sic] of Allan Dawes’s ‘Soldier Superb’ (Sydney, 1944) became one of the best-known Australian images of the war. It shows a man fit, strong and stocky (he was 5 ft 7 ins [170 cm] tall), a deep tan matching his dark hair, a cocky grin stoking the laughter lines around his brown eyes. It suggests both the larrikin and the professional, both the man who stuck by his mates and the born leader. It leaves unstated the man with such brilliant tactical judgement, such concern for his men, such modesty, such courage, such flair for being a soldier. It does not reveal the man who collected butterflies, who wrote poetry and kept a wartime diary, who liked rhyming slang. It does not say that here is one of the finest fighting soldiers of the war. Derrick displayed the most fearless bravery throughout four years of battle. When he might honourably have quit the field he insisted on going back. Very few soldiers can compare with him. War gave him distinction, but he gave life honour. He was an extraordinary man.

531

526. Ibid. 527. National Archives of Australia (NAA): Department of Defence; B883, Second Australian Imperial Force personnel dossiers, 1939-1947; SX7964, Derrick Thomas Currie, 1939-1948. 528. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 36436, 23 March 1944, p. 1361, accessed 9 April 2010.

529. B Gammage, ‘Derrick, Thomas Currie (Tom) (1914-1945)‘, op. cit. 530. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 638. 531. B Gammage, ‘Derrick, Thomas Currie (Tom) (1914-1945)‘, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 92

Joergen (or Jorgan) Christian Jensen Born: 15 January 1891, Løgstør, Denmark.532

Life before the war:

Son of Joergen Christian Jensen, farmer and wool merchant, and Christiane, known as Jensen. Nothing is known of his childhood. He migrated to Australia alone in March 1909, having spent the previous year in England. After disembarking in Melbourne he worked as a labourer at Morgan, South Australia, and at Port Pirie, and was naturalized on 7 September 1914 in Adelaide.

533

Date of enlistment: 23 March 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For most conspicuous bravery and initiative when, with five comrades, he attacked a barricade behind which were about 45 of the enemy and a machine gun. One of his party shot the gunner, and Pte. Jensen, single-handed, rushed the post and threw in a bomb. He had still a bomb in one hand, but taking another from his pocket with the other hand he drew the pin with his teeth, and by threatening the enemy with two bombs and by telling them that they were surrounded, he induced them to surrender. Pte. Jensen then sent one of his prisoners to order a neighbouring enemy party to surrender, which they did. This latter party were then fired on in ignorance of their surrender by another party of our troops; whereupon Pte. Jensen, utterly regardless of personal danger, stood on the barricade, waved his helmet, caused firing to cease, and sent his prisoners back to our lines. Pte. Jensen’s conduct throughout was marked by extraordinary bravery and determination.

534

Unit at time of action: 50th Infantry Battalion (South Australia), AIF.

Life after the war:

Jensen was discharged from the AIF in Adelaide on 12 December 1918 with the rank of corporal. After demobilization he worked as a bottle-oh. He married a divorcee Katy Herman, née Arthur, at the Adelaide Registry Office on 13 July 1921. Admitted to Adelaide Hospital in alcoholic mania, Jensen died shortly afterwards on 31 May 1922. His wife later remarried.

535

Died: 31 May 1922, Adelaide, South Australia [electorate of Adelaide].

Place of burial or cremation: West Terrace AIF Cemetery, Adelaide [electorate of Adelaide].536

Arthur Percy Sullivan Born: 27 November 1896, Prospect, South Australia [electorate of Adelaide].537

Life before the war:

Son of Arthur Monks Sullivan, storekeeper, and his wife Eliza, née Dobbs. Educated at Crystal Brook Public School and Gladstone High School, he joined the National Bank of Australasia at Gladstone in 1913 and was transferred to Broken Hill, New South Wales, and then to Maitland, South Australia. 538

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Crystal Brook, South Australia [electorate of Grey].539

Enlistment date: 27 April 1918.

532. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 652. 533. HJ Zwillenberg, ‘Jensen, Joergen Christian (1891-1922)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 534. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30112, 8 June 1917, p. 5705, accessed 26 March 2010.

535. HJ Zwillenberg, ‘Jensen, Joergen Christian (1891-1922)‘, op. cit. 536. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 652. 537. A Staunton, ‘Sullivan, Arthur Percy (1896-1937)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010. 538. Ibid. 539. AIF Project, ‘Arthur Percy Sullivan’, 2010, accessed 8 April 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 93

Description of action for which VC awarded: 10 August 1919 — Sheika River, Russia.

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty on the 10th August, 1919, at the Sheika River, North Russia. The platoon to which he belonged, after fighting a rearguard covering action, had to cross the river by means of a narrow plank, and during the passage an officer and three men fell into a deep swamp. Without hesitation, under intense fire, Corporal Sullivan jumped into the river and rescued all four, bringing them out safely. But for this gallant action his comrades would have, undoubtedly, been drowned. It was a splendid example of heroism, as all ranks were on the point of exhaustion, and the enemy less than 100 yards distant.

540

Unit at time of action: 45th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers, attached North Russia Relief Force.

Life after the war:

Sullivan left for Australia on 1 November [1919] without waiting to be decorated by the King. He was presented with the VC in Adelaide in April 1920 during the tour of the Prince of Wales who smiled and said to Sullivan: ‘Aren’t you the man who ran away from father?’ Known as the ‘Shy VC’, Sullivan was a popular personality. At Fairfield, Melbourne, he married Dorothy Frances Veale with Anglican rites on 5 December 1928; they were to have three children, including twins. After the war Sullivan had rejoined the National Bank and in 1929 moved to its Sydney office; in July 1934 he was appointed manager of the Casino branch. He joined the Australian contingent to the coronation of King George VI and took with him the ashes of British VC winner Sergeant Arthur Evans who had died in Australia. On 9 April 1937, eleven days after handing over these remains, Sullivan died when he accidentally slipped and struck his head against a kerb in Birdcage Walk near Wellington Barracks, London. After a military funeral, his ashes were returned to Australia and placed in the Northern Suburbs crematorium, Sydney. In 1939 a memorial plaque was erected on the gates of Wellington Barracks. His wife died in 1980, leaving his VC to the Australian War Memorial where it is displayed in the Hall of Valour.

541

Died: 9 April 1937 in London.542

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at the Golders Green Crematorium, London. He is commemorated by a plaque at the North Suburbs Garden of Remembrance, Sydney.543

William Henry Kibby Born: 15 April 1905, Winlaton, County Durham, United Kingdom.544

Life before the war:

Second of three children of John Robert Kibby, draper’s assistant, and his wife Mary Isabella, née Birnie. Early in 1914 the family migrated to Adelaide where Bill attended Mitcham Public School. He had various jobs before he was employed to design and fix plaster decorations at the Perfection Fibrous Plaster Works, Edwardstown. In 1926 he married Mabel Sarah Bidmead Morgan, a 19-year-old typist, in her father’s house at Glenelg; they lived at Helmsdale and had two daughters. Short—5 ft 6 ins (168 cm)—and strong, Kibby loved outdoor activity. He was assistant-scoutmaster of the 2nd Glenelg Sea Scouts and sailed in their lifeboat; he took his family on walks and picnics; and he played golf on public courses. In 1936 he joined the 48th Field Battery, Royal Australian Artillery (Militia). He liked taking part in military tattoos. His considerable artistic talent found expression not only in his plaster designs but in watercolours and drawings. He took art classes briefly at the School of Mines and Industries, and painted and sketched at home while the family listened to the radio.

545

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Glenelg North, South Australia [electorate of Hindmarsh].546

Enlistment date: 29 June 1940.

540. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31572, 26 September 1919, p. 11997, accessed 8 April 2010. 541. A Staunton, ‘Sullivan, Arthur Percy (1896-1937)‘, op. cit. 542. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 675. 543. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Corporal Arthur Percy Sullivan’, Anzac Day Commemoration

Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 544. B Gammage, ‘Kibby, William Henry (Bill) (1903-1942)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 19 February 2010. 545. Ibid. 546. National Archives of Australia (NAA): Department of Defence; B883, Second Australian Imperial Force personnel dossiers, 1939-1947;

SX7089, Kibby William Henry, 1939-1948.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 94

Description of action for which VC awarded: 23-31 October 1943 — El Alemein, Egypt.

During the initial attack at Miteiriya Ridge on Oct. 23rd, 1942, the Commander of No. 17 Platoon, to which Sergeant Kibby belonged was killed. No sooner had Sergeant Kibby assumed command than his platoon was ordered to attack a strong enemy position holding up the advance of his company. Sergeant Kibby immediately realised the necessity for quick decisive action, and without thought for his personal safety, he dashed forward towards the enemy post, firing his Tommy-gun. This rapid and courageous individual action, resulted in the complete silencing of the enemy fire by the killing of three of the enemy, and the capture of twelve others. With these posts silenced, his company was then able to continue the advance.

After the capture of Trig 29 on October 26th intense enemy artillery concentrations were directed on the Battalion areas which were invariably followed with counter attacks by tanks and infantry. Throughout the attacks that culminated in the capture of Trig 29 and the reorganisation period which followed, Sergeant Kibby moved from section to section, personally directing their fire and cheering the men, despite the fact that the platoon, throughout was suffering heavy casualties. Several times when under intense machine-gun fire, he went out and mended the platoon’s lines of communication, thus allowing mortar concentration to be directed effectively against the attack on his company’s front. His whole demeanour during this difficult phase in the operations, was an inspiration to his platoon.

On the night of October 30th-31st, when the battalion attacked ‘Ring Contour’ 25 behind the enemy lines, it was necessary for No. 17 Platoon to move through most withering enemy machine-gun fire in order to reach its objective. These conditions did not deter Sergeant Kibby from pressing forward right to the objective despite his platoon being mowed down by machine-gun fire from point blank range. One pocket of resistance still remained and Sergeant Kibby went forward alone, throwing grenades to destroy the enemy now only a few yards distant. Just as success appeared certain, he was killed by a burst of machine-gun fire. Such outstanding courageous, tenacity of purpose and devotion to duty was entirely responsible for the successful capture of the company’s objective. His work was an inspiration to all, and he left behind him an example and memory of a soldier who fearlessly and unselfishly fought to the end to carry out his duty.

547

Unit at time of action: 2/48th Battalion (South Australia), Australian Military Forces.

Died: 31 October 1942, during VC action, El Alamein, Egypt.548

Place of burial or cremation: El Alamein War Cemetery, Egypt. A club at the Woodside army camp, near Adelaide, commemorates his name.

Lawrence Carthage Weathers Born: 14 May 1890, Te Kopuru, North Island, New Zealand.549

Life before the war:

Son of John Joseph Weathers, labourer, and his wife Ellen Frances, née McCormack, both Adelaide born. Aged 7, he sailed with his parents to Adelaide; the family settled in rural South Australia and Lawrence was sent to Snowtown Public School. By 1913 he had become an undertaker and may have sensed—if he did not understand—where paths of glory lead. On 10 September he married a 23-year-old, Melbourne-born domestic servant, Annie Elizabeth Watson, at her father’s home in the Adelaide suburb of Unley; the young couple lived nearby at Parkside and were to have two children.

550

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Yatala, South Australia [electorate of Makin].551

Enlistment date: 8 February 1916. (3 February 1916 on Nominal Roll)

Description of action for which VC awarded: 2 September 1918 — north of Peronne, France.

547. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette.’, London Gazette, no. 35879, 26 January 1943, p. 523, accessed 9 April 2010. 548. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 654. 549. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 679. 550. J Ritchie, ‘Weathers, Lawrence Carthage (1890-1918)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 18 February 2010. 551. AIF Project, ‘Lawrence Carthage Weathers’, 2010, accessed 8 April 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 95

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty on the 2nd September, 1918, north of Peronne, when with an advanced bombing party. The attack having been held up by a strongly held enemy trench, Corporal Weathers went forward alone, under heavy fire, and attacked the enemy with bombs. Then, returning to our lines for a further supply of bombs, he again went forward with three comrades, and attacked under very heavy fire. Regardless of personal danger, he mounted the enemy parapet and bombed the trench, and, with the support of his comrades, captured 180 prisoners and three machine guns. His valour and determination resulted in the successful capture of the final objective, and saved the lives of many of his comrades.

552

Unit at time of action: 43rd Infantry Battalion (South Australia), AIF.

Died: 29 September 1918, killed in action, north-east of Peronne, France.553

Place of burial or cremation: Unicorn Cemetery (Plot III, Row C, Grave 5), Vendhuille, France.554

Tasmanian electorates Bass Alfred Edward Gaby (1892-1918; WWI) born Bernard Sidney Gordon (1891-1963; WWI) born Stanley Robert McDougall (1899-1968; WWI) died John Woods Whittle (1883-1946; WWI) resided on enlistment Braddon Cameron Stewart Baird (1981-2013; Afghanistan) born Denison Walter Ernest Brown (1885-1942; WWI) resided on enlistment John James Dwyer (1890-1962; WWI) buried Percy Clyde Statton (1890-1959; WWI) died, and buried Guy George Egerton Wylly (1880-1962; Boer War) born, resided on enlistment Franklin Percy Herbert Cherry (1895-1917; WWI) resided on enlistment John James Dwyer (1890-1962; WWI) born, resided on enlistment, and died Stanley Robert McDougall (1899-1968; WWI) born, and resided on enlistment Clifford William King Sadlier (1892-1964; WWI) died John Woods Whittle (1883-1946; WWI) born Lyons John Hutton Bisdee (1869-1930; Boer War) born, resided on enlistment, died, and buried Walter Ernest Brown (1885-1942; WWI) born Lewis McGee (1888-1917; WWI) born, resided on enlistment Henry William Murray (1880-1966; WWI)born James Ernest Newland (1881-1949; WWI) resided on enlistment Percy Clyde Statton (1890-1959; WWI) born, resided on enlistment

Alfred Edward Gaby Born: 25 January 1892, Springfield near Ringarooma, Tasmania [electorate of Bass].555

Life before the war:

Seventh son of Alfred Gaby, farmer, and his wife Adelaide, née Whiteway. Little is known of his early years other than that he was educated at Scottsdale and worked on the family farm after leaving school. He then spent some time in southern Tasmania. While working on his father’s farm he had joined the militia and served for three years with the 12th Infantry Battalion (Launceston Regiment). Two elder brothers had seen active service in the South African War. Before the outbreak of World War I Gaby followed one of his brothers to Western Australia where he

552. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 31082, 24 December 1918, p. 15118, accessed 25 March 2010. 553. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 679. 554. AIF Project, ‘Lawrence Carthage Weathers,’ op. cit. 555. AIF Project, ‘Alfred Gaby’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 96

worked as a labourer at Katanning. 556 Previous military service: Served for 3 years in the 12th Infantry, Citizen

Military Forces. Previously twice rejected for AIF enlistment. 557

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Katanning, Western Australia [electorate of O’Connor].

Enlistment date: 6 January 1916.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 8 August 1918 — Villers-Bretonneux, France.558

For most conspicuous bravery and dash in attack, when on reaching a wire in front of an enemy trench, strong opposition was encountered. The advance was at once checked, the enemy being in force about 40 yards beyond the wire, and commanding the gap with machine guns and rifles. Lt. Gaby found another gap in the wire, and, single handed, approached the strong point while machine guns and rifles were still being fired from it. Running along the parapet, still alone, and at point blank range, he emptied his revolver into the garrison, drove the crews from their guns, and compelled the surrender of 50 of the enemy with four machine guns. He then quickly reorganised his men, and led them on to his final objective, which he captured and consolidated. Three days later, during an attack, this officer again led his company with great dash to the objective. The enemy brought heavy rifle and machine gun fire to bear upon the line, but in the face of this heavy fire Lt. Gaby walked along his line of posts, encouraging his men to quickly consolidate. While engaged on this duty he was killed by an enemy sniper.

559

Unit at time of action: 28th Infantry Battalion (Western Australia), AIF.

Died: 11 August 1918, Lihons, France.560

Place of burial or cremation: Heath Cemetery (Plot V, Row E, Grave No. 14), Harbonnières, France.561

Charles Pope Born: 5 March 1883, Mile End, London, United Kingdom562

Life before the war:

Son of William Pope, a constable in the Metropolitan Police, and his wife Jane, née Clark. He was educated at Navestock, Essex, and after migrating to Canada was employed by the Canadian Pacific Railways. In 1906 he returned to London, joined the Metropolitan Police Force, Chelsea division, and on 13 December, at St Luke’s Anglican Church, Chelsea, married Edith Mary Smith; they had a son and a daughter. Pope resigned from the police in 1910 and migrated to Australia where he was employed as a furniture salesman with Blain & Co., Beaufort Street, Perth. He then worked on the staff of the Temperance & General Insurance Co., Perth. Before leaving England he had married, and his wife Edith Mary and their son and daughter had accompanied him to Australia.

563

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Perth, Western Australia [electorate of Perth].564

Enlistment date: 31 August 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 15 April 1917—Louverval, France.

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty when in command of a very important picquet post in the sector held by his battalion, his orders being to hold this post at all costs. After the picquet post had been heavily attacked, the enemy, in greatly superior numbers, surrounded the post. Lt. Pope, finding that he was running short of ammunition, sent back for further supplies. But the situation culminated before it could arrive, and in the hope of

556. D Elliott, ‘Gaby, Alfred Edward (1892-1918)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 557. AIF Project, ‘Alfred Gaby‘, op. cit. 558. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 328. 559. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30982, 29 October 1918, p. 12802, accessed 25 March 2010. 560. D Elliot, ‘Gaby, Alfred Edward (1892-1918)‘, op. cit. 561. AIF Project, ‘Alfred Gaby‘, op. cit. 562. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 667. 563. J Burridge, ‘Pope, Charles (1883-1917)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 564. AIF Project, ‘Charles Pope’, 2010, accessed 8 April 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 97

saving the position, this very gallant officer was seen to charge with his picquet into a superior force, by which it was overpowered. By his sacrifice Lt. Pope not only inflicted heavy loss on the enemy, but obeyed his order to hold the position to the last. His body, together with those of most of his men, was found in close proximity to eight enemy dead—a sure proof of the gallant resistance which had been made.

565

Unit at time of action: 11th Infantry Battalion (Western Australia), AIF.

Died: 15 April 1917, during VC action, Louverval, France.566

Place of burial or cremation: Moeuvres Communal Cemetery Extension (Plot V, Row D, Grave No. 22), France.567

Stanley Robert McDougall Born: 23 July 1889, Recherche, Tasmania [electorate of Franklin].568

Life before the war:

Son of John Henry McDougall, sawmiller, and his wife Susannah, née Cate. Educated locally, he took up blacksmithing and served his time at this trade. He was an excellent horseman, an expert marksman, a competent bushman and an amateur boxer. 569

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Recherche, Tasmania [electorate of Franklin].570

Enlistment date: 30 August 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 28 March 1918 — Dernancourt, France.571

For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty when the enemy attacked our line, and his first wave succeeded in gaining an entrance. Sjt. McDougall, who was at a post in a flank company, realised the situation, and at once charged the enemy’s second wave single handed with rifle and bayonet killing seven and capturing a machine gun

which they had. This he turned on to them, firing from the hip, causing many casualties and routing the wave. He then turned his attention to those who had entered, until his ammunition ran out, all the time firing at close quarters, when he seized a bayonet and charged again, killing three men and one enemy officer, who was just about to kill one of our officers. He used a Lewis gun on the enemy, killing many, and enabling us to capture 33 prisoners. The prompt action of this non-commissioned officer saved the line and enabled the enemy’s advance to be stopped.

572

Unit at time of action: 47th Infantry Battalion (Queensland), AIF.

Life after the war:

At Windsor Castle on 19 August he was invested with the Victoria Cross by King George V and shortly afterwards returned to Australia where he was discharged from the AIF on 15 December 1918. McDougall entered the Tasmanian Forestry Department and in the early 1930s became an inspector in charge of forests in the north-

western part of the State. He several times performed outstanding organizational and rescue work during bushfires. He was living at Scottsdale before visiting London for the VC centenary in 1956. McDougall died on 7 July 1968 at Scottsdale, survived by his wife Martha, née Anderson-Harrison, whom he had married in 1926; they had no issue.

573

565. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30122, 8 June 1917, p. 5703, accessed 9 April 2010. 566. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 667. 567. AIF Project, ‘Charles Pope’, op. cit. 568. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner— Sergeant Stanley Robert McDougall’, Anzac Day

Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010. 569. JG Williams, ‘McDougall, Stanley Robert (1889-1968)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 570. AIF Project, ‘Stanley Robert McDougall’, 2010, accessed 1 April 2010. 571. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 321. 572. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30667, 30 April 1918, p. 5354, accessed 7 April 2010. 573. JG Williams, ‘McDougall, Stanley Robert (1899-1968)‘, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 98

Died: 7 July 1968, Scottsdale, Tasmania [electorate of Bass]. 574

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Norwood Crematorium, Mitchell, Canberra [electorate of Fraser].

Cameron Stewart Baird Born: 7 June 1981 in Burnie, Tasmania [electorate of Braddon].

Life before the war:

Cameron was born in Burnie Tasmania on 7 June 1981. He moved back to Victoria in late 1984 with his parents and brother. It was while Cameron lived in Victoria that he conducted his primary and secondary education, completing his VCE. It was also during this period, he combined with his schooling, his sporting career that included anything with a bat, ball and athletics. He joined the Army in January 2000 and upon completion of his initial employment training was posted to the then 4th Battalion (Commando), The Royal Australian Regiment, now the 2nd Commando Regiment, in February 2000.

575

Enlistment date: January 2000.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

For the most conspicuous acts of valour, extreme devotion to duty and ultimate self-sacrifice at Ghawchak village, Uruzgan Province, Afghanistan as a Commando Team Commander in Special Operations Task Group on Operation SLIPPER. Corporal Cameron Baird enlisted in the Australian Regular Army in 2000, was discharged in 2004, and re-enlisted in 2006. In both periods of service, he was assigned to the 4th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (Commando). His operational service includes Operations TANAGER, FALCONER, BASTILLE and five tours on Operation SLIPPER. He was awarded the Medal for Gallantry for his service in Afghanistan in 2007-08.

On 22 June 2013, a Commando Platoon of the Special Operations Task Group, with partners from the Afghan National Security Forces, conducted a helicopter assault into Ghawchak village, Uruzgan Province, in order to attack an insurgent network deep within enemy-held territory. Shortly after insertion, Corporal Baird’s team was engaged by small arms fire from several enemy positions. Corporal Baird quickly seized the initiative, leading his team to neutralise the positions, killing six enemy combatants and enabling the assault to continue. Soon afterwards, an adjacent Special Operations Task Group team came under heavy enemy fire, resulting in its commander being seriously wounded. Without hesitation, Corporal Baird led his team to provide support. En route, he and his team were engaged by rifle and machine gun fire from prepared enemy positions. With complete disregard for his own safety, Corporal Baird charged towards the enemy positions, supported by his team. On nearing the positions, he and his team were engaged by additional enemy on their flank. Instinctively, Corporal Baird neutralised the new threat with grenades and rifle fire, enabling his team to close with the prepared position. With the prepared position now isolated, Corporal Baird manoeuvred and was engaged by enemy machine gun fire, the bullets striking the ground around him. Displaying great valour, he drew the fire, moved to cover, and suppressed the enemy machine gun position. This action enabled his team to close on the entrance to the prepared position, thus regaining the initiative.

On three separate occasions Corporal Baird charged an enemy-held building within the prepared compound. On the first occasion he charged the door to the building, followed by another team member. Despite being totally exposed and immediately engaged by enemy fire, Corporal Baird pushed forward while firing into the building. Now in the closest proximity to the enemy, he was forced to withdraw when his rifle ceased to function. On rectifying his rifle stoppage, and reallocating remaining ammunition within his team, Corporal Baird again advanced towards the door of the building, once more under heavy fire. He engaged the enemy through the door but was unable to suppress the position and took cover to reload. For a third time, Corporal Baird selflessly drew enemy fire away from his team and assaulted the doorway. Enemy fire was seen to strike the ground and compound walls around Corporal Baird, before visibility was obscured by dust and smoke. In this third attempt, the enemy was neutralised and the advantage was regained, but Corporal Baird was killed in the effort.

Corporal Baird’s acts of valour and self-sacrifice regained the initiative and preserved the lives of his team members. His actions were of the highest order and in keeping with the finest traditions of the Australian Army and the Australian Defence Force. 576

574. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 658. 575. Department of Defence, ‘Corporal Cameron Stewart Baird, VC MG’, accessed 12 May 2014. 576. Ibid.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 99

Died: 22 June 2013; killed on operations in Afghanistan.577

John Hutton Bisdee Born: 28 September 1869 in Hutton Park, Melton Mowbray, Tasmania [electorate of Lyons].578

Life before the war:

Born on 28 September 1869 at Hutton Park, Melton Mowbray, Tasmania, eighth child of John Bisdee, pastoralist, and his wife Ellen Jane, née Butler. His grandfather, John Bisdee, had arrived in the colony in 1821. He was educated at The Hutchins School, Hobart, and then worked on his father’s property until April 1900 when he enlisted for service in the South African War as a trooper in the 1st Tasmanian Imperial Bushmen Contingent.

579

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Melton Mowbray, Tasmania [electorate of Lyons].

Enlistment Date: April 1900.

Description of action for which VC awarded:

On the 1st September, 1900, Private Bisdee was one of an advanced scouting party passing through a rocky defile near Warm Bad, Transvaal. The enemy, who were in ambuscade, opened a sudden fire at close range, and six out of the party of eight were hit, including two Officers. The horse of one of the wounded Officers broke away and bolted. Private Bisdee gave the Officer his stirrup leather to help him out of action, but finding that the Officer was too badly wounded to go on, Private Bisdee dismounted, placed him on his horse, mounted behind him, and conveyed him out of range. This act was performed under a very hot fire, and in a very exposed place.

580

Unit at time of action: Tasmanian Imperial Bushmen.

Life after the war:

After his return to Tasmania Bisdee resumed farming at Hutton Park. On 11 April 1904, at St John’s Anglican Church, Hobart, he married Georgiana Theodosia, daughter of Bishop M. B. Hale. Two years later he joined the 12th Australian Light Horse Regiment, Tasmanian Mounted Infantry, as a temporary lieutenant and was promoted lieutenant in 1908 and captain in 1910; in that year he attended a course of instruction in India. In August 1913 he became commanding officer of his regiment, now the 26th Light Horse. Bisdee joined the Australian Imperial Force as a captain in the 12th Light Horse on 26 July 1915. Accompanied by his wife, who was to do valuable work in the AIF canteens, he sailed for Egypt in November. He served in operations against the Senussi at Mersa Matruh until a leg wound precluded him from active service; he was seconded as assistant provost marshal, first to AIF Headquarters, Egypt, in March 1916, then two months later to the Anzac Mounted Division. Bisdee was promoted major in September, returned to regimental duty in December and served with the Light Horse throughout 1917. In January 1918 he became assistant provost marshal (Egypt section) of the Anzac Provost Corps; in June he was confirmed as lieutenant-colonel. He was mentioned in dispatches and appointed OBE in June 1919.

Bisdee was discharged from the AIF in May 1920. A major in the Australian Military Forces from 1915, he was placed on the reserve in 1921 and on the retired list, with the honorary rank of lieutenant-colonel, in 1929. He had continued to farm at Ashburton, Bridgewater, in Tasmania, the property he had acquired in 1915. While travelling in France in 1926 his wife died. He returned to Tasmania and lived at Tranquility, Melton Mowbray, where he died of chronic nephritis on 14 January 1930; he and his sister (who died next day) were buried in St James’s churchyard, Jericho, in the same grave. The Bisdee Memorial Cadet Efficiency Prize, awarded annually at St Virgil’s College, Hobart, is named after him.

581

Died: 14 January 1930, Melton Mowbray, Tasmania [electorate of Lyons].582

577. Ibid. 578. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 628. 579. Ibid. 580. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 27246, 13 November 1900, p. 6927, accessed 1 March 2010. 581. LA Simpson, ‘Bisdee, John Hutton (1869-1930)‘, op. cit. 582. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 628.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 100

Place of burial or cremation: St James’ Churchyard, Tranquility, Melton Mowbray, Tasmania [electorate of Lyons].

Walter Ernest Brown Born: 3 July 1885, New Norfolk, Tasmania [electorate of Lyons].583

Life before the war:

Son of Sidney Francis Brown, miller, and his wife Agnes Mary, née Carney. He was brought up at New Norfolk and on leaving school worked as a grocer in Hobart until 1911 and at Petersham, New South Wales, until World War I. 584

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Hobart, Tasmania [electorate of Denison].585

Enlistment date: 11 July 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 6 July 1918 — Villers-Bretonneux, France.

For most conspicuous bravery and determination when with an advanced party from his battalion which was going into the line in relief. The company to which he was attached carried out during the night a minor operation resulting in the capture of a small system of enemy trench. Early on the following morning an enemy strong post about seventy yards distant caused the occupants of the newly captured trench great inconvenience by persistent sniping. Hearing that it had been decided to rush this post, Corporal Brown, on his own initiative, crept out along the shallow trench and made a dash towards the post. An enemy machine gun opened fire from another trench and forced him to take cover. Later he again dashed forward and reached his objective. With a Mills grenade in his hand he stood at the door of a dug-out and called on the occupants to surrender. One of the enemy rushed out, a scuffle ensued, and Corporal Brown knocked him down with his fist. Loud cries of ‘Kamerad’ were then heard, and from the dug-out an officer and eleven other ranks appeared. This party Corporal Brown brought back as prisoners to our line, the enemy meanwhile from other positions bringing heavy machine-gun fire to bear on the party.

586

Unit at time of action: 20th Infantry Battalion (New South Wales), AIF.

Life after the war:

Brown was discharged from the AIF in February 1920. In 1920-30 he worked in Sydney as a brass-finisher and in 1931-40 at Leeton as a water-bailiff with the New South Wales Water Conservation and Irrigation Commission. He married Maude Dillon, an Irishwoman, in Christ Church, Bexley, on 4 June 1932. In June 1940, by giving his age as 40 instead of 54, Brown enlisted in the 2nd AIF. His real age and record were soon discovered, and he was promoted lance sergeant and posted to the 2/15th Field Regiment, but he reverted to gunner at his own request. The regiment, part of the ill-fated 8th Division, reached Malaya in August 1941. Brown was last seen on 14 February 1942, the night before the Allied surrender at Singapore. Picking up some grenades he said to his comrades, ‘No surrender for me’, and walked towards the enemy lines. He was presumed to have died while trying to escape on 28 February. He was survived by his wife, a son and a daughter. Brown was regarded by those who served with him as ‘a born soldier, quiet, friendly and loyal beyond measure’.

587

Died: 28 February 1942, Singapore.

Place of burial or cremation: No known grave.588 His name is commemorated on the Singapore Memorial.589

583. AIF Project, ‘Walter Ernest Brown’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 584. KR White, ‘Brown, Walter Ernest (1885-1942)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 9 February 2010. 585. AIF Project, ‘Walter Ernest Brown‘, op. cit. 586. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30849, 16 August 1918, pp. 9659-9660, accessed 24 March 2010. 587. KR White, ‘Brown, Walter Ernest (1885-1942)‘, op. cit. 588. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 630. 589. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner—Corporal Walter Ernest Brown’, Anzac Day Commemoration

Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 101

John James (Jack) (later the Hon) Dwyer Born: 9 March 1890, Lovett, Port Cygnet, Tasmania [electorate of Franklin].590

Life before the war:

Son of Charles Dwyer, farmer, and his wife Mary, née Scanlon. Jack was educated at Mills Reef State School until the age of 12. From 1910 he cut cane and timber in Queensland before returning to Tasmania in 1913 to work on the Lake Margaret Hydro-electric Power Scheme. 591

Place of residence at time of enlistment: South Bruny, Tasmania [electorate of Franklin].592

Enlistment date: 4 February 1915.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 26 September 1917 — Zonnebeke, Belgium.593

For most conspicuous bravery when in attack. Sjt. Dwyer, in charge of a Vickers machine gun, went forward with the first wave of the brigade. On reaching the final objective, this non-commissioned officer rushed his gun forward in advance of the captured position in order to obtain a commanding spot. Whilst advancing, he noticed an enemy machine gun firing on our troops on our right flank, and causing casualties. Unhesitatingly, he rushed his gun forward to within 30 yards of the enemy gun, and fired point blank at it, putting it out of action, and killing the gun crew. He then seized the gun and, totally ignoring the snipers from the rear of the enemy position carried it back across the shell swept ground to our front line, and established both it and his Vickers gun on the right flank of our brigade. Sjt. Dwyer commanded these guns with great coolness, and, when the enemy counter attacked our positions, he rendered great assistance in repulsing them. On the following day, when the position was heavily shelled, this non-commissioned officer took up successive positions. On one occasion, his Vickers gun was blown up by shell fire, but he conducted his gun team back to Headquarters through the enemy barrage, secured one of the reserve guns, and rushed it back to our position in the shortest possible time. During the whole of this attack, his contempt of danger, cheerfulness, and courage, raised the spirits of all who were in his sector of the line.

594

Unit at time of action: 4th Company, Machine-Gun Corps, AIF.

Life after the war:

Under the soldier-settlement scheme, Dwyer established an orchard on Bruny Island. On 24 September 1919 at St Brendan’s Catholic Church, Alonnah, he married Myrtle Mary Dillon. The irregularity of income from his farm led him to join J. J. Dillon & Sons, his father-in-law’s sawmilling enterprise near Alonnah. Dwyer served as a Bruny Island councillor (from 1924) until he moved to New Norfolk in 1928. He set up his own sawmill at Moogara. Encouraged by Dillon to enter parliament, in May 1931 Dwyer was elected to the House of Assembly as a Labor member for Franklin. He was to retain the seat until his death. As Speaker (1942-48) of the House, he was renowned for his fairness and his insistence on ‘a fair go for all’, particularly new members. He was appointed minister for agriculture on 29 June 1948 in (Sir) Robert Cosgrove’s cabinet. Following an electoral redistribution, in 1949 Dwyer sold his sawmill and moved to Glenorchy within the redrawn boundaries of Franklin. From 26 August 1958 to 12 May 1959 he served as deputy-premier. Respected as a competent minister, he developed a network among rural interests, especially in the Huon and Derwent valleys, but was forced by illness to resign his portfolio on 19 September 1961.

Dwyer was a ‘grassroots’ politician who believed in maintaining personal contact with his constituents: he was returned to parliament in ten successive elections. Jovial and kindly, he enjoyed a beer with his friends, but, perhaps because of his impoverished upbringing, he had a stern sense of propriety and a strong work ethic. He seldom discussed his war experiences. Eric Reece recalled that, when asked about his exploits in Belgium in 1917, Jack modestly replied that he ‘was drunk at the time’. Keenly interested in community and social life, Dwyer was a justice of the peace (from 1924), a member of the New Norfolk licensing court and the fire brigade board, and an official visitor to Lachlan Park Mental Hospital. He belonged to the New Norfolk Golf Club, and the Buckingham and Claremont bowling clubs. In 1961 Dwyer spent time in hospital with dermatitis, which his family attributed to exposure to mustard gas during World War I. Survived by his wife, son and five daughters, he died on 17 January

590. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 640. 591. C Batt, ‘Dwyer, John James (Jack) (1890-1962)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 11 February 2010. 592. AIF Project, ‘John James Dwyer’, 2010, accessed 25 March 2010.

593. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 288. 594. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30400, 23 November 1917, p. 12328, accessed 25 March 2010.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 102

1962 on Bruny Island; he was accorded a state funeral with military honours and buried in Cornelian Bay cemetery. 595

Died: 17 January 1962, Bruny Island, Tasmania [electorate of Franklin].596

Place of burial or cremation: Allonah Cemetery, Hobart [electorate of Denison].

Guy George Egerton Wylly Born: 17 February 1880 in Hobart, Tasmania [electorate of Denison].597

Life before the war:

Born on 17 February 1880 in Hobart, son of Edward Arthur Egerton Wylly, an Indian Army officer, and his wife Henrietta Mary, née Clerk. As an infant Guy went to India with his parents. In 1885 the family settled at Sandy Bay, Hobart, where he attended The Hutchins School before completing his education at the Collegiate School of St Peter, Adelaide.

598

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Sandy Bay, Hobart [electorate of Denison].599

Description of action for which VC awarded:

On the 1st September, 1900, near Warm Bad, Lieutenant Wylly was with the advanced scouts of a foraging party. They were passing through a narrow gorge, very rocky and thickly wooded, when the enemy in force suddenly opened fire at short range from hidden cover, wounding six out of the party of eight, including Lieutenant Wylly. That Officer, seeing that one of his men was badly wounded in the leg, and that his horse was shot, went back to the man’s assistance, made him take his (Lieutenant Wylly’s) horse, and opened fire from behind a rock to cover the retreat of the others, at the imminent risk of being cut off himself. Colonel TE Hickman, DSO, considers that the gallant conduct of Lieutenant Wylly saved Corporal Brown from being killed or captured, and that his subsequent action in firing to cover the retreat was ‘instrumental in saving others of his men from death or capture.’

600

Unit at time of action: Tasmanian Imperial Bushmen.

Life after the war:

Transferring to the British Army on 5 December 1900, Wylly was gazetted second lieutenant in the South Lancashire Regiment and joined its 2nd Battalion in India. On 1 October 1902 he obtained a transfer to the Indian Army, serving in the 46th Punjabis (1902-04) and the Queen’s Own Corps of Guides (QOCG), infantry (1904-06); he then joined the cavalry in the QOCG. From January 1906 to September 1909 he was aide-de-camp to Lord Kitchener, the commander-in-chief, East Indies. Having qualified at the Staff College, Quetta, on 14 December 1914 Wylly was posted as staff captain in the Mhow Cavalry Brigade, serving with the British Expeditionary Force in France. Wounded in action in August 1915, he returned to his unit as brigade major following his promotion on 1 September. In June 1916 he was posted briefly to the staff of the British 4th Division and next month joined the staff of the 3rd Australian Division which was forming in England. From 24 February to 26 July 1917 he was on the staff of I Anzac Corps, his final appointment before returning to India. For his service in France and Belgium he was thrice mentioned in dispatches and was awarded the Distinguished Service Order in January 1918. Between 1919 and 1933 Wylly took part in several operations on the North-West Frontier, earning four further mentions in dispatches. A lieutenant-colonel from 26 April 1926, he was given command of the 6th Duke of Connaught’s Own Lancers. Promotion to colonel followed in April 1930. He was also an aide-de-camp to King George V in 1926-33. Appointed CB in 1933, he retired to Camberley, Surrey, England, where he died, unmarried, on 9 January 1962 and was cremated.

601

595. C Batt, ‘Dwyer, John James (Jack) (1890-1962)’, op. cit. 596. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 640. 597. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 681. 598. AJ Sweeting, ‘Wylly, Guy George Egerton (1880-1962)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 24 March 2010. 599. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 681. 600. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 27249, 23 November 1900, p. 7385, accessed 1 March 2010. 601. AJ Sweeting, ‘Wylly, Guy George Egerton (1880-1962)‘, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 103

Died: 9 January 1962, Camberley, Surrey, United Kingdom.602

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at the Woking Crematorium, United Kingdom.

Lewis McGee Born: 13 May 1888, Campbell Town, Ross, Tasmania [electorate of Lyons].603

Life before the war:

Son of John McGee, labourer and later farmer, and his wife Mary, née Green. McGee left for posterity virtually no record of his pre-war days. He married Eileen Rose Bailey at Avoca on 15 November 1914. When he enlisted in the 40th Battalion, Australian Imperial Force, on 1 March 1916 he was living at Avoca and was employed by the Tasmanian Department of Railways as an engine driver.

604

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Avoca, Tasmania [electorate of Lyons].605

Enlistment date: 1 March 1916.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 4 October 1917 — Ypres, Belgium.

For most conspicuous bravery when, in the advance to the final objective, Sjt. McGee led his platoon with great dash and bravery, though strongly opposed, and under heavy shell fire. His platoon was suffering severely, and the advance of the company was stopped by machine gun fire from a ‘pill box’ post. Single handed, Sjt. McGee rushed the post armed only with a revolver. He shot some of the crew, and captured the rest, and thus enabled the advance to proceed. He reorganised the remnants of his platoon and was foremost in the remainder of the advance; and during consolidation of the position, he did splendid work. This non-commissioned officer’s coolness and bravery were conspicuous, and contributed largely to the success of the Company’s operations. Sjt. McGee was subsequently killed in action.

606

Unit at time of action: 40th Infantry Battalion (Tasmania), AIF.

Died: 12 October 1917, during an attack nine days after his VC action, Passchendaele, Belgium.607

Place of burial or cremation: Tyne Cot Cemetery (Plot XX, Row D, Grave No. I), Passchendaele, Belgium.608

Percy Clyde Statton Born: 19 October 1890, Beaconsfield, Tasmania [electorate of Lyons].609 War record gives date of birth as 21 October 1890.610

Life before the war:

Son of Edward Statton, miner, and his wife Maggie Lavinia, née Hoskins. Educated at Zeehan State School, he became a farm labourer at Tyenna. On 12 September 1907, giving his age as 21, he married with Methodist forms Elsie May Pearce; they were to have two daughters and a son. 611

602. M Arthur, Symbol of courage, op. cit., p. 681. 603. Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, ‘Victoria Cross Winner— Sergeant Lewis McGee’, Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland website, accessed 1 March 2010; AIF Project, ‘Lewis McGee’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010.

604. Q Beresford, ‘McGee, Lewis (1888-1917)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 605. AIF Project, ‘Lewis McGee’, 2010, accessed 8 April 2010. 606. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30400, 23 November 1917, p. 12328, accessed 8 April 2010. 607. M Arthur, Symbol of Courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, p. 658. 608. AIF Project, ‘Lewis McGee’, op. cit. 609. M Lincoln, ‘Statton, Percy Clyde (1890-1959)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, 2006, accessed 12 February 2010. 610. AIF Project, ‘Percy Clyde Statton’, 2010, accessed 1 March 2010. 611. M Lincoln, ‘Statton, Percy Clyde (1890-1959)‘, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 104

Place of residence at time of enlistment: Tyenna, Tasmania [electorate of Lyons].612

Enlistment date: 29 February 1916.

Description of action for which VC awarded: 12 August 1918 — Proyart, France.613

For most conspicuous bravery and initiative in action when in command of a platoon which reached its objective, the remainder of the battalion being held up by heavy machine gun fire. He skilfully engaged two machine gun posts with Lewis gun fire, enabling the remainder of his battalion to advance. The advance of the battalion on his left had been brought to a stand still by heavy enemy machine gun fire, and the first of our assaulting detachments to reach the machine gun posts were put out of action in taking the first gun. Armed only with a revolver, in broad daylight, Sjt. Statton at once rushed four enemy machine gun posts in succession, disposing of two of them, and killing five of the enemy. The remaining two posts retired and were wiped out by Lewis gun fire. Later in the evening, under heavy machine gun fire, he went out again and brought in two badly wounded men. Sjt. Statton set a magnificent example of quick decision, and the success of the attacking troops was largely due to his determined gallantry.

614

Unit at time of action: 40th Infantry Battalion (Tasmania), AIF.

Life after the war:

On 26 November 1919 Statton received a hero’s reception in Hobart. He was less certain, however, of a welcome from his wife who had warned the ‘strapping, handsome soldier’ that if he went off to war she would leave him when he returned. She kept her word and he divorced her on 1 October 1920. After demobilization, Statton found work in a sawmill and then became a farmer at Fitzgerald. On 21 December 1925 at the Registrar General’s Office, Hobart, he married a divorcee Eliza Grace Hudson, née Parker (d.1945); on 16 December 1947 in Hobart he married with Baptist forms Monica Enid Effie Kingston, a teacher. They lived at Ouse where Statton worked as a commercial agent. In the 1950s he was employed by Australian Newsprint Mills.

615

Died: 5 December 1959, Hobart, Tasmania [electorate of Denison].

Place of burial or cremation: Cremated at Cornelian Bay Crematorium, Hobart [electorate of Denison].

Northern Territory electorates Lingiari

Albert Chalmers Borella (1881-1968; WWI) resided on enlistment

Australian Capital Territory Canberra Charles Groves Wright Anderson (1897-1988; WWII) died Fraser Charles Groves Wright Anderson (1897-1988; WWII) buried Stanley Robert McDougall (1899-1968; WWI) buried

612. AIF Project, ‘Percy Clyde Statton‘, op. cit. 613. M Arthur, Symbol of courage: Men behind the medal, 2nd edition, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London, 2005, pp. 330-31. 614. ‘Supplement to the London Gazette’, London Gazette, no. 30922, 24 September 1918, pp. 11430-11431, accessed 8 April 2010. 615. M Lincoln, ‘Statton, Percy Clyde (1890-1959)’, op. cit.

Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 105

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Index of Victoria Cross recipients by electorate 106