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Traits and trends of Australia's prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide



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Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide Dr Joy McCann Politics and Public Administration Section

Introduction • This Quick Guide presents information about the backgrounds and service of Australia’s 29 prime ministers, from Edmund Barton to Malcolm Turnbull. It includes information about of their backgrounds (age, place of birth, gender and occupational background), period in office, experience in other parliaments, parties, electorates and military

service.

• The majority of Australia’s prime ministers have been Australian-born, middle-aged, tertiary-educated men with experience in law or politics, representing electorates in either Victoria or New South Wales. Only one woman has served as Prime Minister since Federation.

• Australia’s prime ministers have ranged in age at the time of first taking office from 37 years to 67 years. The average age is 52 years, which reflects the age profile of Australian parliamentarians more generally (51 years).

• Three-quarters of Australia’s 29 prime ministers (22) were born in Australia. Of those born overseas, all but one came from the United Kingdom (England, Scotland or Wales). The only non-British overseas-born Prime Minister was Chris Watson, who was born in Chile and raised in New Zealand. Of those born in Australia, the majority were born in either Victoria (nine) or New South Wales (eight).

• Thirteen prime ministers have represented electorates in New South Wales, 11 in Victoria, four in Queensland and one each in Western Australia and Tasmania. There have been no prime ministers representing electorates in South Australia, the Northern Territory, or the Australian Capital Territory.

• The length of service as prime minister ranges from over 18 years (Robert Menzies) to eight days (Francis Forde). Most have left office after defeat at an election, in the Parliament or in the party room.

Party abbreviations ALP Australian Labor Party CP Australian Country Party FT Free Trade

LP Liberal Party of Australia

NAT Nationalist Party NAT LAB National Labour PROT Protectionist Party

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 2

Traits and trends Table 1 summarises some of the more notable aspects of Australia’s 29 prime ministers since Federation. More detailed information about each trait is provided under separate headings below.

Table 1: Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015

Trait Trend

Period in office • Robert Menzies was Australia’s longest-serving Prime Minister both continuously (16 years 1 month 8 days) and in total (18 years 5 months 12 days). Francis Forde was the shortest-serving (eight days). Most prime ministers have left office after being defeated at election, in the Parliament or in the party room.

Age • Average age 52 years (at appointment): the youngest Prime Minister was 37 years

(Chris Watson) and the oldest Prime Minister was 67 years (John McEwen)

Country of birth • 76 per cent Australian-born

one Prime Minister was born in a non-English speaking country (Chris Watson was born in Chile and raised in New Zealand)

Gender • 28 men and one woman

Education • 68 per cent tertiary-educated

Occupational qualifications/experience • 36 per cent with legal qualifications 32 per cent with trade union experience

Parliamentary experience • 39 per cent with prior experience in colonial, state or territory parliaments

Electoral representation • 79 per cent represented NSW (12) and Victoria (11), including Billy Hughes who represented both states during his terms in office; 21 per cent represented Queensland (4), Tasmania (1) and Western Australia (1)

Military service • 25 per cent enlisted for military service (including four who saw active war service)

Source: Compiled by Parliamentary Library from Parliamentary Handbook

Diversity

Age Australia’s prime ministers have ranged in age at the time of first taking office from the youngest—Chris Watson, 37 years, to the oldest—John McEwen, 67 years (see Appendix 1). The average age is 52 years, reflecting the age profile of Australian parliamentarians more generally (51 years).

Place of birth Three-quarters (22) of Australia’s 29 prime ministers were born in Australia (see Appendix 8). Of the seven prime ministers born elsewhere, all but one came from the United Kingdom (England, Scotland or Wales). The only non-British overseas-born Prime Minister was Chris Watson, who was born in Chile and raised in New Zealand. Of those born in Australia, the majority were born in either Victoria (nine) or New South Wales (eight). Only one Prime Minister has come from a non-English speaking background (Chris Watson), and no Prime Minister has identified as an Indigenous Australian. This reflects the generally low level of ethnic diversity in the Commonwealth Parliament as a whole. (Around 13 per cent of parliamentarians were migrants or children of migrants from a non-English speaking background, and only four of the current serving 226 senators and members are Indigenous Australians.)

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 3

Figure 1: Places of birth of Australia’s prime ministers , by country and Australian state

Source: Compiled by Parliamentary Library from Parliamentary Handbook

Gender Of Australia’s 29 prime ministers since Federation, only one has been a woman, reflecting the under-representation of women in federal ministerial positions more generally. According to political scientist Jennifer Curtin, there has ‘always been a public fascination with women political leaders, primarily because there have been so few of them; they are indeed exceptional’.

Education and occupational background The educational qualifications of Australia’s 29 prime ministers have varied widely, from primary school level to postgraduate qualifications. Three of Australia’s 29 prime ministers have held Rhodes scholarships (Bob Hawke, Tony Abbott and Malcolm Turnbull).

In terms of their employment experience before becoming prime minister:

• 12 worked in the legal profession as a judge, barrister or solicitor

• nine were employed in business or the corporate sector

• eight were employed in trade or clerical positions

• five worked as a trade union organiser, official or advocate

• five worked as journalists

• three worked as teachers

• three had experience in the public service

• two worked as political staff members

• two worked as miners

• one worked in the medical profession

• one was a diplomat and

• one was a rouseabout.

As former press gallery journalist Michelle Grattan observed in her edited book Australian prime ministers, wealth and education have never been prerequisites for the nation’s highest political office. Indeed, several of the early-twentieth century prime ministers began as unskilled labourers or turned to shopkeeping or small business, and many experienced difficult personal and family circumstances as a result of illness, accident or financial loss. ‘It could be said that many of them were forced to become adults before their time, assuming responsibilities and making decisions. Many, too, were early self-improvers’.

Period in office Australia has had 29 prime ministers since Federation serving 35 separate terms of office (see Appendix 1). Their periods of service range from 18.5 years (the Right Hon. Robert Menzies who held office twice, from 1939-41 and

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 4

1949-66) to eight days (the Right Hon. Francis Forde who served as caretaker Prime Minister for just eight days following the death of the Right Hon. John Curtin in 1945).

Figure 2: Period in office

Source: Compiled by Parliamentary Library from Parliamentary Handbook

Note: Excludes current serving Prime Minister, the Hon. Malcolm Turnbull MP (15 September 2015 ̶ )

Reasons for leaving office • The majority of Australia’s prime ministers (22) have lost office as the result of defeat at a general election, on the floor of the House or the party room ballot following a leadership spill.

• As at 31 October 2015 there has been a total of 23 changes of Prime Minister without an election, including:

- seven prime ministers defeated in the party-room (Billy Hughes, Robert Menzies, John Gorton, Bob Hawke, Kevin Rudd, Julia Gillard and Tony Abbott)

- five were defeated in Parliament (Alfred Deakin—who was defeated twice, Chris Watson, George Reid, Andrew Fisher and Arthur Fadden)

- four left office voluntarily (Edmund Barton, to take up an appointment at the High Court, Andrew Fisher in his second term to become Australia’s High Commissioner in London, Billy Hughes who resigned but remained in the House of Representatives as a private member and minister, and Robert Menzies to retire after his second-term)

- three died whilst in office (Joseph Lyons, John Curtin and Harold Holt)

- three deputy prime ministers served in a caretaker capacity following the death of the Prime Minister (Earle Page replaced Lyons in 1939, Frank Forde replaced Curtin in 1945 and John McEwen replaced Holt in 1968)—in each case they continued in the caretaker role until a party room ballot could be conducted, but none of the three was subsequently elected as leader and

- one left office as a result of vice-regal intervention (Gough Whitlam).

• Five prime ministers resigned from Parliament after losing office (Malcolm Fraser, Robert Hawke, Paul Keating, Julia Gillard and Kevin Rudd).

• Two sitting prime ministers lost their seats at an election (Stanley Bruce and John Howard).

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 5

Experience in other parliaments Eleven of Australia’s prime ministers had experience in an Australian state parliament prior to being elected to the Commonwealth Parliament, including five in the NSW Parliament, three in the Queensland Parliament, two in the Victorian Parliament and one in the Tasmanian Parliament (see Appendix 6).

Stanley Bruce is the only Australian Prime Minister to have become a British Peer in the UK House of Lords (as Viscount Bruce of Melbourne) following his prime ministership. The Right Hon. George Reid served in the UK House of Commons following his prime ministership, making him the only Australian to sit as a representative in three different parliaments (colonial, Commonwealth and UK parliaments).

Electoral representation The majority of Australia’s prime ministers have represented electorates in NSW (13) or Victoria (11), including the Right Hon. Billy Hughes who represented both states during his record 51 years in the Commonwealth Parliament (see Appendix 1).

Figure 3: Electoral representation of Australia’s prime ministers

Source: Compiled by Parliamentary Library from Parliamentary Handbook

PMs from the Senate Australia’s prime ministers have traditionally been selected from the House of Representatives—the house where government is formed. However, as Australian Parliamentary Fellow Scott Brenton noted in What lies beneath: the work of senators and members in the Australian Parliament:

It is only by convention that the leader of the majority party (or parties) in the lower house becomes Prime Minister. This Westminster convention is largely based on the democratic legitimacy of Britain’s elected lower house, even though British prime ministers have sat in the unelected upper house. However, both Australian houses are popularly elected.

The reverse is true in the United States Congress where, as Stanley Bach noted in Platypus and parliament: the Australian Senate in theory and practice, the tradition is for Members of the House of Representatives to move to the Senate as ‘the more common breeding ground for Presidential aspirants ... A US Senator has not voluntarily relinquished his seat to run for a seat in the House since well before the American Civil War’.

There have been a few occasions where ministers in the Senate have acted as Prime Minister for short periods. Only once since Federation has a sitting senator been commissioned to form a government. In early 1968, following the presumed death of Prime Minister Harold Holt, the Liberal Party chose Senator John Gorton as its new leader. Gorton resigned his place as a Senator on 1 February 1968 in order to seek election to the House of Representatives. Between 1 February and 24 February Gorton was not a member of either House but, as permitted by the Constitution, he was able to remain Prime Minister during this period. He was subsequently elected as the Member for Higgins, the seat left vacant by Mr Holt’s death.

Military service One-quarter of Australia’s prime ministers enlisted for military service at some point in their lives (see Appendix 7). This includes four who saw active service (Stanley Bruce, John Gorton, Earle Page and Gough Whitlam). Two (Bruce and Gorton) were wounded during active service.

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 6

Religion While attitudes to religious belief have changed markedly since the 1960s when religious sectarianism underscored social, economic and political differences in Australian society, the role of belief (or non-belief) are still considered to be an important factor for voters who seek to understand a prime minister’s character and actions.

Oaths and affirmations One indicator of religious belief may be found in the oath or affirmation sworn by prime ministers (together with ministers and parliamentary secretaries) when becoming members of parliament and again before being sworn in as a Minister of State. The Prime Minister determines the form of the oath and affirmation of office, which can be changed according to their preference. The Official Oath sworn by the ministry in 1901 was ‘I [name] do swear that I will well and truly serve Her Majesty Queen Victoria in the Office of [name] So Help Me God’. From the second Deakin ministry in 1905, ministers took the Oath of Allegiance, the Official Oath and the Executive Councillor’s Oath. Julia Gillard became the first Australian Prime Minister to make an affirmation of office rather than swearing on the Bible when she was sworn in on 24 June 2010.

Believers and non-believers Whilst religious beliefs are difficult to quantify, political scientist John Warhurst attempted to categorise Australia’s 27 prime ministers from Edmund Barton to Julia Gillard according to their religious belief, religious practice and religious affiliations. He estimated that about half took their religion seriously, noting that ‘[f]or some it has been a driving force and a central part of their public personality. But for many others it has been a trivial characteristic.’ Based on their actions and associations, Warhurst estimated that there have been:

• five Catholic prime ministers

• about nine Anglican prime ministers

• three Presbyterian prime ministers (although several others had ‘Presbyterian antecedents’)

• one Methodist Prime Minister (although others were ‘brought up Methodists’), and

• a high number of agnostic and secular prime ministers when compared with British prime ministers and American presidents.

In another study, Roy Williams considered that 16 of the 23 prime ministers he examined believed in God, although most of the others had some associations with Christianity. The author concluded that only two were ‘lifelong agnostics’ (Edmund Barton and Harold Holt).

Official residences of Australia’s prime ministers There are two official residences for Australian prime ministers. These residences, whilst they are often used by the Prime Minister for official functions, do not form part of a group of ministerial houses, nor are they used to accommodate the Prime Minister’s Office or the Cabinet (unlike 10 Downing Street, London, which is both an official residence and office of the British Prime Minister’s Office). The two residences are:

• The Lodge in Canberra which was built in 1926 ̶ 7 to coincide with the opening of the first Canberra-based federal Parliament House (now known as Old Parliament House) and

• Kirribilli House in Sydney, built in 1855 and acquired by the Commonwealth Government in 1920 as the prime minister’s alternative residence when not in Canberra for parliamentary or government business.

Both buildings are managed by the Official Establishments Trust, an independent, non-statutory body that advises the Prime Minister and Special Minister of State on the conservation and development of the properties.

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 7

Appendix 1: Australia’s prime ministers, 1901-2015: party, age and period in office No. Name Party Electorate Age at

appointments Dates in office Period in office

years months years months days

1st Barton, the Rt Hon. Sir Edmund, GCMG, KC PROT Hunter, NSW 51 11 1.1.1901-24.9.1903 2 8 24

2nd Deakin, the Hon. Alfred PROT Ballaarat, Vic. 47 1 24.9.1903-27.4.1904 - 7 4

PROT* 5.7.1905-13.11.1908 3 4 9

PROT 2.6.1909-29.4.1910 - 10 28

3rd Watson, the Hon. John Christian (Chris) ALP Bland, NSW; South Sydney, NSW 37 0 27.4.1904-17.8.1904 - 3 21

4th Reid, the Rt Hon. George Houstoun, KC (later Sir George, GCB, GCMG) FT* East Sydney, NSW 59 5 18.8.1904-5.7.1905 - 10 18

5th Fisher, the Rt Hon. Andrew ALP Wide Bay, Qld 46 2 13.11.1908-2.6.1909 - 6 21

ALP 29.4.1910-24.6.1913 3 1 26

ALP 17.9.1914-27.10.1915 1 1 11

6th Cook, the Rt Hon. Joseph (later Sir Joseph, GCMG) LP Parramatta, NSW 52 6 24.6.1913-17.9.1914 1 2 25

7th Hughes, the Rt Hon. William Morris, CH, KC ALP

NAT LAB NAT

West Sydney, NSW; Bendigo, Vic., North Sydney, NSW; Bradfield, NSW

53 1 27.10.1915-14.11.1916

14.11.1916-17.2.1917 17.2.1917-9.2.1923

7 3 14

8th Bruce, the Rt Hon. Stanley Melbourne, CH, MC (later 1st Viscount Bruce of Melbourne) NAT* Flinders, Vic. 39 9 9.2.1923-22.10.1929 6 8 14

9th Scullin, the Rt Hon. James Henry ALP Corangamite, Vic.; Yarra, Vic. 53 1 22.10.1929-6.1.1932 2 2 16

10th Lyons, the Rt Hon. Joseph Aloysius, CH UAP

UAP*

Wilmot, Tas. 52 3 6.1.1932-9.11.1934

9.11.1934-7.4.1939

7 3 2

11th Page, the Rt Hon. Sir Earle Christmas Grafton, GCMG, CH CP* Cowper, NSW 58 8 7.4.1939-26.4.1939 - - 20

12th Menzies, the Rt Hon. Robert Gordon, KC (later Sir Robert, KT, CH, QC) UAP UAP*

LP*

Kooyong, Vic. 44

54

4

11

26.4.1939-14.3.1940 14.3.1940-29.8.1941 19.12.1949-26.1.1966

2

16

4

1

4

8

13th Fadden, the Rt Hon. Arthur William (later Sir Arthur, GCMG) 1

CP* Darling Downs, Qld; McPherson, Qld 46 4 29.8.1941-7.10.1941 - 1 9

14th Curtin, the Rt Hon. John Joseph Ambrose ALP Fremantle, WA 56 9 7.10.1941-5.7.1945 3 8 29

15th Forde, the Rt Hon. Francis Michael ALP Capricornia, Qld 54 11 6.7.1945-13.7.1945 - - 8

16th Chifley, the Rt Hon. Joseph Benedict ALP Macquarie, NSW 59 9 13.7.1945-19.12.1949 4 5 7

17th Holt, the Rt Hon. Harold Edward, CH LP* Fawkner, Vic.; Higgins, Vic. 57 5 26.1.1966-19.12.1967 1 10 23

18th McEwen, the Rt Hon. John (later Sir John, GCMG, CH) CP* Echuca, Vic.; Indi, Vic.; Murray, Vic. 67 8 19.12.1967-10.1.1968 - - 23

1. Arthur Fadden was Prime Minister for six weeks in 1941, but also served as acting Prime Minister for periods totalling nearly two years during Prime Minister Menzies’ visits to Britain in 1949 ̶ 58.

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 8

No. Name Party Electorate Age at

appointments Dates in office Period in office

years months years months days

19th Gorton, the Rt Hon. John Grey, CH (later Sir John, GCMG, AC)

LP* Higgins, Vic. 56 4 10.1.1968-10.3.1971 3 2 -

20th McMahon, the Rt Hon. William, CH (later Sir William, GCMG)

LP* Lowe, NSW 63 0 10.3.1971-5.12.1972 1 8 25

21st Whitlam, the Hon. Edward Gough, AC, QC ALP Werriwa, NSW 56 4 5.12.1972-11.11.1975 2 11 7

22nd Fraser, the Rt Hon. John Malcolm, AC, CH LP* Wannon, Vic. 45 5 11.11.1975-11.3.1983 7 4 -

23rd Hawke, the Hon. Robert James Lee, AC ALP Wills, Vic. 53 3 11.3.1983-20.12.1991 8 9 9

24th Keating, the Hon. Paul John ALP Blaxland, NSW 47 11 20.12.1991-11.3.1996 4 2 20

25th Howard, the Hon. John Winston LP* Bennelong, NSW 56 7 11.3.1996-3.12.2007 11 8 23

26th Rudd, the Hon. Kevin Michael ALP Griffith, Qld 50 2 3.12.2007-24.6.2010 2 6 22

ALP Griffith, Qld. 55 9 27.6.2013-18.9.2013 - 2 23

27th Gillard, the Hon. Julia Eileen ALP Lalor, Vic. 48 8 24.6.2010-27.6.2013 3 - 3

28th Abbott, the Hon. Anthony (Tony) John LP* Warringah, NSW 55 10 18.9.2013-15.9.2015 1 11 29

29th Turnbull, the Hon. Malcolm Bligh LP* Wentworth, NSW 60 11 15.9.2015-

Source: Compiled by the Parliamentary Library from the Parliamentary Handbook.

*Coalition government.

Bold text indicates electorate represented whilst in office where more than one seat was held.

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 9

Appendix 2: Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 ̶ 2015: reason for leaving office Name Parliamentary Term(s) Reason for leaving office

Barton, Sir Edmund 29.3.01-30.9.03 (Res) Resigned to take up appointment to High Court

Deakin, Alfred-1 See below (Ret) Defeated on the floor of the House. Remained in House of Representatives

Watson, John Christian

29.3.1901-19.2.1910 (Res) Defeated on the floor of the House. Became Leader of the Opposition until 5.7.05

Reid, George 29.3.1901-18.8.1903 (Res) 4.9.1903-24.12.1909 (Res) Defeated on the floor of the House. Became Leader of the Opposition until 16.11.08 Deakin, Alfred-2 See below Defeated on the floor of the House. Remained in House of Representatives

Fisher, Andrew-1 See below Defeated on the floor of the House

Deakin, Alfred-3 29.3.01-23.4.13 (Ret) Defeated at general election. Became Leader of the Opposition until 20.1.13

Fisher, Andrew-2 See below Defeated at general election. Became Leader of the Opposition until 17.9.14

Cook, Joseph 29.3.01-11.11.21 (Res) Defeated at general election. Became Leader of the Opposition until 17.2.17

Fisher, Andrew-3 30.3.01-26.10.15 (Res) Resigned to become High Commissioner in London

Hughes, William M. 29.3.01-28.10.52 (Died) Resigned. Remained in House of Representatives as private member and minister Bruce, Stanley Melbourne

11.5.18-12.10.29 (Def) 19.12.31-6.10.33 (Res) Defeated at general election and lost own seat. Resigned to become High Commissioner in London

Scullin, James 13.4.10-31.5.13 (Def) 18.2.22-31.10.49 (Ret) Defeated at general election. Became Leader of the Opposition until 1.10.35 Lyons, Joseph 12.10.29-7.4.39 (Died) Died as PM

Page, Sir Earle 13.12.19-9.12.61 (Def) Caretaker

Menzies, Robert-1 See below Party room defeat. Remained Minister until 7.10.41

Fadden, Arthur 19.12.36-14.12.58 (Ret) Defeated on the floor of the House. Became Leader of the Opposition until 23.9.43 Curtin, John 17.11.28-19.12.31 (Def) 15.9.34-5.7.45 (Died)

Died as PM

Forde, Francis 16.12.22-28.9.46 (Def) Caretaker

Chifley, Ben 17.11.28-19.12.31 (Def) 21.4.40-13.6.51 (Died) Defeated at general election. Became Leader of the Opposition until death Menzies, Robert-2 15.9.34-17.2.66 (Res) Resigned as PM and resigned from Parliament 3 weeks later

Holt, Harold 17.8.35-19.12.67 (Died) Died as PM*

McEwen, John 15.9.34-1.2.71 (Res) Caretaker

Gorton, John 22.2.50-1.2.68 (Sen) 24.2.68-11.11.75 (Ret) Party room defeat, own casting vote. Remained in Ministry for 5 months, then private member, Ind. last 5 months McMahon, William 10.12.49-4.1.82 (Res) Defeated at general election. Remained in House of Representatives as

private member

Whitlam, Gough 29.11.52-31.7.78 (Res) Dismissed by Governor-General and then defeated at general election. Became Leader of the Opposition until 22.12.77 , then private member for 7 months Fraser, Malcolm 10.12.55-31.3.83 (Res) Defeated at general election and resigned two weeks later

Hawke, Robert 18.10.80-20.2.92 (Res) Party room defeat. Resigned two months later

Keating, Paul 25.10.69-23.4.96 (Res) Defeated at general election and resigned seven weeks later

Howard, John 18.5.74-24.11.07 (Def) Defeated at general election on 24.11.2007 and lost own seat

Rudd, Kevin - 1 See below Lost support of party on 24.6.2010 (no ballot). Became Minister for Foreign Affairs on 14.9.10 until 26.2.12 Gillard, Julia 3.10.98-5.8.13 (Ret) Party room defeat; retired on 5.8.2013

Rudd, Kevin - 2 3.10.98 ̶ 22.11.13 (Res) Defeated at general election and resigned 76 days later

Abbott, Tony 26.3.94- Party room defeat

Turnbull, Malcolm 9.10.04-

Source: Compiled by the Parliamentary Library from the Parliamentary Handbook. *Disappeared in sea on 17 December 1967 and presumed dead on 19 December 1967. Note: In the early post-Federation years, 'defeated on the floor of the House' was used for occasions when the Prime Minister resigned before a vote was taken, having seen where the shifting alliances were headed.

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 10

Appendix 3: Australia’s prime ministers, 1901-2015: party representation Party Prime Minister Total by party

Australian Labor Party Chris Watson

Andrew Fisher William Hughes* James Scullin John Curtin Francis (Frank) Forde Ben Chifley Gough Whitlam Robert Hawke Paul Keating Kevin Rudd Julia Gillard

12

Country Party/National Party of Australia/The Nationals William Hughes* Stanley Bruce

Earle Page Arthur Fadden John McEwen

5

Free Trade Party George Reid 1

Liberal Party/Liberal Party of Australia Joseph Cook Robert Menzies* Harold Holt John Gorton William McMahon Malcolm Fraser John Howard Tony Abbott Malcolm Turnbull

9

National Labour Party William Hughes* 1

Protectionist Party Edmund Barton

Alfred Deakin

2

United Australia Party Joseph Lyons

Robert Menzies*

2

Source: Compiled by the Parliamentary Library from the Parliamentary Handbook.

*Led more than one party.

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 11

Appendix 4: Australia’s prime ministers, 1901-2015: first speeches

Source: Compiled by the Parliamentary Library from the Parliamentary Handbook.

Prime Minister Source

Abbott, Tony House of Representatives, Debates, 31 May 1994, p. 1080

Barton, Sir Edmund House of Representatives, Debates, 21 May 1901, p. 106 Bruce, Stanley House of Representatives, Debates, 24 May 1918, p. 5137 Chifley, Ben House of Representatives, Debates, 21 Feb 1929, p. 499

Cook, Joseph House of Representatives, Debates, 22 May 1901, p. 169

Curtin, John House of Representatives, Debates, 14 Feb 1929, p. 274

Deakin, Alfred House of Representatives, Debates, 6 Jun 1901, p. 789

Fadden, Arthur House of Representatives, Debates, 17 June 1937, p. 35 Fisher, Andrew House of Representatives, Debates, 18 Jul 1901, p. 2761 Forde, Francis House of Representatives, Debates, 2 Mar 1923, p. 127 Fraser, Malcolm House of Representatives, Debates, 22 Feb 1956, p. 149 Gillard, Julia House of Representatives, Debates, 11 Nov 1998, p. 59

Gorton, John Gorton, John

Senate, Debates, 1 Mar 1950, p. 204 Senate, Debates, 2 Mar 1950, p. 258

Hawke, Robert House of Representatives, Debates, 26 Nov 1980, p. 97 Holt, Harold House of Representatives, Debates, 10 Oct 1935, p. 660

Howard, John House of Representatives, Debates, 26 Sep 1974, p. 1911 Hughes, William House of Representatives, Debates, 23 May 1901, p. 321 Keating, Paul House of Representatives, Debates, 17 Mar 1970, p. 512

Lyons, Joseph House of Representatives, Debates, 28 Nov 1929, p. 465 McEwen, John House of Representatives, Debates, 15 Nov 1934, p. 373 McMahon, William House of Representatives, Debates, 2 Mar 1950, p. 313 Menzies, Robert House of Representatives, Debates, 2 Nov 1934, p. 164 Page, Earle House of Representatives, Debates, 4 Mar 1920, p. 194

Reid, George House of Representatives, Debates, 21 May 1901, p. 92

Rudd, Kevin House of Representatives, Debates, 11 Nov 1998, p. 162

Scullin, James House of Representatives, Debates, 1 July 1910, p. 41

Turnbull, Malcolm House of Representatives, Debates, 29 November 2004, p. 63 Watson, Chris House of Representatives, Debates, 22 May 1901, p. 182 Whitlam, Gough House of Representatives, Debates, 19 Mar 1953, p. 1423

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 12

Appendix 5: Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 ̶ 2015: prior employment experience Occupational category Name* Employment experience

Legal Edmund Barton

Stanley Bruce Alfred Deakin Julia Gillard Harold Holt John Howard William Hughes William McMahon Robert Menzies George Reid Malcolm Turnbull Gough Whitlam

Barrister, judge Barrister Barrister Solicitor, legal partner Solicitor, barrister Solicitor Barrister Solicitor Barrister Barrister Lawyer Barrister

Business Stanley Bruce

Malcolm Fraser John Gorton John McEwen Earle Page Kevin Rudd James Scullin Malcolm Turnbull Chris Watson

Businessman Primary producer Orchardist Farmer Businessman Consultant Grocer Investment banker and venture capitalist Company director

Trade/clerical Ben Chifley

Joseph Cook John Curtin Arthur Fadden Andrew Fisher Francis Forde Paul Keating Chris Watson

Engine-driver Coal-miner, clerk Clerk Accountant Miner, engine-driver, finance manager Railway clerk, electrical engineer Pay clerk Newspaper compositor

Trade union John Curtin

Robert Hawke Paul Keating James Scullin

Chris Watson

Union organiser Research officer and advocate, ACTU Union advocate Union organiser Union official

Journalism Tony Abbott

John Curtin Alfred Deakin James Scullin Malcolm Turnbull

Journalist Journalist Journalist Journalist Journalist

Teaching Frank Forde

William Hughes Joseph Lyons

Teacher Teacher Teacher

Public service Stanley Bruce

George Reid Kevin Rudd

Public servant Public servant Public servant

Political organisation Tony Abbott Julia Gillard Press secretary and political adviser to Leader of the Opposition Chief of staff to Victorian Leader of the Opposition Medical Earle Page Surgeon

Diplomatic service Kevin Rudd Diplomat

Labourer William Hughes Rouseabout

Source: Compiled by the Parliamentary Library from National Archives of Australia, Australia’s prime ministers, accessed 21 October 2015.

*Some prime ministers are represented in more than one occupational category.

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 13

Appendix 6: Australia’s prime ministers, 1901-2015: other parliamentary experience Name Service in other parliaments

Barton, Edmund NSW Legislative Assembly 8.1879 ̶ 11.1880 (University of Sydney); 11.1880 ̶ 11.1882 (Wellington); 11.1882 ̶ 6.1894 (East Sydney); 9.1898 ̶ 2.1900 (Hastings-Macleay); NSW Legislative Council 3.1887 ̶ 6.1891, 5.1897 ̶ 7.1898 Bruce, Stanley Member of the House of Lords (UK) after serving as Prime Minister of Australia Cook, Joseph NSW Legislative Assembly 7.1891 ̶ 6.1901 (Hartley) Deakin, Alfred Victorian Legislative Assembly 7.1879 ̶ 8.1879; 7.1880 ̶ 3.1889 (West Bourke); 4.1889 ̶

10.1900 (Essendon and Flemington)

Fadden, Arthur Queensland Legislative Assembly 6.1932 ̶ 5.1935 (Kennedy) Fisher, Andrew Queensland Legislative Assembly 4.1893 ̶ 3.1896; 3.1899 ̶ 5.1901 (Gympie) Forde, Francis Queensland Legislative Assembly 5.1917 ̶ 10.1922 (Rockhampton); 3.1955 ̶ 8.1957 (Flinders)

Hughes, William NSW Legislative Assembly 7.1894 ̶ 6.1901 (Sydney-Lang) Lyons, Joseph Tasmanian Legislative Assembly 4.1909 ̶ 9.1929 (Wilmot); Premier 10.1923 ̶ 6.1928 Menzies, Robert Victorian Legislative Council 10.1928 ̶ 11.29 (East Yarra); Victorian Legislative Assembly 11.1929 ̶ 7.1934 (Nunawading)

Reid, George NSW Legislative Assembly 11.1880 ̶ 6.1894 (East Sydney); 7.1884 ̶ 6.1901 (East Sydney-King); Premier 8.1894 ̶ 9.1899; Member of the House of Commons (UK) 10.1.1916 ̶ 12.9.1918 Watson, Chris NSW Legislative Assembly 7.1894 ̶ 6.1901 (Young) Source: Compiled by the Parliamentary Library from the Parliamentary Handbook; Re-Member (former Members), Parliament of Victoria; Former Members, Parliament of New South Wales; Former Members register, Queensland Parliament; ‘Lyons, Joseph Aloysius’, The Parliament of Tasmania from 1856, all accessed 18 August 2015.

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 14

Appendix 7: Australia’s prime ministers, 1901-2015: military service Prime Minister Military service

Bruce, Stanley Commissioned in the UK Worcestershire Regiment in World War I and seconded to the Royal Fusiliers as temporary captain. Wounded in Gallipoli campaign and invalided to England. Awarded Military Cross and Croix de Guerre avec Palme.

Gorton, John Served as RAAF fighter pilot during World War II. Posted to British squadron in 1942 which was sent to Singapore four weeks before Japanese occupation. Injured after being forced to crash land his aircraft on Bintarn Island. Rescued and evacuated on ammunition ship that was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine. He survived 24 hours on life raft before being rescued by HMAS Ballarat. Served with No. 77 Squadron in Darwin where he had a second flying accident, then sent to Milne Bay, New Guinea where he survived a third flying accident. Posted back to Australia in 1943 and became instructor in fighter tactics.

Holt, Harold Whilst serving in Cabinet he enlisted in army in May 1940 and trained as gunner in 2nd Australian Imperial Force but never left Australian shores. Returned to Cabinet following death of three ministers in an air crash in Canberra on 13 August 1940 and discharged from AIF.

McEwen, John Enlisted in 1st Australian Imperial Force and called up in 1918, but World War I ended while awaiting departure for France and subsequently discharged.

McMahon, William Called up in 1940 and served in a militia infantry battalion and machine-gun training battalion before becoming a staff officer at the Headquarters of Eastern Command and the Second Australian Army. Volunteered for overseas service but classified as medically unfit due to a hearing problem. Resigned his commission in 1943.

Page, Earle Enlisted in Australian Army Medical Corps in 1916 and served overseas as doctor in Egypt, England and France before securing an early discharge.

Whitlam, Gough Enlisted in RAAF in 1941 and called up in 1942. Served as navigator and stationed at Gove in the Northern Territory, protecting convoys off northern Australia. Undertook bombing raids on enemy supply camps. Ended his war service as Flight Lieutenant Navigator in 1945.

Source: Compiled by the Parliamentary Library from the Parliamentary Handbook; Australian National University, Australian Dictionary of Biography; National Archives of Australia, Australia’s prime ministers, M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war, Research brief 10, 2006 ̶ 07, 26 March 2007, all accessed 18 August 2015.

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 15

Appendix 8: Australia’s prime ministers, 1901-2015: birthplaces and places of burial/cremation Name Party Seat Birthplace Place of burial/cremation

Abbott, Tony LIB Warringah, NSW London, England, UK

Barton, Sir Edmund PROT Hunter, NSW Glebe, NSW South Head Cemetery, NSW

Bruce, Stanley NAT Flinders, VIC Melbourne, VIC Cremated, ashes over Lake

Burley Griffin, Canberra, ACT

Chifley, Ben ALP Macquarie, NSW Bathurst, NSW Bathurst Cemetery, NSW

Cook, Joseph LIB Parramatta, NSW Staffordshire, England Cremated, Northern

Suburbs Crematorium, NSW

Curtin, John ALP Fremantle, WA Creswick, VIC Karakatta Cemetery, WA

Deakin, Alfred PROT Ballarat, VIC Fitzroy, VIC St Kilda Cemetery, Vic.

Fadden, Arthur CP Darling Downs, QLD Ingham, QLD Cremated, Mt Thomson

Crematorium, Brisbane, Qld

Fisher, Andrew ALP Wide Bay, QLD Ayrshire, Scotland Hamstead Cemetery,

England

Forde, Francis ALP Capricornia, QLD Mitchell, QLD Brisbane General Cemetery,

Qld

Fraser, Malcolm LIB Wannon, VIC Melbourne, VIC *

Gillard, Julia ALP Lalor,VIC Barry, Wales, UK

Gorton, John LIB Higgins, VIC Melbourne, VIC *

Hawke, Robert ALP Wills, VIC Bordertown, SA

Holt, Harold LIB Higgins, VIC Sydney, NSW Never recovered from sea.

Plaque set into rock at Portsea, visible low tide.

Howard, John LIB Bennelong, NSW Earlwood, NSW

Hughes, William ALP/

NAT LAB/ NAT

West Sydney, NSW Bendigo, VIC North Sydney, NSW

London, England Northern Suburbs Cemetery, NSW

Keating, Paul ALP Blaxland, NSW Sydney, NSW

Lyons, Joseph UAP Wilmot, TAS Stanley, TAS Mersey Vale Memorial Park,

Quoiba, Tas.

McEwen, John CP Murray, VIC Chiltern, VIC Cremated Springvale

Crematorium, Vic.

McMahon, William LIB Lowe, NSW Sydney, NSW Cremated, Northern

Suburbs Crematorium, NSW

Menzies, Robert UAP Kooyong, VIC Jeparit, VIC Cremated, Melbourne, Vic.

Page, Earle CP Cowper, NSW Grafton, NSW Cremated, Northern

Suburbs Crematorium, NSW

Reid, George FT East Sydney, NSW Renfrewshire, Scotland Putney Vale Cemetery,

England

Rudd, Kevin ALP Griffith, Qld Nambour, QLD

Scullin, James ALP Yarra, VIC Trawalla, VIC Melbourne General

Cemetery, Carlton, Vic.

Turnbull, Malcolm LIB Wentworth, NSW Sydney, NSW

Watson, Chris ALP Bland, NSW Valparaiso, Chile Cremated, Northern

Suburbs Crematorium, NSW

Whitlam, Gough ALP Werriwa, NSW Kew, VIC *

Source: Compiled by the Parliamentary Library from the Parliamentary Handbook and information supplied by the Office of Australian War Graves.

*Information not available at time of publication.

Traits and trends of Australia’s prime ministers, 1901 to 2015: a quick guide 16

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