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Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War



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ISSN 2203-5249

RESEARCH PAPER SERIES, 2016-17 8 AUGUST 2016

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War Nathan Church

Foreign Affairs, Defence and Security Section

Hannah Gobbett and Simon Speldewinde

Politics and Public Administration Section

Contents

Abbreviations .............................................................................................. 2

Introduction ................................................................................................ 3

Members of Parliament who served in the Second World War ...................... 4

Appendix: MPs by state and chamber ......................................................... 34

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 2

Abbreviations Honours, orders and decorations AIF Australian Imperial Force; this was also known as the 2nd AIF during the Second World War

CMF Citizen Military Force

DFC Distinguished Flying Cross

DSC Distinguished Service Cross

DSO Distinguished Service Order

HMAS His Majesty’s Australian Ship

HMS His Majesty’s Ship

MBE Member of the Order of the British Empire

OBE Officer of the Order of the British Empire

RAN Royal Australian Navy

RAAF Royal Australian Air Force

RANVR Royal Australian Naval Volunteer Reserve

Parties and Organisations AD Australian Democrats

ALP Australian Labor Party

ALP A-C Australian Labor Party (Anti-Communist)

CP Australian Country Party

IND Independent

LCL Liberal Country League

LIB Liberal Party of Australia

LIB-CP Liberal Country Party

NAT Nationalist Party

NCP National Country Party

NPA National Party of Australia

ST CP State Country Party

UAP United Australia Party

UCP United Country Party

Publications ADB Australian Dictionary of Biography (online edition)

BDAS Biographical Dictionary of the Australian Senate (online edition)

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 3

Introduction This paper chronicles Commonwealth Members of Parliament (MPs) who are identified as having engaged in active service in the Australian Defence Forces during the Second World War, based on the Department of Veterans’ Affairs World War 2 Nominal Roll.1

The list contains 164 parliamentarians: 125 Members of the House of Representatives and 44 Senators, five of whom served in both chambers (Don Chipp, John Gorton, David Hamer, George Rankin and Keith Wilson).

It includes:

• four future Prime Ministers (John Gorton, Harold Holt, William McMahon and Gough Whitlam)

• four Speakers of the House of Representatives (Archie Cameron, William Aston, John McLeay and Billy Snedden)

• five Presidents of the Senate (Edward Mattner, Alister McMullin, Magnus Cormack, Justin O’Byrne and Douglas McClelland)

• nine men who served in the war effort while at the same time sitting in Parliament (Adair Blain, Max Falstein, George Bowden, Thomas Burke, Archie Cameron, William Hutchinson, Harold Holt, George Rankin and Thomas White) and

• 12 MPs who were prisoners-of-war (Charles Anderson, Kenneth Anderson, Adair Blain, George Branson, John Carrick, Alexander Downer, Wilfred Kent Hughes, Justin O’Byrne, Thomas Pearsall, Reginald Swartz, Winton Turnbull and Tom Uren).

This paper is the third in a series of research publications by the Parliamentary Library, following on from the Commonwealth Members of Parliament Who Have Served in War: Colonial Wars and the First World War 2 and its companion piece Commonwealth Members of Parliament Who Have Served in War.3

Details of each entry • each entry gives the parliamentarian’s electorate/state, party, term of service in the Commonwealth Parliament, a short summary of their war service and, where appropriate, their ministerial service

• this document is intended to serve as a reference source only. Entries provide a summary of an individual’s military history and may not be complete due to the nature of the source materials. For example, inaccuracies may have occurred when the records were transcribed from hand-written sources, the records may be historically inaccurate or simply incomplete and

• further biographical information is available in the referenced sources. These include the Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia, National Archives of Australia military service records, the Department of Veterans’ Affairs World War 2 Nominal Roll, the Australian Dictionary of Biography, the Biographical Dictionary of the Australian Senate, the Australian War Memorial website records (including embarkation rolls), state Parliamentary Library websites and published biographies.

Note: all hyperlinks in this paper were accessed as at August 2016.

1. Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Veterans’ Affairs (DVA), World War 2 Nominal Roll, DVA website, 2002. 2. N Church, H Gobbett, M Lumb and R Lundie, Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: colonial wars and the First World War, Research paper series, 2014-15, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 19 September 2014. 3. M Lumb, S Bennett and J Moremon, Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war, Research brief, 10, 2006-07,

26 March 2007.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 4

Members of Parliament who served in the Second World War Archibald Allan (MP [Gwydir, NSW], CP, 1953-1969)

Archibald Allan enlisted with the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) on 23 October 1939. He served in the Middle East from 9 January 1940 until 17 March 1942. He was then transferred directly to Darwin—which had recently been bombed by the Japanese—until 26 December 1942. He was promoted to sergeant on 1 July 1942. Allan was promoted to lieutenant on 4 April 1945 then captain on 11 August 1945 and discharged on 3 January 1946.4

Charles Anderson (MP [Hume, NSW], CP, 1949-1951; 1955-1961)

Having previously served in Africa with British colonial forces during the First World War, Charles Anderson migrated to Australia in 1935 where he subsequently continued his military service as an officer in the 56th Battalion (Riverina Regiment) Militia prior to transferring to the AIF in July 1940. On 1 August 1941 Anderson was promoted to lieutenant colonel and given command of the 2/19th Battalion, which had embarked for

Singapore earlier that year.

In January 1942 Anderson’s unit came under heavy enemy attack at Muar in Malaysia but despite heavy losses Anderson led a fighting withdrawal for which he was later awarded the Victoria Cross. Following the fall of Singapore, Anderson became a prisoner-of-war along the northern section of the Burma-Thailand railway. In November 1945 Anderson was repatriated to Australia after Japan’s surrender.5

Kenneth Anderson (Senator [NSW], LIB, 1953-1975)

Kenneth Anderson enlisted in the AIF on 2 July 1940, having previously served in the militia. He travelled to Malaya with the 8th Division Signals and was commissioned as a lieutenant in November 1941. Anderson was captured during the fall of Singapore in February 1942. As a prisoner-of-war for more than three and a half years, Anderson’s health suffered severely on both the Burma-Thailand railway and during captivity in Changi prison. He was freed on 22 September 1945 and returned to Australia later that year.6

During his parliamentary career he served from 1964 to 1968 as Minister for Customs and Excise; from 1968 to 1971 as Minister for Supply and 1971 to 1972 as Minister for Health.

John Armitage (MP [Mitchell and Chifley, NSW], ALP, 1961-1963; 1969-1983)

At 21 years of age, John Armitage enlisted in the AIF on 31 August 1942, having previously been employed as a bank clerk. He had also served in the militia and senior cadets. As a gunner in the Australian Heavy Anti-Aircraft Battery, Armitage was posted to Thursday Island and Townsville. He was transferred to New South Wales in 1944 and discharged for medical reasons in February 1945.7

Adam Armstrong (MP [Riverina, NSW], CP, 1965-1969)

Adam Armstrong enlisted in the AIF in July 1942, having served previously with the militia where he had been promoted to temporary captain. He was initially posted to the 38th Battalion, but transferred in late 1944 to the 19th Battalion which had been serving in New Guinea. By March 1945 Armstrong was promoted to temporary major and became a company commanding officer. At this time Armstrong led his unit to take ground against enemy fire at Waitavalo in New Britain and maintained this gain despite enduring heavy fire. On account of his ‘coolness, tactical skill and fine courage’ during this battle, Armstrong was awarded the Military Cross. He returned to Australia in April, and was discharged from the Army on 29 August 1945.8

4. National Archives of Australia (NAA): AI Allan, Service No. NX3533, [service record], Second Australian Imperial Force (AIF) Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series No. B883. 5. C Clark, ‘Anderson, Charles Groves Wright (1897-1985)’, Australian dictionary of biography (ADB), (online edition), Melbourne University Press, Vic., 2007. 6. P Tyler, ‘Anderson, Sir Kenneth McColl (Ken) (1909-1985)’, ADB , op. cit., C Beauchamp, ‘Anderson, Sir Kenneth McColl (1909-1985)’, The

biographical dictionary of the Australian Senate (BDAS), (online edition), vol. 3, 1962-1983, University of New South Wales Press Ltd, Sydney, 2010. 7. NAA, JL Armitage, Service no. NX118709, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 8. NAA, AA Armstrong, Service no. VX111035, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 5

William Arthur (MP [Barton, NSW], LIB, 1966-1969)

William Arthur enlisted with the Citizen Military Forces (CMF) on 1 August 1940 with the rank of bombardier. He transferred to the AIF on 9 September 1942 and was promoted to lieutenant. He served in New Guinea and Borneo, and was transferred to the reserve of officers on 19 September 1946.9

William Aston (MP [Phillip, NSW], LIB, 1955-1961; 1963-1972)

A former warehouseman, William Aston enlisted in the CMF on 16 August 1940 before transferring to the AIF on 30 July 1942. Aston spent much of his service in the war posted to various anti-aircraft searchlight units, including a deployment to Port Moresby with the 1st Australian Searchlight Battalion from October 1943 to June 1944. Having been commissioned an acting lieutenant on 4 January 1943, he was placed on the retired list of officers on 16 November 1944.10

During his parliamentary career he served from 1967 to 1972 as Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Lance Barnard (MP [Bass, Tas.], ALP, 1954-1975)

Having previously served in the militia, Lance Barnard enlisted in the AIF on 10 June 1940 in Launceston. He was posted to the 16th Field Battery within the 2/8th Field Regiment and initially served in the Middle East between November 1940 and January 1943. After returning to Australia, Barnard transferred to the 702 Light Anti-Aircraft Battery in 1944. He was discharged on 7 February 1945.11

Following the 1972 election, prior to a meeting of the Parliamentary Caucus of the ALP, Barnard—as Deputy Parliamentary Leader of the ALP—formed an interim ministry with the Prime Minister and Leader of the ALP, Gough Whitlam. From 5 December 1972 to 19 December 1972, Whitlam and Barnard shared the administration of all government departments. From 1972 until his resignation in June 1975 he served as Deputy Prime Minister and in the ministries of Supply; Air; the Army; the Navy; and Defence.

Charles Barnes (MP [McPherson, Qld], CP, 1958-1972)

Charles Barnes enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) on 9 November 1942. He was promoted to the rank of pilot officer on 2 January 1943, and flying officer on 2 July 1943. His service included work for the intelligence services, and he was also mentioned in despatches. Barnes was discharged on 13 September 1944.12

During his parliamentary career he served from 1963 to 1968 as Minister for Territories and from 1968 to 1972 as Minister for External Territories.

Henry Bate (MP [Macarthur, NSW], LIB; IND, 1949-1972)

Henry Bate enlisted in the AIF on 20 May 1940, having previously served in the CMF since 1939. He served in the Middle East with the 6th and 7th Cavalry Regiment and the 7th Armoured Regiment before transferring to the 5th Division Headquarters in New Britain. Bate was discharged on 29 June 1945.13

Noel Beaton (MP [Bendigo, Vic.], ALP, 1960-1969)

Previously a junior clerk with the Victorian railways, Noel Beaton enlisted in the militia on 6 January 1944 before being mobilised on 8 May 1945. After initial postings in the 38th and 16th Training Brigades, Beaton transferred to the 34th Infantry Brigade in late March 1946 and arrived in Japan the following month, when he moved to the 65th Infantry Brigade. Beaton remained in Japan until his return to Australia in October 1947. He was discharged on 11 November 1947 with the rank of acting sergeant.14

Samuel Benson (MP [Batman, Vic.], ALP; IND, 1962-1969)

Samuel Benson first enlisted as a midshipman in the Royal Australian Naval Reserve (RANVR) in 1927. By the start of the Second World War he had been promoted to lieutenant. From September 1939 to August 1941 Benson served aboard HMS Moreton Bay, an armed merchant cruiser which operated around the China Station,

9. NAA, WT Arthur, Service no. NX114251, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 10. NAA, WJ Aston, Service no. NX110619, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; DVA, ‘Service record: Aston, William John’, Commonwealth of Australia, World War 2 Nominal Roll website.

11. NAA, LH Barnard, Service no. TX3157, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 12. NAA, CE Barnes, Service no. 120551, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no A9300. 13. NAA, HJ Bate, Service no. NX13862, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1948, Series no. B2458; Parliamentary handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia, 17th edn, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1971, p. 31.

14. NAA, NL Beaton, Service no. VX97370, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 6

South Atlantic Station and as part of the Freetown Escort Force.15 Benson then served aboard the minesweeper HMAS Narani, based at HMAS Maitland in Newcastle, before spending 10 months at the Navy’s fleet command HMAS Penguin when it was first commissioned at Balmoral in July 1942.16 Until 1945, Benson served aboard the newly-commissioned HMAS Kiama, a mine sweeper which operated mostly around New Guinea.17 He was promoted to acting lieutenant commander and was mentioned in despatches.18 Benson was demobilised after the end of the war on 26 November 1945.19

Frederick Birrell (MP [Port Adelaide, SA], ALP, 1963-1974)

Having previously worked as a motor vehicle trimmer, Frederick Birrell enlisted in the RAAF on 21 May 1940. Working as a clerk, he was posted to No. 5 Elementary Flying Training School at Narromine from June 1940 until September 1943. During this period Birrell was promoted twice: on 4 September 1940 to the rank of temporary corporal and on 1 December 1942 to the rank of temporary sergeant. In September 1943 Birrell returned to his home state of South Australia for a posting at No. 1 Elementary Flying Training School at Parafield. He remained there until July 1944, was briefly posted to No. 79 Wing HQ in Darwin, and transferred to RAAF North West Area headquarters on 8 December 1944 until October 1945. Birrell returned to South Australia in November 1945 with a posting to the Adelaide Area Finance Office and was formally discharged on 21 May 1946.20

Reginald Bishop (Senator [SA], ALP, 1962-1981)

Enlisting in the RAAF on 22 February 1943, Reginald Bishop initially worked as a driver before being promoted to leading aircraftman and acting corporal. Having previously served at Darwin, Bishop spent most of 1945 in Borneo before being discharged on 4 January 1946.21

During his parliamentary career he served from 1972 to 1974 as Minister Assisting the Minister for Defence and Minister for Repatriation; from 1974 to 1975 as Postmaster-General and as Minister Assisting the Minister for Defence, again, in 1975.

Adair Blain (MP [Northern Territory, NT], IND, 1934-1949)

Having previously served in the First World War, Adair Blain was serving as a Member of Parliament for the Northern Territory when he enlisted in the Second World War on 26 June 1940.22 Formerly a surveyor, Blain served within the 2/1st Survey Regiment before transferring to the 2/12th Field Company, Royal Australian Engineers. He arrived in Singapore on 26 January 1942, less than a month before it was surrendered to Japanese forces.23 Taken as a prisoner-of-war to Sandakan in north Borneo, he planned to escape but was found out by his captors and transferred to Outram Road Gaol in Singapore. He was tortured, beaten and starved while suffering from malaria, dysentery and scabies.24 Upon his release on 5 September 1945 Blain returned to Australia and formally resumed his seat in Parliament on 26 September, where he was welcomed by Prime Minister Ben Chifley.25

Robert Bonnett (MP [Herbert, Qld], LIB, 1966-1977)

Robert Bonnett enlisted in the AIF on 26 March 1941 and was commissioned as a lieutenant on 10 October 1943. He served in the South-West Pacific with the 2/3rd Independent Company, and 2/3rd, 2/9th Cavalry (Commando) Squadrons. Bonnett was discharged from the 1st Cavalry (Commando) Training Squadron on 9 November 1945 at the rank of lieutenant, although he would later re-join the Army in 1952.26

15. NAA, SJ Benson, [service record], Service Cards for Navy Officers, 1911-1970, Series no. A6769; ‘Allied warships: HMS Moreton Bay (F 11)’, uboat.net website. 16. NAA, SJ Benson, op. cit.; Royal Australian Navy (RAN),’ HMAS Penguin’, RAN website. 17. NAA, SJ Benson, op. cit.; RAN, ‘HMAS Kiama’, RAN website. 18. NAA, SJ Benson, op. cit.; Australian War Memorial (AWM), ‘Honours and awards: Samuel James Benson’, AWM website. 19. NAA, SJ Benson, op. cit. 20. NAA, FR Birrell, Service no. 26259, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-1948,

Series no. A9301. 21. G Singleton, ‘Bishop, Reginald (1913-1999)’, BDAS. 22. Lumb, Bennett and Moremon, Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war, op. cit., p. 8; NAA, AM Blain, Service no. NX56669, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 23. NAA, AM Blain, op. cit. 24. GEW Harriott, ‘Japanese have lost right to civilised status’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 12 September 1945, p. 3. 25. B Chifley, ‘Mr AM Blain, MP’, House of Representatives, Debates, 26 September 1945, p. 5913. 26. Parliamentary handbook, 17th edn, 1971, p. 44; DVA, ‘Bonnett, Robert Noel: Service record’, DVA website.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 7

Leonard Bosman (MP [St George, NSW], LIB, 1963-1969)

Leonard Bosman enlisted in the AIF on 1 June 1944 at 20 years of age, having previously served in the militia since he was 18. Bosman spent his entire service period within Australia with the General Details Depot, 102nd Anti-Tank Regiment of the Royal Australian Artillery and the Royal Australian Engineers training centre. After the end of the Second World War, Bosman continued serving in the military and, in July 1946, transferred to Headquarters of the Eastern Command, as staff sergeant. In February 1947 he was discharged from the military following demobilization.27

William Bostock (MP [Indi, Vic.], LIB, 1949-1958)

William Bostock served with the AIF in the First World War with distinction, being awarded the Croix de Guerre (Belgium) in 1918 before switching to the RAAF on 14 September 1921. In 1935 he was awarded the Order of the British Empire. He was promoted to group captain on 1 September 1938. Bostock was promoted to Deputy Chief of Air Staff from 1 September 1939 to 30 September 1941; appointed temporary Air Commodore on 1 June 1940; Air Vice Marshal on 1 October 1941; Chief of Staff at the Allied Air Force Headquarters on 8 July 1942; and Air Officer Commanding Headquarters at RAAF Command on 27 March 1943.28

These roles took him throughout the Asia-Pacific, the Mediterranean and the Middle East. His list of awards included the Order of the Bath in 1942; the Distinguished Service Order (DSO), and the Medal of Freedom (United States of America). In conferring this last award the United States White House wrote that the award was given in recognition of his:

… meritorious service which has aided the United States in the prosecution of the war against Japan in the South-West Pacific Area. As Deputy Chief of Air Staff, RAAF, Air Vice Marshal Bostock displayed remarkable foresight and good judgement in planning extensive aerial operations against the enemy. 29

The White House noted that as the Air Officer commanding the RAAF and Allied Air Forces, Bostock worked to protect ‘Allied seas routes … exercising operational command of the RAAF and certain United States and Dutch units, he conducted a devastating aerial offensive which struck heavy blows against enemy oil centres, harbor facilities and airdromes [sic] from Java to New Britain, crippling or destroying these vital Japanese installations,’ as well as exacting a ‘heavy toll on enemy shipping and aided in wresting air initiative … from the Japanese.’30

By the time of his retirement on 6 September 1945, Bostock had logged 1,377 hours of flight time.31

William Bourke (MP [Fawkner, Vic.], ALP; ALP A-C, 1949-1955)

At 28 years of age William Bourke enlisted in the AIF on 11 March 1942, having previously been employed as a solicitor. After initial artillery training, in May 1943 he was posted to First Army headquarters at Toowoomba. Bourke was promoted to corporal in January 1944 and was discharged on compassionate grounds on 1 March 1944.32

George Bowden (MP [Gippsland, Vic.], CP, 1943-1961)

Having previously served in the First World War—in which he was awarded the Military Cross—George Bowden was mobilised in October 1939 as a captain in 3 Garrison Battalion, located at Queenscliff. After a detachment to Headquarters Southern Command, Bowden transferred to 9 Garrison Battalion on 5 May 1941, four days after his promotion to temporary major. The following March he was promoted to temporary lieutenant colonel and given command of the Battalion. In December 1943 Bowden was transferred to the reserve of officers before being formally discharged on 2 June 1945.33

Lionel Bowen (MP [Kingsford-Smith, NSW], ALP, 1969-1990)

Previously an articled clerk and student at the University of Sydney, Lionel Bowen enlisted in the Army on 21 October 1941. After an initial posting to No. 208 Camp Hospital he transferred to the 1 Australia Outpatients

27. NAA, LL Bosman, Service no. NX178680, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 28. NAA, WD Bostock, Service no. 7, [service record], RAAF Personnel files - All Ranks, Series no. A12372. 29. Ibid.

30. Ibid.

31. Ibid.

32. S Bennett,’Bourke, William Meskill (Bill) (1913-1981)’, ADB. 33. NAA, GJ Bowden, Service no. V81342, [service record], Citizen Military Forces (CMF) Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B884.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 8

Depot on 2 January 1943, and was also promoted to lance corporal. In December 1944 his promotion to corporal was confirmed; however he was discharged on medical grounds on 24 February 1945.34

During his parliamentary career he served from 1972 to 1974 as Postmaster-General; from 1973 to 1974 as Minister Assisting the Prime Minister; from 1973 to 1975 as Special Minister of State; and from 1974 to 1975 as Minister for Manufacturing Industry. From 1983 to 1984 he served as Minister for Trade; from 1983 to 1990 he served as Vice-President of the Executive Council; and from 1984 to 1990 he served as Attorney-General and Deputy Prime Minister.

Nigel Bowen (MP [Parramatta, NSW], LIB, 1964-1973)

A former barrister, Nigel Bowen enlisted in the AIF on 3 August 1942, having joined the militia in May 1941. Posted to 3rd Armoured Regiment as a lieutenant in December 1941 he was promoted to temporary captain just over a year later. Transferring to the Royal Australian Engineers in December 1943, Bowen was posted to the 43rd Australian Water Landing Craft Company in May 1944, having recently been sent to Lae in New Guinea. Spending most of the next year there, he returned to Australia in August 1945 where he transferred to the Australian Army Training Corps. At the end of the year Bowen was posted as officer commanding the 45th Australian Port Landing Craft Company but was discharged shortly after on 8 March 1946.35

During his parliamentary career he served from 1966 to 1969 and in 1971 as Attorney-General; from 1969 to 1971 as Minister for Education and Science; and Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1971 to 1972.

George Branson (Senator [WA], LIB, 1958-1971)

George Branson enlisted in the AIF on 18 December 1940 and after an initial posting to the 13th Training Battalion, transferred to the 2/4th Machine Gun Battalion. He was promoted four times in less than nine months, gaining the rank of lieutenant by August 1941. On 15 January 1942 Branson left Australia with his Machine Gun Battalion, arriving in Singapore 11 days later.36 From their arrival until the Allies’ surrender, almost a third of Branson’s battalion were killed, wounded or recorded as missing.37 He was held captive at Changi prison for the remainder of the war, recovered on 5 September 1945 and repatriated to Australia the following month.38 In January 1946 he continued his service with a posting to Western Command Headquarters in the UK before being discharged on 22 November 1946.39

William Brown (Senator [Vic.], ALP, 1969-1970; 1971-1978)

Previously employed as a cabinet maker, William Brown enlisted in the militia on 5 November 1941 and transferred to the AIF on 28 August 1942. Brown was initially posted to 2 Australian Artillery Training Regiment and was promoted from lance bombardier to sergeant in 1942. He transferred to the 16th Field Regiment on 28 May 1944 before being accidently injured with concussion in October the following year. Brown was discharged on 9 January 1946.40

Peter Browne (MP [Kalgoorlie, WA], LIB, 1958-1961)

Peter Browne enlisted in the CMF on 8 July 1940 and transferred to the AIF on 24 October. He served in the 14th Australian Anti-Aircraft Battery until 29 April 1943. Browne switched to the RAAF and trained as aircrew, attaining the rank of leading aircraftman before an undisclosed injury required his return to the AIF.41

Gordon Bryant (MP [Wills, Vic.], ALP, 1955-1980)

Gordon Bryant enlisted with the AIF on 20 January 1943. He served in the Northern Territory with the 5th Infantry Battalion from July to October 1944 and in Morotai and Borneo with the 2/33rd Infantry Battalion

34. NAA, LF Bowen, Service no. N276503, [service record], CMF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B884. 35. NAA, NH Bowen, Service no. NX122947, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 36. NAA, GH Branson, Service no. WX10372, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 37. AWM, ‘2/4th Machine Gun Battalion’, AWM website. 38. P Pendal, ‘Branson, George Howard (1918-1999)’, BDAS. 39. NAA, GH Benson, op. cit. 40. D Cottle, ‘Brown, William Walter Charles (1920-2001)’, BDAS; NAA, WWC Brown, Service no. VX102059, [service record], Second AIF

Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 41. NAA, PG Browne, Service no. 437734, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921- 1948, Series no. A9301.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 9

between 9 June 1945 and 22 February 1946 during which time he was hospitalised with malaria. He was promoted to captain on 15 August 1945 and was discharged on 21 October 1946.42

During his parliamentary career he served from 1972 to 1973 as Minister for Aboriginal Affairs and from 1973 to 1975 as Minister for the Capital Territory.

Alexander Buchanan (MP [McMillan, Vic.], LIB; IND, 1955-1972)

Alexander Buchanan enlisted in the Royal Australian Navy at the rank of able seaman on 18 November 1942. During his service he was posted to Navy Fleet Command at HMAS Penguin at Balmoral and the naval depot HMAS Lonsdale at Port Melbourne. He was discharged on 15 December 1943.43

Thomas Burke (MP [Perth, WA], ALP, 1943-1955)

Thomas Burke enlisted in the RAAF on 16 January 1943 and remained on active service until 12 October 1943, when he transferred to the reserve list. He was promoted to leading aircraftman on 16 July 1943. Burke’s postings included service with the No. 17 Repair and Salvage Unit, and No. 4 Aircraft Depot at Kalgoorlie. He was formally discharged from the RAAF on 7 June 1948.44

Leslie Bury (MP [Wentworth, NSW], LIB, 1956-1974)

Having enlisted in the militia on 22 January 1942, Leslie Bury transferred to the AIF on 23 August 1942. After initial postings with the School of Artillery at North Head Barracks in Sydney and the 12th Radar Detachment he moved to the Directorate of Research and Civil Affairs in January 1945. Shortly after this, Bury was detached to the Department of External Affairs and discharged on 4 September. He left the military with the rank of warrant officer class I.45

During his parliamentary career he served from 1961 to 1962 as Minister Assisting the Treasurer and Minister for Air; from 1963 to 1966 as Minister for Housing; from 1966 to 1969 as Minister for Labour and National Service; Treasurer from 1969 to 1971; and Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1971.

James (Jim) Cairns (MP [Yarra and Lalor, Vic.], ALP, 1955-1977)

James Cairns enlisted with the AIF on 23 January 1945. He was hospitalised shortly thereafter with an infected eye from 1 to 5 February, and for boils on 11 February 1945. Cairns entered the 4th Australian Recruit Training Battalion on 17 March 1945. He was promoted to sergeant on 31 August 1945 and sent to Morotai for the remainder of his service. Promoted to staff sergeant on 20 November 1945, he was attached to the Australian Army Education Services until his discharge on 24 January 1946.46

During his parliamentary career he served from 1972 to 1973 as Minister for Secondary Industry; from 1972 to 1974 as Minister for Overseas Trade; from 1974 to 1975 as Deputy Prime Minister and Treasurer; and Minister for Environment in 1975.

Stephen Calder (MP [Northern Territory, NT], CP; NCP, 1966-1980)

At 24 years of age, Stephen Calder enlisted in the RAAF on 31 March 1941 as an aircraftman class II, having previously served in the militia. Between 29 August 1941 and 22 March 1942 Calder served in Canada while completing aircrew training before embarking for the United Kingdom for operational flying until 3 December 1944. During this period he received multiple promotions and achieved the rank of flight lieutenant on 21 November 1943. Calder was also awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) on 14 April 1944 in recognition of the number of operations he had flown and in particular his gallantry in 1944 while completing a dive-bombing operation in France despite heavy anti-aircraft fire causing his aircraft to lose fuel. On 19 March 1945 Calder transferred to the RAAF Reserve to join the regional civil airline Connellan Airways.47

42. NAA, GM Bryant, Service no. VX133153, Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B2458; Parliamentary handbook, 17th edn, 1971, p. 56. 43. NAA, AA Buchanan, Service no. PM/V287, [service record], Service cards for Petty Officers and Men, 1911-1970, Series no. A6670; RAN, HMAS Penguin, RAN website; HMAS Lonsdale site, n.d., n.p. 44. NAA, PT Burke, Service no. 82738, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-1948,

Series no. A9301. 45. D Boadle, ‘Bury, Leslie Harry Ernest (1913-1986)’, ADB. 46. NAA, JF Cairns, Service no. VX96172, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 47. NAA, SE Calder, Service no. 416069, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300; B Buchanan, Not so silent

Sam: a biography of Stephen “Sam” Calder, Central Queensland University Press, Rockhampton (Qld), 2000, p. 28.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 10

Archie Cameron (MP [Barker, SA], CP; LIB; LCL; LIB, 1934-1956)

Following his enlistment in the First World War, Archie Cameron was elected as the Federal Member for Barker in 1934, and he held this seat while continuing in military service. In 1927 Cameron was commissioned as a temporary major within the militia. In November 1940 he was mobilised as part of the war effort, having been deposed as Deputy Prime Minister (and Minister for the Navy) a month prior. During the war he served within the Directorate of Military Intelligence at Army Headquarters in Melbourne, while also managing ‘the parliamentary concerns of AM Blain’ (Adair Blain was the Federal member for the Northern Territory who had paused his parliamentary career to again enlist in the AIF and had been captured as a prisoner-of-war—see entry above). Cameron transferred to the reserve of officers in early May 1944.48

During his parliamentary career he served from 1937 to 1938 as Minister without Portfolio assisting the Minister for Commerce; from 1938 to 1939 as Postmaster-General; and as Minister for Commerce and Minister for the Navy in 1940.

From 1950 to 1956 he served as Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Donald Cameron (MP [Oxley, Qld], LIB, 1949-1961)

Donald Cameron was commissioned as a major into the AIF Medical Corps on 21 May 1940, already an officer in the militia. Prior to his military service, Cameron was an experienced medical officer in hospitals in Sydney and Ipswich. From December 1940 to March 1942 Cameron served with the 2/2nd Casualty Clearing Station and 2/9th Australian General Hospital in the Middle East. Following his promotion to lieutenant colonel, he commanded the 2/1st Field Ambulance in New Guinea until early 1945. Cameron transferred to the reserve of officers in early December 1945 and the following year was appointed an OBE on account of his war service.49

During his parliamentary career he served from 1956 to 1961 as Minister for Health and from 1960 to 1961 as Minister in charge of Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.

John Carrick (Senator, NSW, LIB, 1971-1987)

Having initially been commissioned in the Sydney University Regiment in 1939, John Carrick enlisted in the AIF on 12 December 1940. Carrick was a member of the famous ‘Sparrow Force’ charged with defending Timor against the Japanese between February 1942 and March 1943. Taken as a prisoner-of-war in Timor by the Japanese in 1942, he was transferred to Java, Singapore, Malaya and Thailand before his eventual release in 1945. Discharged on 20 November 1945, Carrick continued to serve in the CMF between 1948 and 1951.50

During his parliamentary career he served in 1975 in the ministries of Housing and Construction, Urban and Regional Development; from 1975 to 1978 as Minister Assisting the Prime Minister in Federal Affairs; from 1975 to 1979 as Minister for Education; from 1978 to 1982 as Vice-President of the Executive Council; and from 1979 to 1983 as Minister for National Development and Energy.

Earl Cash (MP [Stirling, WA], LIB, 1958-1961)

Previously a civil servant in the Postmaster-General’s Department, Earl Cash enlisted with the militia on 18 August 1940 and served with the 28th Infantry Battalion. He then transferred to the RAAF on 13 January 1941 where he served as a clerk in both stores and accounts. Cash was posted to 4 Service Flying Training School at Geraldton in February 1941 and spent just over a year there before moving to Pearce with No. 14 Squadron. During this posting Cash was promoted to sergeant in June 1942 and made a flight sergeant in December 1944. In 1945 he served in New Guinea at Madang and the Admiralty Islands before being discharged on 4 April 1946.51

Cyril Chambers (MP [Adelaide, SA], ALP, 1943-1958)

On 22 August 1940 Cyril Chambers was mobilised as an officer in the Australian Army Medical Corps (Dental Service), having served in a reserve capacity since March of that year. Chambers served in Australia and Papua

48. J Playford,’Cameron, Archie Galbraith (1895-1956)’, ADB. 49. J Harrison, ‘Cameron, Donald Alastair (1900-1974)’, ADB. 50. NAA, JL Carrick, Service no. NX70514, [service record] Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1948, Series no. B2458; Parliamentary handbook, 17th edn, 1971, p. 85.

51. NAA, ED Cash, Service no. W10261, [service record], CMF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B884; NAA, ED Cash, Service no. A53656, [service record], RAAF Personnel files - All Ranks, Series no. A12372.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 11

with the 3rd Field Ambulance before being invalided back to Australia and returning to reserve service in mid-May 1942.52

During his parliamentary career he served from 1946 to 1949 as Minister for the Army.

Frederick Chaney (MP [Perth, WA], LIB, 1955-1969)

Enlisting in the RAAF on 17 August 1941, Frederick Chaney was previously a school teacher who had also served in the militia in the 103rd Howitzer Battery. He completed a flying training course in April 1942, which incorporated 1,300 hours of instructional flying. Chaney was posted to No. 16 Air Observation Post Flight, a unit he eventually commanded, and completed 153 sorties with this unit in the Pacific, including Lae, Morotai and Labuan. For an especially courageous rescue mission of American aircrew in Borneo, Chaney was awarded the Air Force Cross (United States). He was demobilised on 22 November 1945, leaving the RAAF with the rank of flight lieutenant.53

During his parliamentary career he served from 1964 to 1966 as Minister for the Navy.

Donald Chipp (MP [Higinbotham; Hotham, Vic.], LIB; IND; AD, 1960-1977; Senator [Vic.], AD, 1978-1986)

Donald Chipp enlisted in the RAAF on 21 December 1943 and was promoted to leading aircraftman on 14 September 1944. He was demobilised on 27 September 1945.54

During his parliamentary career he served from 1966 to 1968 as Minister for the Navy and Minister in charge of Tourist Activities under the Minister for Trade and Industry; from 1969 to 1972 as Minister for Customs; from 1971 to 1972 as Minister Assisting the Minister for National Development; and in the ministries of Health, Repatriation and Compensation, and Social Security in 1975. He was the Parliamentary Leader of the Australian Democrats from July 1978 to August 1986.

Arthur Chresby (MP [Griffith, Qld], LIB, 1958-1961)

Arthur Chresby enlisted with the AIF on 11 June 1941. He served at AIF Headquarters in Australia for the duration of his service, receiving promotions to corporal on 2 January 1942 and lance sergeant on 29 April 1942. He was discharged on 3 March 1944.55

Richard Cleaver (MP [Swan, WA], LIB, 1955-1969)

Richard Cleaver enlisted in the AIF on 21 August 1940. He transferred to the 9th Anti-Tank Regiment as a bombardier and was promoted to lance sergeant on 16 September 1941. Thereafter he became a lieutenant in October 1941 and a captain in June 1943. He was discharged and transferred to the reserve of officers as a major on 31 May 1946.56

John Cockle (MP [Warringah, NSW], LIB, 1961-1966)

John Cockle enlisted in the AIF on 15 May 1942 at 33 years of age, having previously served in militia battery units. During the war he served initially with the Armoured Corps Training Regiment before embarking to the Pacific with the 3rd Australian Landing Ship Detachment and 2/2nd Australian Port Operating Company. He discharged from the AIF on 29 January 1946, with the rank of warrant officer class II.57

George Cole (Senator [Tas.], ALP; ALP A-C, 1949-1965)

Following his service with the CMF 12/50th infantry battalion from March 1939, George Cole was promoted to lieutenant in April 1941 and transferred to the AIF on 18 September 1942. From July 1943 until August 1944 he served in training battalions based in the Northern Territory and New South Wales. Cole was placed on the retired list of officers in September 1944.58

52. C Cameron, ‘Chambers, Cyril (1897-1975)’, ADB. 53. NAA, FC Chaney, Service no. 415228, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300. 54. NAA, DL Chipp, Service no. 439022, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-1948, Series no. A9301.

55. NAA, AA Chresby, Service no. N262981, [service record], CMF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B884. 56. NAA, R Cleaver, Service no. WX33883, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 57. NAA, JS Cockle, Service no. NX96082, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 58. NAA, GR Cole, Service no. TX6319, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 12

Frederick Collard (MP [Kalgoorlie, WA], ALP, 1961-1975)

Frederick Collard enlisted in the RAAF on 8 August 1942, having previously been employed as a machine miner. Until December 1942, he was posted to the Perth-based RAAF School of Technical Training and Engineering. In April 1943, Collard was posted to the No. 1 Aircraft Depot at RAAF Base Laverton. He remained there until the end of 1945 before being discharged on 20 February 1946 at the rank of leading aircraftman.59

Jack Comber (MP [Bowman, Qld], ALP, 1961-1963)

Previously a textile worker, Jack Comber enlisted in the militia on 18 December 1941 before transferring to the AIF on 31 July 1942. During his service Comber was predominantly posted to the 22 Australian Infantry Battalion and spent sixteen months in New Guinea between February 1943 and August 1944, including service at Milne Bay and Lae. Comber also served in New Britain from January 1945 to January 1946 before being discharged that month with the rank of corporal.60

Magnus Cormack (Senator [Vic.], LIB, 1951-1953; 1962-1978)

Magnus Cormack enlisted in the militia in July 1940 and was briefly posted to anti-aircraft regiments in Puckapunyal and Werribee before being discharged in October 1940. He then returned to the militia on 12 June 1941 and transferred to the AIF on 31 August 1942. Having been commissioned as a lieutenant, Cormack was posted to Duntroon in October 1941, AIF headquarters and then the Staff College in April 1942. In July 1943 Cormack arrived in Port Moresby as part of the 2 Australian Army Corps headquarters. In January 1944 he moved to the New Guinea Force before departing for Townsville four months later. Cormack was discharged from the AIF on 16 January 1944 but the following year was mentioned in despatches for his ‘gallant and distinguished service in Papua’.61

During his parliamentary career he served from 1971 to 1974 as President of the Senate.

Robert Cotton (Senator [NSW], LIB, 1965-1978)

Robert Cotton enlisted with the RAAF on 18 July 1942, was promoted to leading aircraftman on 10 October 1942 and sergeant on 6 May 1943. His National Archives files state that he was discharged on 18 December 1943, although the Department of Veterans’ Affairs notes his discharge date as 31 January 1947. Whether he was formally discharged for a period is unclear but it appears that, after this date, he returned to the family timber company to address the shortage of timber importation for use in Australian mines. His service files indicate that he returned to service at the Service Flying Training School.62

During his parliamentary career he served from 1969 to 1972 as Minister for Civil Aviation; in 1975 as Minister for Manufacturing Industry and Science and Consumer Affairs; and from 1975 to 1977 as Minister for Industry and Commerce.

Wilfred Coutts (MP [Griffith, Qld], ALP, 1954-1958; 1961-1966)

Wilfred Coutts enlisted in the AIF on 29 December 1941. He served in the Australian Artillery in anti-aircraft regiments, and was promoted to bombardier on 14 August 1942 and sergeant on 1 February 1942. He was discharged on 20 April 1945.63

Charles Davidson (MP [Capricornia and Dawson, Qld], LIB-CP; CP, 1946-1963)

Having served with the AIF in the First World War, Charles Davidson returned to military service as a lieutenant with the militia in February 1939 before transferring to the AIF in August 1942. The following month he was given command of the 42nd Battalion after his promotion to temporary lieutenant colonel. During the war he served in Papua and New Guinea, including the Salamaua campaign and operations near Lae. Davidson returned from New Guinea in April 1944 and relinquished command of his unit in September due to malaria. In early

59. NAA, FW Collard, Service no. 81623, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921- 1948, Series no. A9301. 60. NAA, J Comber, Service no. VX82897, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 61. G Browne, ‘Cormack, Sir Magnus Cameron (1906-1994)’, BDS. 62. NAA, RC Cotton, Service no. 419078, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-

1948, Series no. A9301. 63. NAA, WC Coutts, Service no. QX26589, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 13

December he transferred to the reserve of officers. The following year he was appointed an OBE for his service during the war.64

During his parliamentary career he served from 1956 to 1963 as Postmaster-General and from 1956 to 1958 as Minister for the Navy.

Ronald Davies (MP [Braddon, Tas.], ALP, 1958-1975)

Having previously been employed as a school teacher, Ronald Davies enlisted in the RAAF on 6 November 1942. After initial training at Somers, Davies was posted to No. 2 Air Observers School at Mount Gambier in late April 1943 and was promoted to leading aircraftman in January 1943. He was posted to Station Headquarters at RAAF Base Laverton in October 1943 before moving to No. 10 Elementary Flying Training School in Temora in December 1943. In October 1944 Davies was briefly posted to No. 82 Wing Headquarters before moving to No. 2 Squadron the following month. In April 1945 he was posted to the No. 56 Operational Base Unit before his discharge from the RAAF just over a month later.65

Roger Dean (MP [Robertson, NSW], LIB, 1949-1964)

Roger Dean enlisted with the AIF on 7 August 1942 and on 1 October he was posted to the 3rd Anti-Tank Regiment. Promotions included to bombardier on 30 June 1941, lance bombardier on 20 June 1942, lance sergeant on 7 January 1943 and lieutenant on 27 January 1943. Dean served in New Guinea from 17 June 1945 until 7 March 1946. He was discharged shortly after returning to Australia on 18 June 1946.66

Leonard Devine (MP [East Sydney, NSW], ALP, 1963-1969)

Leonard Devine enlisted in the militia on 2 January 1942. Whilst in the militia he was posted to Fremantle from July 1942 to September 1943, prior to arriving in the Southwest Pacific on 17 November 1943. He transferred to the AIF on 19 December 1944 and continued to serve until 21 February 1946, predominantly with the 8 Australian Field Ambulance at Milne Bay, Lae and Bougainville. He was discharged from the AIF on 12 September 1946.67

Donald Devitt (Senator [Tas.], ALP, 1965-1978)

Enlisting in the militia in January 1942, Donald Devitt transferred to the AIF in late August 1942. In August 1944 he left the Army to join the RAAF and was primarily posted to No. 1 Initial Training School at Somers. Devitt was promoted to leading aircraftman on 27 January 1945 and discharged from the RAAF later that year on 26 July.68

Alexander Downer (MP [Angas, SA], LIB, 1949-1964)

Alexander Downer, a barrister, enlisted in the AIF in November 1940, having served with the militia since July 1940. Initially posted to the 2/14th Field Regiment, he transferred as a gunner to the Royal Australian Artillery 8 Australian Division in August 1941 which was stationed in Singapore. Following the fall of Singapore in February 1942, Downer became a prisoner-of-war in Changi prison. He was recovered on 5 September 1945 and departed for Australia a week later. Downer was discharged from service on 15 November 1945.69

During his parliamentary career he served from 1958 to 1963 as Minister for Immigration.

Thomas Drake-Brockman (Senator [WA], CP; NCP, 1958; 1959-1978)

Prior to enlisting in the RAAF in February 1941, Thomas Drake-Brockman had served in the army cadets and militia as part of the 10th Light Horse Regiment. Following initial training as a wireless operator/air gunner, Drake-Brockman embarked for the UK in October 1941 (having been promoted to sergeant the previous month) to commence service with the RAAF. This included postings to the Middle East with No. 40 Squadron and bomber missions over Germany and France with No. 466 Squadron. Promoted to flying officer in January 1944,

64. D Bennet, ‘Davidson, Sir Charles William (1897-1985)’, ADB. 65. NAA, R Davies, Service no. 428086, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-1948, Series no. A9301. 66. NAA, RL Dean, Service no. NX107451, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 67. NAA, LT Devine, Service no. NX194447, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 68. C Beauchamp, ‘Devitt, Donald Michael (1921-2008)’, BDS; DVA, ‘Devitt, Donald Michael: Service record’, DVA website; NAA, DM Devitt,

Service no. 438178, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-1948, Series no. A9301. 69. I Hancock, Downer, Sir Alexander Russell (Alick) (1910-1981), ADB; NAA, AR Downer, Service no. SX10422, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 14

Drake-Brockman was also awarded the DFC later that year. He returned to Australia in October 1945 with the rank of flight lieutenant and was officially demobilised two months later.70

During his parliamentary career he served from 1969 to 1972 as Minister for Air; and in 1975 in the ministries of Aboriginal Affairs and Administrative Services.

Arnold Drury (Senator [SA], ALP, 1959-1975)

Arnold Drury enlisted in the AIF on 3 January 1941. He had a hernia on 8 September 1942 and was on medical leave until 28 February the following year. Drury was transferred to the cooking school for the Australian Army Catering Corps on 12 June 1943, and subsequently formally attached as a cook on 21 July 1943. He transferred to the AIF in October 1943, serving in New Guinea and New Britain. Drury was discharged from the AIF on 22 August 1945.71

Edward Drury (MP [Ryan, Qld], LIB, 1949-1975)

A former accountant, Edward Drury enlisted in the militia on 22 September 1941 and was posted to 11 Field Regiment before transferring to Victoria Barracks in Brisbane in February 1942. Drury then moved to the AIF on 19 July 1942, taking up a posting with No. 5 Australian Division headquarters. During this posting he served in New Guinea from 21 January to 31 August 1943. In November 1944 Drury was posted to 1 Australian Corps headquarters, was deployed to the Netherlands East Indies, and served in Morotai and Balikpapan. Having returned to Australia on 24 February 1946, he was discharged on 5 March 1946.72

John England (MP [Calare, NSW], CP; NCP, 1960-1975)

Enlisting in the militia in 1929, John England was formally mobilised in June 1941 as an officer with experience in both artillery and cavalry units. In August 1942 he transferred to the AIF and was promoted to lieutenant colonel in August 1943. From 1944, England commanded anti-aircraft regiments; first in New Guinea and then northern Borneo. By October 1945 he was also responsible for the North East Borneo Force and, accordingly, oversaw the Japanese surrender in that area. On 28 February 1946, England transferred to the reserve of officers list.73

George Erwin (MP [Ballarat, Vic.], LIB, 1955-1975)

In early January 1940 George Erwin enlisted in the RAAF at the age of 22 and initially trained as a radio operator. From 1941 to 1943 he served with 25 Squadron and 31 Squadron as a navigator, and reached the rank of flight lieutenant in 1944. After additional service as an area navigation officer and navigation instructor, Erwin was demobilised on 1 October 1945.74

During his parliamentary career he served in 1969 as Minister for Air.

Laurence Failes (MP [Lawson, NSW], CP, 1949-1969)

Having previously worked as a grazier at Coonabarabran, Laurence Failes enlisted in the RAAF on 17 January 1942 and was promoted to pilot officer the following month. Posted to No. 3 Fighter Sector Headquarters in Townsville in March 1942, he then moved to No. 4 Fighter Sector Headquarters in Port Moresby in October 1942 and remained there until September the following year. Failes then spent most of 1944 posted to the RAAF Radar School and Staff School before moving to the No. 39 Zone Filter Centre in the Northern Territory in October 1944, where he took over as commanding officer in November 1944. At the start of 1945 Failes was posted to Area Defence Headquarters in Darwin, before moving to its Broome equivalent in March where he served as temporary commanding officer. He stayed there until his discharge on 18 December 1945 with the rank of squadron leader.75

70. J Ferrell, ‘Drake-Brockman, Sir Thomas Charles (1919-1992)’, BDS; NAA, TC Drake-Brockman, Service no. 406564, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300. 71. NAA, AJ Drury, Service no. SX31957, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; E Milburn, ‘Drury, Arnold Joseph (1912-1995)’, BDS. 72. NAA, EN Drury, Service no. QX40850, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 73. P Rosenzweig, ‘England, John Armstrong (1911-1985)’, ADB; NAA, JA England, Service no. NX113486, [service record], Second AIF Personnel

Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 74. I Hancock, ‘Erwin, George Dudley (1917-1984)’, ADB. 75. NAA, LJ Failes, Service no. 264156, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300; DVA, ‘Second World War

Service Record: Failes, Laurence John’, DVA website.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 15

David Fairbairn (MP [Farrer, NSW], LIB, 1949-1975)

Initially serving in the militia with the 21st Light Horse (Riverina) Regiment, David Fairbairn enlisted in the RAAF in early February 1941. Later that year he embarked for the UK where he spent seven months with 4 Squadron. Promoted to temporary flight lieutenant in September 1943, Fairbairn left the UK in December 1943 to return to Australia. In early 1944 Fairbairn was awarded the DFC for his reconnaissance work in Europe, and later that year he was posted to the newly established No. 79 Squadron, which went on to serve in New Guinea. Badly wounded during operations, Fairbairn was discharged from the RAAF in January 1945.76

During his parliamentary career he served from 1962 to 1964 as Minister for Air; from 1964 to 1969 as Minister for National Development; 1971 as Minister for Education and Science; and from 1971 to 1972 as Minister for Defence.

Charles Falkinder (MP [Franklin, Tas.], LIB, 1946-1966)

Charles Falkinder enlisted in the RAAF on 24 May 1940 and was promoted to leading aircraftman a month later. Not long after being promoted to sergeant, he embarked from Sydney for the UK. During his time in the UK, Falkinder served with No. 405, No. 419 and No. 109 Squadrons, as well as with the No. 11 Operation Training Unit. He was promoted to pilot officer in May 1942, flying officer in December 1942 and returned to Australia in February 1945 with the rank of flight lieutenant.77 In December 1943 Falkinder was awarded the DFC, and received a Bar to the DFC less than 12 months later. Subsequently in March 1945 he was further decorated with the DSO, in recognition of ‘outstanding ability and efficiency as [a] Navigator’.78 After a two month period at RAAF headquarters in Melbourne in mid-1945, Falkinder was demobilised on 14 November 1945.

Sydney (Max) Falstein (MP [Watson, NSW], ALP, 1940-1949)

Max Falstein enlisted in the RAAF on 18 July 1942 while serving as the Federal Member for Watson (NSW).79 Posted to the No. 1 Service Flying Training School at Point Cook in January 1943, Falstein was promoted to pilot officer four months later and then flying officer in August 1944. Posted to 42 Squadron in early 1945, Falstein served at Melville Bay and the Philippines before being discharged on 4 September 1945.80

Alexander Forbes (MP [Barker, SA], LIB, 1956-1975)

Alexander Forbes graduated from the Royal Military College Duntroon on 15 December 1942. From 1944 to 1946 he served with the 2nd Australian Mountain Battery in New Guinea and Bougainville, and with the occupation forces in Japan and Germany. In 1945 he won the Military Cross for gallantry in the Pacific. In 1946 he was a member of the Australian Victory Contingent. He was discharged to the Reserve of Officers in April 1947 with the rank of Lieutenant.81

During his parliamentary career he served from 1963 to 1964 as Minister for Navy; from 1963 to 1966 as Minister Assisting the Treasurer; from 1963 to 1966 as Minister for the Army; from 1966 to 1971 as Minister for Health; and from 1971 to 1972 as Minister for Immigration.

Norman Foster (MP [Sturt, SA], ALP, 1969-1972)

Enlisting on 7 December 1939 as part of the 2/10th Australian Infantry Battalion, Norman Foster embarked for the UK in May 1940 before transferring to the Middle East. Foster returned to Australia in March 1942 before being posted overseas to Port Moresby in August 1943. Suffering recurring bouts of malaria throughout the first half of 1944, Foster returned to Australia and was posted to the 1 Australian Army School of Signals. Having been promoted to corporal in December 1944, Foster once more embarked overseas in June 1945 for operations at Balikpapan. However, suffering from illness in the following months he was evacuated back to Australia and

76. J Farquharson, ‘Fairbairn, Sir David Eric (1917-1994)’, Obituaries Australia website; NAA, DE Fairbairn, Service no. 401427, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300; AWM, ‘Honours and awards: David Eric Fairbairn’, AWM website. 77. NAA, CWJ Falkinder, Service no. O6517, [service record], RAAF Personnel files - All Ranks, Series no. A12372. 78. AWM, ‘Honours and awards: Charles William Jackson Falkinder; Distinguished Flying Cross, Bar to the Distinguished Flying Cross,

Distinguished Service Order’, AWM website. 79. JW Shaw, ‘Falstein, Sydney Max (1914-1967)’, ADB. 80. NAA, SM Falstein, Service no. 423690, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300. 81. NAA, Alexander James Forbes CMG, MC, Service no. 435375 (NX138171)), CP 140, 13 October 1956-11 November 1975, NAA website; DVA,

‘Second World War Service Record: Forbes, Alexander James Deburgh’, DVA website.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 16

medically discharged in December 1945.82 The following year Foster was mentioned in despatches for his ‘exceptional service in the field in the South West Pacific Area’.83

Edmund Fox (MP [Henty, Vic.], LIB, 1955-1974)

Edmund Fox enlisted in the RAAF on 9 March 1942. He was promoted to corporal in December of that year and sergeant on 1 April 1944. He was discharged on 10 December 1942.84

James Fraser (MP [Australian Capital Territory, ACT], ALP, 1951-1970)

A former journalist, James Fraser enlisted in the AIF on 29 January 1942 and served in New Guinea from December 1942 to August 1943, predominantly with the 2/1st Field Regiment, Artillery. He was then transferred to the Directorate of Public Relations at the Australian Army HQ in Brisbane. In 1945 he returned to New Guinea

with the Public Relations Field Unit and was promoted to sergeant on 29 May 1945, before being discharged on 25 March 1946.85

Gordon Freeth (MP [Forrest, WA], LIB, 1949-1969)

Having previously served in the militia with the 8th Battery, Royal Australian Artillery, Gordon Freeth transferred to the RAAF on 1 March 1942. Between February 1943 and March 1944 Freeth was posted to the General Reconnaissance School, first at Cressy, then Bairnsdale.86 In July 1944 Freeth moved to No. 6 Squadron, which operated in New Britain and Rabaul in particular.87 Having flown over 60 sorties between August 1944 and May 1945 in both Anson and Beaufort aircraft, he left the RAAF in September 1945 with the rank of flight lieutenant.88

During his parliamentary career he served from 1958 to 1963 in the ministries for the Interior and for Works; from 1961 to 1963 as Minister Assisting the Attorney-General; from 1963 to 1968 as Minister for Shipping and Transport; from 1968 to 1969 as Minister Assisting the Treasurer and Minister for Air; and in 1969 as Minister for External Affairs.

Kenneth Fry (MP [Fraser, ACT], ALP, 1974-1984)

Kenneth Fry enlisted with the AIF on 27 June 1940. His records indicate that he was discharged shortly after this, most likely to serve in the Intelligence Services, joining the newly formed 2/21st Battalion on 30 October 1940. On 1 March 1941 he was graded as intelligence clerk group and was subsequently posted to Darwin on 12 April 1941. On 16 January 1942 he was discharged from the AIF in order to join the RAAF. Attending flight training schools for the first half of the year he formally enlisted with the RAAF on 25 August 1943. He was discharged on

19 January 1944 at the rank of leading aircraftman. On 13 May 1944 he re-enlisted with the AIF and served with the Field Security Section, serving in Morotai, Borneo and Indonesia until his discharge on compassionate grounds on 8 January 1946.89

William Fulton (MP [Leichhardt, Qld], ALP, 1958-1975)

William Fulton enlisted with the AIF on 3 November 1939. From 27 December 1940 to 12 December 1941 he served in the Middle East; while there, Fulton suffered a shrapnel wound from an exploding land mine which required the partial amputation of his right foot. He was subsequently declared medically unfit for duty, but returned to service as member of the camp staff on Borneo and Morotai from 11 April to 25 July 1945. He was discharged on 3 October 1945 at the rank of lieutenant.90

82. NAA, NK Foster, Service no. SX644, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 83. AWM, ‘Honours and awards: Norman Kenneth Foster’, AWM website. 84. NAA, EMC Fox, Service no. 51827, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-1948, Series no. A9301.

85. C Lloyd, ‘Fraser, James Reay (Jim) (1908-1970)’, ADB; NAA, JR Fraser, Service no. NX86496, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 86. NAA, G Freeth, Service no. 415864, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300; Royal Australian Air Force, Historical Section, Units of the Royal Australian Air Force: a concise history; volume eight: training units, AGPS, Canberra, 1995, p. 150. 87. NAA, G Freeth, op. cit.; AWM, ‘No. 6 Squadron’, AWM website. 88. NAA, G Freeth, op. cit. 89. NAA, KL Fry, Service no. NX203713, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; NAA, KL Fry, Service no.

VX38953, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1948. 90. NAA, WJ Fulton, Service no. QX3622, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 17

Arthur Gietzelt (Senator [NSW], ALP, 1971-1989)

Arthur Gietzelt enlisted with the AIF on 15 May 1941. He served in New Guinea from 28 January 1943 until 6 December 1944. He was promoted to sergeant on 16 April 1945 and was discharged on 19 March 1946.91

During his parliamentary career he served from 1983 to 1987 as Minister for Veterans’ Affairs.

Geoffrey Giles (MP [Angas and Wakefield, SA], LIB, 1964-1983)

As a 19 year old student, Geoffrey Giles enlisted in the RAAF on 18 July 1942. After initial flying training in Adelaide, Deniliquin and Mildura, Giles was posted to No. 78 Squadron in August 1943. With this unit he served in New Guinea from January 1944 until August 1944, when he returned to his hometown of Adelaide. During his period of operational flying, Giles mostly flew Wirraway and Kittyhawk aircraft. In October 1944 Giles was posted to Central Flying School at Point Cook before relocating to the No. 5 Service Flying Training School at Uranquinty in 1945. He remained there until November 1945, when he was discharged from the RAAF with the rank of flight lieutenant.92

Reginald Gillard (MP [Macquarie, NSW], LIB, 1975-1980)

Reginald Gillard enlisted with the AIF on 20 November 1942, having previously served with the CMF. He served in New Guinea from 3 March 1944 until 18 October 1945. He was promoted to lance corporal on 16 January 1943 and corporal on 14 August 1945.93

Thomas Gilmore (MP [Leichhardt, Qld], CP, 1949-1951)

Thomas Gilmore was previously employed as a mechanic before enlisting in the RAAF on 8 April 1942. Initially posted to No. 3 School of Technical Training at Ultimo in mid-May 1942, he then moved to the No. 1 Engineering School at Ascot Vale two months later, where he remained until 1944. Gilmore was promoted to leading aircraftman on 1 April 1943. In late September 1944 Gilmore moved to Bundaberg where he was posted to No. 8 Service Flying Training School. However, six weeks later he transferred to the No. 3 Embarkation Depot at Sandgate and remained there until discharged on 24 January 1947.94

Russell Gorman (MP [Chifley and Greenway, NSW], ALP, 1983-1996)

Formerly employed as a truck driver, Russell Gorman enlisted in the RAAF on 8 August 1944. After an initial month-long posting to the 3 School of Technical Training at Ultimo, Gorman transferred on 31 October 1944 to 11 Elementary Flying Training School at Benalla. In March 1945 Gorman was promoted to leading aircraftman and later in July 1945 was posted to 15 Stores Unit in Oakey before moving less than three months later to 6 Transportation and Movements Office in Townsville. He was discharged from the RAAF on 17 May 1946.95

John Gorton (Senator [Vic.], LIB, 1949-1968; MP [Higgins, Vic.], LIB; IND, 1968-1975)

John Gorton enlisted in the RAAF on 8 November 1940 at the age of 29 and, after initial training in Australia, arrived in the UK on 2 September 1941. Having flown Spitfire aircraft with the No. 61 Operational Training Unit he then transferred to No. 135 Squadron in October to fly Hurricanes. His squadron was transferred to Singapore on 13 January 1942, following the Japanese sinking of the two British capital ships, the Prince of Wales and the Repulse in December 1941. Engaging enemy planes just over a week after his arrival in Singapore, he was forced to crash land on Bintan Island (30 miles south-east of Singapore) after suffering engine failure. It was during this crash landing that he suffered severe lacerations to both arms and significant facial trauma which required reconstructive surgery and left him permanently scarred. Having been rescued and evacuated to Singapore, Gorton boarded the New Zealand-bound ammunition ship HMS Derrymore. However, the vessel was torpedoed on 13 February 1942. Rescued by the corvette HMAS Ballarat the following day, he returned to Australia on 7 March 1942.

91. NAA, AT Gietzelt, Service no. NX137958, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 92. NAA, GO Giles, Service no. 417830, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300; DVA, ‘Second World War Service Record: Giles, Geoffrey O’Halloran’, DVA website.

93. NAA R Gillard, Service no. NX136968, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 94. NAA, TV Gilmore, Service no. 75094, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921- 1948, Series no. A9301. 95. NAA, RN Gorman, Service no. 165130, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-

1948, Series no. A9301.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 18

Gorton returned to operational flying on 16 June 1942 with No.77 Squadron, first at Darwin then New Guinea. Following another engine failure on 8 March during take-off Gorton was posted to the Mildura-based 2 Operational Training Unit on 11 April 1943 and was promoted to flight lieutenant on 1 July 1943. He served as a staff instructor training other pilots until November 1944, and left the RAAF the following month.96

During his parliamentary career he served from 1958 to 1963 as Minister for the Navy; from 1960 to 1963 as Minister Assisting the Minister for External Affairs; from 1962 to 1963 as Minister in Charge of Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; from 1963 to 1964 as Minister for the Interior; from 1963 to 1967 as Minister for Works; Minister in charge of Commonwealth Activities in Education and Research under the Prime Minister from 1963 to 1966; and from 1966 to 1968 as Minister for Education and Science.

From 1968 to 1971 he was Prime Minister; in 1971 he was also Minister for Defence.

Bruce Graham (MP [St George; North Sydney, NSW], LIB, 1949-1954; 1955-1958; 1966-1980)

Bruce Graham enlisted in the RAAF on 4 March 1939, becoming an air cadet with No. 22 Squadron based at Richmond by December 1939. In March 1940 Graham was promoted to pilot officer and posted to No. 6 Squadron, also based at Richmond. Following this, he transferred to No. 2 Service Flying Training School at Forrest Hill in August 1940 and was promoted to flying officer three months later. Having been promoted to flight lieutenant in January 1942, Graham posted to the RAAF’s No. 1 Air Observers School at Cootamundra in February. He then joined No. 33 Squadron in Townsville before relocating to Canberra in May 1942 with the No. 2 Air Ambulance Unit. However, a month later Graham was injured in an aircraft crash, fracturing his spine and both legs. Recovered from his injuries, Graham joined No. 34 Squadron a year later at Parafield until August 1945, when he posted to Uranquinty with the No. 5 Service Flying Training School. He was soon posted to Bundaberg with the No. 88 Operational Base Unit, serving there until August 1946, when he was posted to the RAAF Sydney Headquarters. In May 1947 Graham had his left leg below the knee amputated and he was discharged on medical grounds on 9 September 1948, having flown over 1,200 hours of service in the RAAF.97

George Gray (MP [Capricornia, Qld], ALP, 1961-1967)

Mobilised on 29 May 1940, George Gray was initially posted to the Australian Army Ordnance Corps, where he achieved the rank of warrant officer II on 31 January 1942. Less than a week later he transferred to the Ordnance Ammunition Section and travelled to Port Moresby in early March 1942. Commissioned as an acting lieutenant in the AIF in May 1942, he remained there until returning to Australia for training in June 1943. Gray returned to Port Moresby in September 1943 with the 17 Australian Ordnance Ammunition Company. Arriving in Townsville on 2 April 1944, he was hospitalised from late May to early August with malaria. Gray transferred to the reserve of officers on 11 December 1944 at the rank of captain.98

William Grayden (MP [Swan, WA], LIB, 1949-1954)

Having enlisted in the AIF on 25 October 1940, William Grayden was commissioned as a lieutenant on 1 May 1941 with the 2/16th Battalion. Grayden arrived in the Middle East on 25 July 1941, where he served until his return to Australia on 25 March 1942. In August 1942, Grayden was deployed to Port Moresby where he was promoted to captain a year later. However, Grayden was evacuated back to Australia in October 1943 while suffering from malaria, a condition that would see him require treatment until early August 1944. Having recovered, he was posted to Morotai in June 1945 and stayed until January 1946. Grayden was moved to the reserve of officers the following month. 99

David Hamer (MP [Isaacs, Vic.], LIB, 1969-1974; 1975-1977 and Senator [Vic.], LIB, 1978-1990)

Between January 1937 and December 1940, David Hamer was enrolled at the Royal Australian Naval College, located at the Victorian Navy base, HMAS Cerberus. He was then posted for a year to the heavy cruiser HMAS Canberra, patrolling the Indian Ocean. From November 1941 to 1943 Hamer was posted to the Mediterranean Ocean with the destroyer HMAS Napier, the Indian Ocean with HMAS Revenge and attended training courses in England. Hamer was then posted to HMAS Norman in January 1943 and in August that year was promoted to lieutenant. In May 1944 he transferred to the heavy cruiser HMAS Australia as the ship’s Air Defence Officer and

96. I Hancock, John Gorton: he did it his way, Hodder, Sydney, 2002, pp. 31-39; NAA, JG Gorton, Service no. 400793, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300. 97. NAA, BW Graham, Service no. O23446, [service record], RAAF Personnel files - All Ranks, Series no. A12372. 98. NAA, GH Gray, Service no. QX42762, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 99. NAA, W Grayden, Service no. WX8868, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 19

remained there until August 1945. During his time on HMAS Australia Hamer was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) for gallantry during assault operations in the Lingayen Gulf in the Philippines. Hamer was in England on a long gunnery course when the Second World War ended, and remained an officer in the Navy until his resignation on 1 February 1968.100

Leonard Hamilton (MP [Swan and Canning, WA], CP, 1946-1961)

Leonard Hamilton enlisted in the RAAF on 27 May 1940 at the rank of aircraftman class 1. After initial training at the No. 1 Armament School at Point Cook, Hamilton went on to become an armament instructor at Victor Harbour in 1941 and at Geraldton in 1942. After further training at Point Cook and a promotion to pilot officer in late 1942, Hamilton was transferred to 5 Aircraft Depot at Wagga Wagga before a 10 month posting to Forward Echelon Headquarters in Brisbane. Later in 1945 he was promoted to acting squadron leader and commenced with No. 23 Squadron before spending time in Balikpapan with No. 82 Wing Headquarters from 30 August to 20 October. Hamilton was discharged from the RAAF a month later on 20 November 1945.101

Herbert Handby (MP [Kingston, SA], LIB, 1949-1951)

Mobilised in the RANVR on 10 August 1942, Herbert Handby was initially posted to South Australian Navy base HMAS Torrens. For the remainder of 1942 Handby served on the patrol boat HMAS Silver Cloud, the training base HMAS Penguin at Balmoral and naval base HMAS Magnetic in Townsville. In March 1943 he transferred to the naval base HMAS Kuttabul, located at Garden Island and was confirmed as a sub-lieutenant on 26 September 1943. In March 1944 he was promoted to provisional lieutenant before returning to HMAS Magnetic on 20 October 1944. Handby was demobilised on 24 June 1945.102

George Hannan (Senator [Vic.], LIB; NAT LIB, 1956-1965; 1970-1974)

Having been mobilised on 18 April 1942 at the rank of probationary sub-lieutenant, Hannan spent most of his service during the war posted to HMAS Cerberus, a naval base on the Mornington Peninsula. Working predominantly as a radar officer, he was promoted to provisional lieutenant in August 1942 before discharging from the Navy on 22 February 1946.103

Ernest Harding (MP [Herbert, Qld], ALP, 1961-1966)

Ernest Harding originally enlisted with the AIF on 20 December 1941 but was discharged shortly afterwards on 12 June 1942—only to enlist in the RAAF eight days later on 20 June 1942. During this time he served as a wireless operator and air gunner with No. 7 Squadron. He flew over 800 hours during his RAAF career and was discharged on 31 January 1946 at the rank of warrant officer.104

William Haworth (MP [Isaacs, Vic.] LIB, 1949-1969)

William Haworth enlisted in the militia on 21 September 1939 before transferring to the AIF on 22 July 1940 with the rank of captain. He was posted to the 2/23 Infantry Battalion and arrived in the Middle East in December 1940. The Battalion served at Tobruk and El Alamein before returning to Australia in early 1943. Haworth was discharged from the army on 15 January 1944.105

William Heatley (Senator [Qld], LIB, 1966-1968)

Having previously served in the militia from 1936, William Heatley was commissioned into the AIF on 16 May 1940 as a lieutenant. Posted to the 2/15th Battalion, Heatley arrived in the Middle East in February 1941 and served on ‘special duty’ in Tobruk, Syria and El Alamein. He was wounded on 31 October 1942 receiving injuries to his right buttock and right foot. Having been promoted to captain in November 1942, he transferred

100. Royal Australian Navy (RAN), ‘Captain David John Hamer’, RAN website. 101. NAA, LW Hamilton, Service no. 16587, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no, A9300. 102. NAA, HH Handby, [service record], Service Cards for Navy Officers, 1911-1970, Series no. A6769. 103. NAA, GC Hannan, [service record], Service Cards for Navy Officers, 1911-1970, Series no. A6769; D Waterson, ‘Hannan, George Conrad

(1910-2009)’, BDS. 104. NAA, EW Harding, Service no. 426419, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921- 1948, Series no. A9301. 105. NAA, WC Haworth, Service no. VX47814, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; NAA, William Crawford

Haworth, Service no. 449398, [service record], Army Militia service records, attestation documents, Series no. B4747; AWM, ‘2/23 Australian Infantry Battalion’, AWM website.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 20

to New Guinea on 4 August 1943 where he stayed until 2 March 1944. During 1945 Heatley was hospitalised with malaria, was mentioned in despatches, and was discharged from the AIF on 28 April.106

Harold Holt (MP [Fawkner; Higgins, Vic.], UAP; LIB, 1935-1967)

As the sitting Member for Fawkner, Harold Holt enlisted in the AIF on 22 May 1940. Holt had previously served both in the military cadets and militia. Posted to the 2/4th Field Regiment as a gunner, Holt was discharged on 20 October 1940 as ‘his service [was] required as a Minister of State for [the] Commonwealth of Australia’, following the deaths of three senior ministers in an air accident in August of that year.107

During his parliamentary career he served from 1939 to 1940 as Minister without portfolio, assisting the Minister for Supply and Development; Minister without portfolio, assisting the Minister for Trade and Customs in 1940; from 1940 to 1958 as Minister for Labour and National Service; from 1949 to 1956 as Minister for Immigration; and from 1958 to 1966 as Treasurer.

Holt was Prime Minister from 1966 until his disappearance in December 1967.

Robert Holt (MP [Darebin, Vic.], ALP, 1955-1958)

Robert Holt was mobilised on 3 January 1941 with the militia and commissioned as a lieutenant before transferring to the AIF on 21 February that year. After initial training Holt served with the 2nd and 8th Armoured Regiments at Puckapunyal. Following further training in 1942, he arrived in Port Moresby in November 1942, serving in the 1st Armoured Division headquarters. In October 1943 Holt was posted to New Guinea Force headquarters but returned to Australia in November on what was meant to be, at least according to his service file, ‘permanent’ sick leave. In August 1944 he transferred to 2/10th Australian Armoured Regiment, was promoted to temporary major in October 1944 and moved to the 2/9th Australian Armoured Regiment in November 1944. Holt transferred to the reserve of officers on 16 May 1945.108

Rendle Holten (MP [Indi, Vic.], CP; NCP, 1958-1977)

Rendle Holten enlisted in the RAAF on 22 May 1941. He served at the Elementary Flying Training School and the Service Flying Training Schools in Australia. He was promoted to leading aircraftman on 19 July 1941, sergeant on 8 January 1942, lance sergeant on 1 April 1943, and flight lieutenant on 1 July 1945. Holten was discharged on 3 July 1946.109

During his parliamentary career he served from 1969 to 1972 as Minister for Repatriation; and from 1971 to 1972 as Minister Assisting the Minister for Trade and Industry.

Thomas Hughes (MP [Parkes and Berowra, NSW], LIB, 1963-1972)

Thomas Hughes enlisted in the RAAF on 22 May 1942. He served in the UK in 1945 and was discharged on 1 February 1946 at the rank of flight lieutenant.110

During his parliamentary career he served from 1969 to 1971 as Attorney-General.

William Hutchinson (MP [Indi and Deakin, Vic.], UAP; LIB, 1931-1949)

As a parliamentarian (Member for Indi) before the war began, William Hutchinson enlisted in the militia on 4 April 1942. Until his discharge on 1 October 1945, Hutchinson served with the 16 Battalion Volunteer Defence Corps, Shepparton.111

Alan Jarman (MP [Deakin, Vic.], LIB, 1966-1983)

Alan Jarman enlisted in the AIF on 4 June 1942 and served with the Australian Special Wireless Group. He was discharged on 23 December 1946 at the rank of corporal.112

106. NAA, WC Heatley, Service no. QX6231, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; D Drinkwater, ‘Heatley, William Clarence (1920-1971)’, BDAS. 107. I Hancock, ‘Holt, Harold Edward (1908-1967)’, ADB; NAA, HE Holt, Service no. VX16194, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1948, Series no. B883. 108. NAA, RW Holt, Service no. VX39826, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; R Murray, ‘Holt, Robert

Wilfred (Bob) (1913-1985)’, ADB. 109. NAA, RM Holten, Service no. 408653, [service record], RAAF Officer Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300. 110. NAA, TE Forrest, Service no. 422523, [service record], RAAF Officer Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series No. A9300. 111. NAA, WJ Hutchinson, Service no. V380505, [service record], CMF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B884. 112. DVA, ‘Second World War Service Record: Jarman, Alan William’, DVA website.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 21

John Jess (MP [La Trobe, Vic.], LIB, 1960-1972)

John Jess enlisted in the militia on 14 November 1940, and was promoted to lieutenant on 23 December 1942. He served in Queensland and was discharged on 14 September 1945.113

Robert Joshua (MP [Ballaarat, Vic.], ALP; ALP A-C, 1951-1955)

A former bank teller, Robert Joshua also served in the militia prior to the Second World War, achieving the rank of captain. He enlisted in the AIF on 15 May 1940 and was initially posted to the 17th Infantry Brigade, which arrived in the Middle East in October 1940. Having transferred to the 2/32nd Battalion in May 1941, Joshua served in the defence of Tobruk in September of that year and led a successful raid against an enemy post, during which he was wounded. He received the Military Cross for this act of bravery in December 1941 and over the next year was wounded twice by enemy gunfire.

Having returned to Australia in February 1943 as a major, Joshua was promoted to lieutenant colonel the following July and given charge of the 2/43rd Battalion. From August 1943 until January 1944 this unit served in the Pacific, including Milne Bay, Lae and Finshhafen. For the remainder of the war Joshua served with the 13/33th Battalion, land headquarters school of RAAF/Army cooperation, 5 Australian Reinforcements Depot and 29/46 Brigade before being placed on the reserve of officers list on 2 February 1946.114

Robert C Katter (MP [Kennedy, Qld], CP; NCP, 1966-1990)

Robert Katter transferred from the militia to the AIF on 25 January 1940 and served with the 9th Australian Infantry Battalion until his discharge on medical grounds on 18 July 1940 with the rank of captain.115

During his parliamentary career he served in 1972 as the Minister for the Army.

James Keeffe (Senator [Qld], ALP, 1965-1983)

James Keeffe enlisted in the militia on 18 April 1939. Called up for full-time duty on 20 December 1941 as an acting sergeant with the 9th Battalion, he transferred to the AIF on 10 July 1942. He served at Milne Bay later that year and, after a serious episode of malaria in 1943, returned to Bougainville in November 1944. Whilst in action in January 1945 he suffered a gunshot wound to the right forearm which left it permanently disfigured. Invalided home, he was discharged from the Army on 27 October 1945 at the rank of sergeant.116

Bruce Kekwick (MP [Bass, Tas.], LIB, 1949-1954)

Bruce Kekwick enlisted with the RANVR on 8 September 1940 as a writer. He was promoted to acting sub-lieutenant in 1944, sub-lieutenant in 1945 and lieutenant in 1946. He was discharged on 4 July 1946.117

Wilfrid Kent Hughes (MP [Chisolm, Vic.], LIB, 1949-1970)

A First World War veteran, in August 1939 Wilfrid Kent Hughes resigned as deputy leader of the Opposition and was appointed major in the militia. He soon transferred to the AIF on 13 June 1940 and was Deputy Assistant Quartermaster General of the 8th Division in Malaya by April 1941. Promoted to colonel in February 1942, Kent Hughes was captured at the fall of Singapore in 1942 and spent six months at Changi before being transferred to Formosa and Manchuria. Released on 29 August 1945, he was awarded an OBE (1947) for his 'inspiration' to all ranks during his incarceration.118

During his parliamentary career he served from 1951 as the Minister for Works and Housing; from 1951 to 1956 as Minister for the Interior; and from 1952 to 1956 as Minister for Works.

113. NAA, JD Jess, Service no. V143755, [service record], CMF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B884. 114. NAA, R Joshua. Service no. VX15117, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883, Item barcode 6215215, Joshua Robert, 1939-1948. 115. NAA, RC Katter, Service no. Q15621, [service record], CMF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B884; P Williams, ‘Katter, Robert

Cummin (Bob) (1918-, 1990)’ADB; DVA, ‘Second World War Service Record: Katter, Robert Cumin’, DVA website. 116. P Williams, ‘Keeffe, James Bernard (Jim) (1919-1988)’, ADB; NAA, JB Keeffe, Service no. QX38055, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1948, Series no. B883. 117. NAA, BH Kekwick, Service no. H1303, [service record], Service Cards for Navy Officers, 1911-1970, Series no. A6769. 118. NAA, WS Kent Hughes, Service no. VX26600, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; I Hancock, ‘Kent

Hughes, Sir Wilfrid Selwyn (Billy) (1895-1970)’, ADB; DVA, 'Second World War Service Record: Kent-Hughes, Wilfred Selwyn’, DVA website.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 22

Bernard Kilgariff (Senator [NT], CLP, 1975-1987)

Bernard Kilgariff enlisted with the AIF on 17 June 1943. He served with the 2/5th battalion in New Guinea. His battalion fought to clear the Japanese from the Torricelli and Prince Alexander mountain range from 29 November 1944 until 15 August 1945. During his service in New Guinea, Kilgariff was admitted to hospital with malaria.119 He was discharged with the rank of sergeant on 11 September 1946.

Denis (Jim) Killen (MP [Moreton, Qld], LIB, 1955-1983)

Jim Killen joined the RAAF on 31 December 1943 as an air gunner. He served as a flight sergeant and was discharged on 1 October 1945.120

During his parliamentary career he served from 1969 to 1971 as Minister for the Navy; from 1975 to 1982 as Minister for Defence; and from 1982 to 1983 as Vice-President of the Executive Council.

Robert King (MP [Wimmera, Vic.], CP; NCP, 1958-1977) Robert King enlisted with the AIF on 22 June 1940, and was promoted to lieutenant on 17 November 1942, serving with the 2/24th Battalion in the Middle East and New Guinea. During his service in New Guinea he was first hospitalised with malaria, and a second time in September after severe injuries to his right and left thighs, including a fractured femur. King was discharged on 14 January 1945.121

During his parliamentary career he served from 1971 to 1972 as the Assistant Minister assisting the Minister for Primary Industry.

Keith Laught (Senator [SA], LIB, 1951-1969)

Prior to the Second World War, Keith Laught served with the militia in the 27th Battalion from 1925 to 1928. He transferred to the 3rd Light Horse Regiment in September 1939 and on 6 July 1940 enlisted with the 9th Division Cavalry Regiment in the AIF. Laught was deployed to the Middle East on 10 April 1941 and by 1942 was a corporal, having served in Syria and Egypt, including the Battle of El Alamein. He was hospitalised at various times with enteritis, sand fly fever, and bouts of spondylitis, and returned to Sydney in early 1943 to be classified as medically fit for restricted duties only. Laught attempted a course in military law for potential officers in Brisbane. However, his records state that he did not qualify as he was handicapped by his physical condition. He was discharged on 1 January 1944.122

Mervyn Lee (MP [Lalor, Vic.], LIB, 1966-1969)

Mervyn Lee was mobilised as a corporal in the RANVR on 23 November 1941. He was promoted to sub-lieutenant on 26 February 1945 and demobilised on 10 April 1946.123

Hugh Leslie (MP [Moore, WA], CP, 1949-1958; 1961-1963)

A South African military First World War veteran, Hugh Leslie enlisted with the AIF on 29 June 1940 and was posted to the 2/28th Australian Infantry Battalion. Promoted to corporal on 13 December 1940, Leslie departed from Fremantle on 3 January 1941 to serve in the Middle East. In May 1941 he suffered a compound fracture to his right ankle and was transferred to 4th Australian General Hospital. He returned to Australia in August 1941. Following amputation of his right leg in June 1942, Leslie was discharged as medically unfit on 27 March 1943.124

Philip Lucock (MP [Lyne, NSW], CP; NCP, 1952-1980)

A reservist since July 1940, Philip Lucock enlisted full-time with the RAAF on 19 July 1941. After initial training at Somers, he left Sydney in November for further training in Rhodesia. However, he remained there only until

119. NAA, BF Kilgariff, Service no. SX30330, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; AWM, ‘2/5th Australian Infantry Battalion’, AWM website. 120. NAA, DJ Killen, Service no. 440480, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-1948, Series no. A9301; Parliamentary handbook, 16th edn, 1968, p. 143. 121. NAA, RS King, Service no. VX33868, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 122. NAA, KA Laught, Service no. SX8260, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; J Stock, ‘Laught, Keith

Alexander (1907-1969)’, BDAS. 123. NAA, MW Lee, Service no. S6115, [service record], Service Cards for Petty Officers and Men, 1911-1970, Series no. A6770; Parliamentary handbook, 16th edn, 1968, p. 149. 124. NAA, HA Leslie, Service no. WX6035, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 23

April 1942 when he returned to Melbourne and was discharged shortly after on 25 August 1942 with the rank of leading aircraftman.125

Ronald McAuliffe (Senator [Qld], ALP, 1971-1981)

McAuliffe enlisted in the AIF on 28 May 1940, ‘having been overwhelmed by the sight of troops of the 6th Division, with a brass band, marching along the Brisbane streets’.126 He embarked from Sydney on 14 November 1940. McAuliffe served in the 2/2nd Casualty Clearing Station in the Middle East (including the Siege of Tobruk) and was promoted to sergeant on 20 July 1942 before embarking for New Guinea, transferring to the Australian New Guinea Administrative Unit on 16 June 1943. During his service he was hospitalised on numerous occasions with malaria, influenza and gastroenteritis. McAuliffe was discharged on 3 September 1945 with the rank of warrant officer class 2.127

Douglas McClelland (Senator [NSW], ALP, 1962-1987)

Douglas McClelland enlisted with the AIF on 10 August 1944. He served with the 7th Workshop and Park Company in Darwin from June 1946 until his discharge on 30 January 1947 with the rank of corporal.128

During his parliamentary career he served from 1972 to 1975 as Minister for the Media; and in 1975 as Special Minister of State. He served from 1983 to 1987 as President of the Senate.

James McClelland (Senator [NSW], ALP, 1971-1978)

Formerly employed as a machinist, James McClelland enlisted in the RAAF on 4 February 1943. From this time until August 1944 he was posted to the RAAF’s Radio Direction Finding School and the No. 318 and No. 44 RAAF stations. Transferring to No. 105 Fighter Control Unit, Darwin, he spent the remainder of 1944 at Personnel and Stores Depots. In 1945 McClelland was posted to RAAF Headquarters in Melbourne, which included a month-long secondment to Laverton. In May 1945 he embarked overseas to the No. 315 Radar Station, New Guinea, and the Area Defence Headquarters, Madang (New Guinea) two months later. McClelland was discharged from the RAAF on 6 February 1946.129

During his parliamentary career he served in 1975 in the ministries of Manufacturing Industry; and Labour and Immigration. During this period he also served as Minister Assisting the Prime Minister in matters relating to the Public Service.

Malcolm Mackay (MP [Evans, NSW], LIB, 1963-1972)

Malcolm Mackay was mobilised as a sub-lieutenant with the RANVR on 10 September 1941. He was transferred to the Navy on 10 November 1941. Moved from Sydney to the Perth naval base HMAS Leeuwin on 28 November 1942, he later transferred to the base HMAS Basilisk in New Guinea on 18 June 1943. Mackay was demobilised with the rank of acting-lieutenant on 1 October 1944.130

During his parliamentary career he served from 1971 to 1972 as Minister for the Navy.

Gerald McKellar (Senator [NSW], CP, 1958-1970)

Prior to mobilisation in the militia on 14 June 1941, Gerald McKellar had served as a reservist officer. Continuing his role within the 6th Motor Regiment, McKellar was promoted to major on 9 September 1942, and transferred to the AIF later that month. He was posted to the 26th and 4th Motor Regiments and was the commanding officer of 1st Australian Ordnance Field Park in June 1945. On 3 April 1946 McKellar transferred to the reserve of officers.131

125. NAA, PE Lucock, Service no. 412600, [service record], RAAF Personnel files for Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921- 1948, Series no. A9301. 126. R Sullivan, ‘McAuliffe, Ronald Edward (1918-1988)’, BDAS. 127. NAA, RE McAuliffe, Service no. QX5326, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; DVA, ‘McAuliffe, Ronald

Edward’, DVA website; Parliamentary handbook, 17th edn, 1971, p. 271; R Sullivan, ‘McAuliffe, Ronald Edward, (1918-1988)’, BDAS. 128. NAA, D McClelland, Service no. NX204213, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 129. NAA, JR McClelland, Service no. 126699, [service record], RAAF Personnel files for Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921- 1948, Series no. A9301. 130. NAA, MG Mackay, [service record], Service Cards for Navy Officers, 1911-1970, Series no. A6769; Parliamentary handbook, 17th edn, 1971,

p. 279.

131. NAA GC McKellar, Service no. NX136363, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; R Schneider, ‘McKellar, Gerald Colin (1903-1970)’, ADB.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 24

During his parliamentary career he served from 1964 to 1969 as Minister for Repatriation.

Ewen MacKinnon (MP [Wannon and Corangamite, Vic.], LIB, 1949-1951; 1953-1966)

Ewen MacKinnon enlisted in the 7th Division Cavalry Regiment of the AIF on 17 May 1940 at the rank of captain, having previously been an adjutant in the 4th Light Horse, 3rd Cavalry Brigade—in which he held the rank of assistant brigade major—since 1938. He later served with the 2/31st Australian Infantry Battalion and was discharged at the rank of major on 14 January 1944.132

John Elden McLeay (MP [Boothby, SA], LIB, 1966-1981)

John McLeay enlisted with the AIF on 30 June 1941. He served in New Guinea as a gunner with the 13th Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery from 1942 to 1943 where he suffered malaria and chronic gastritis. McLeay was discharged on 2 October 1945 on medical grounds.133

During his parliamentary career he served from 1971 to 1972 as the Assistant Minister assisting the Minister for Civil Aviation; from 1975 to 1980 as the Minister Assisting the Minister for Defence and the Minister for Construction; and from 1978 to 1980 as the Minister for Administrative Services.

From 1956 to 1966 he served as Speaker of the House of Representatives.

William (Billy) McMahon (MP [Lowe, NSW], LIB, 1949-1982)

A solicitor prior to the war, Billy McMahon enlisted in the militia on 26 April 1940. He received a commission as lieutenant in the 1st Infantry Battalion and was transferred to the AIF on 28 October 1940. Employed on staff duties in Australia, McMahon was deputy assistant quartermaster general at the headquarters of 2nd Corps from 1942 until he moved to the Second Army from 1943 to 1945. In 1943 he was classified medically unfit for overseas service because of chronic catarrh that affected his hearing. He was promoted to captain on 1 September 1942, major on 16 January 1943, and was discharged on 10 October 1945.134

During his parliamentary career he served from 1951 to 1954 in the ministries of Air and the Navy; from 1954 to 1956 as the Minister for Social Services; from 1956 to 1958 as the Minister for Primary Industry; from 1958 to 1966 as the Minister for Labour and National Service; from 1964 to 1966 as the Vice President of the Executive Council; from 1966 to 1969 as the Treasurer; from 1969 to 1970 as the Minister for External Affairs; and from 1970 to 1971 as the Minister for Foreign Affairs.

From 1971 to 1972 he was Prime Minister.

Alister McMullin (Senator [NSW], LIB, 1951-1971)

Alister McMullin enlisted in the AIF at Paddington on 9 July 1940, and served as a gunner in the 3rd Field Artillery Training Battery. He was discharged in January 1941 and was commissioned as a pilot officer in the Administrative and Special Duties Branch of the RAAF. Appointed to No. 24 Squadron, he was stationed at Townsville and Maryborough in July 1941 and was promoted to flying officer and flight lieutenant in October 1942. In 1944 he commanded No. 42 Squadron which, equipped with Catalina flying boats, patrolled the northern coast of Australia around Darwin and Melville Bay. He was demobilised on 22 February 1946.135

During his parliamentary career he served from 1953 to 1971 as President of the Senate.

Neil McNeill (MP [Canning, WA], LIB, 1961-1963)

Neil McNeill enlisted in the RANVR at the rank of able seaman on 9 July 1942. He was promoted to sub-lieutenant in 1943 and served at sea in the Pacific area and as a naval liaison officer and beachmaster at the Army Amphibious Training Centre, Darwin. McNeill was discharged on 10 October 1945.136

132. NAA, ED MacKinnon, Service no. VX15512, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; NAA, ED MacKinnon, Service no. V400195, [service record], CMF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B884; Parliamentary handbook, 15th edn, 1965, p. 155. 133. NAA, JE McLeay, Service no. SX13477, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; Parliamentary handbook, 16th edn, 1968, p. 164. 134. NAA, W McMahon, Service no. NX100034, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; J Leeser, ‘McMahon,

Sir William (Billy) (1908-1988)’, ADB. 135. NAA, AM McMullin, Service no. NX52635, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; NAA, AM McMullin, Service no. 262203, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300; D Connolly, ‘McMullin, Sir Alister (1900-

1984)’, ADB.

136. NAA, N McNeill, Service no. F4379, [service record], Service Cards for Navy Officers, 1911-1970, Series no. A6769; Parliamentary handbook, 14th edn, 1962, p. 160.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 25

John Marriott (Senator [Tas.], LIB, 1953-1975)

John Marriot joined the 12/50th Infantry Battalion of the CMF, enlisted in the AIF and was assigned to the 1st Signals Corps on 5 June 1940. Promoted to lieutenant in July 1942, he served in the Middle East and New Guinea. Marriott was discharged on 26 October 1945 as an honorary captain.137

During his parliamentary career he served from 1971 to 1972 as the Assistant Minister assisting the Minister for Health.

Edward Mattner (Senator [SA], LIB, 1944-1946; 1949-1968)

Edward Mattner previously served with the AIF in the First World War, where he was awarded the Military Cross, Distinguished Conduct Medal and the Military Medal. In September 1940 he enlisted with the militia at the rank of lieutenant. On 14 May 1941 he was seconded to the AIF with the temporary rank of major, and in July embarked for overseas service, including taking command of reinforcements for the 2/43rd and 2/48th Battalions on their deployment to the Middle East. In 1942 he was second-in-command of the 2/13th Field Regiment of the Royal Australian Artillery in Papua, and was discharged on non-specified medical grounds on 1 June 1942.138

During his parliamentary career he served from 1951 to 1953 as President of the Senate.

Charles Maunsell (Senator [Qld], CP; NCP, 1968-1981)

Charles Maunsell joined the RAAF in Brisbane on 26 April 1942, having previously enrolled in the RAAF Reserve on 18 September 1941. He was promoted to leading aircraftman on 18 July 1942, sergeant on 11 March 1943 and flight lieutenant on 1 January 1947. He served on Morotai with the No. 77 Squadron before being stationed in Japan with the occupation forces. He accrued over 1,200 hours flying time with Tiger Moths, Kittyhawks and Mustangs. 139 He was demobilised on 11 June 1947.140

Percival Millar (MP [Wide Bay, Qld], CP; NCP; NPA, 1974-1990)

Having previously worked as a junior assistant at the Hobart telegraph office, Percival Millar enlisted in the RAAF on 27 September 1943. After initial training at the RAAF Signals School at Point Cook, Millar was transferred to RAAF Command Headquarters in Townsville in August 1944 where he served with the No. 3 Wireless Unit. Promoted to leading aircraftman the following month, Millar remained with this unit until December 1945. He was discharged on 27 March 1946.141

Kenneth Morris (Senator [Qld], LIB, 1963-1968)

On 9 November 1939 Kenneth Morris enlisted with the AIF and was commissioned as an Australian Army Service Corps lieutenant by December. Between March 1941 and January 1943 Morris served in the Middle East, including Tobruk, Syria and El Alamein. In November 1943 he was deployed to Port Moresby as part of the Australian Army Service Corps New Guinea Force. Morris returned to Australia in February 1944 and was hospitalised two months later, suffering hepatitis. He was discharged on 9 June 1944 at the rank of major.142

Jack Mortimer (MP [Grey, SA], ALP, 1963-1966)

A welder by trade, Jack Mortimer enlisted with the AIF on 18 February 1942. Posted to the Royal Australian Engineers, Mortimer spent time at Puckapunyal and Brisbane before serving in New Guinea from June to December 1945. He was discharged shortly after returning to Australia on 19 January 1946 with the rank of corporal.143

137. NAA, JE Marriott, Service no. TX3087, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; R Davis and G Browne, ‘Marriott, John Edward (1913-1994)’, BDAS. 138. NAA, EW Mattner, Service no. SX12762, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; G Gould, ‘Mattner, Edward William (1893-1977)’, BDAS. 139. NAA, CR Maunsell, Service no. 425711, [service record], RAAF Personnel files for Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-

1948, Series no. A9301. 140. DVA, ‘Second World War service record: Maunsell, Charles Ronald’, DVA website. 141. NAA, PC Millar, Service no. 88725, [service record], RAAF Personnel files for Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-1948, Series no. A9301. 142. NAA, KJ Morris, Service no. QX6046, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 143. NAA, J Mortimer, Service no. SX17488, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 26

John Murray (MP [Herbert, Qld], LIB, 1958-1961)

John Murray enlisted with the AIF on 22 May 1940, serving with the 2/13th Australian Infantry Battalion. He served in the Middle East, New Guinea, and the Dutch East Indies, and was mentioned twice in despatches.144 He was discharged with the rank of captain on 5 November 1945.145

Reginald Murray (Senator [Tas.], ALP, 1947-1951)

A member of the RANVR for the seven years prior to the outbreak of war, Reginald Murray enlisted in the militia on 8 November 1939 before transferring to the AIF on 31 August 1942 as a lieutenant. Murray served with various Intelligence Corps units until November 1943 when, as a recently promoted captain, he moved to a water transport unit and small ship company. Murray served in New Guinea from December 1944 to February 1946. He was discharged on 16 January 1947.146

John Nelson (MP [Northern Territory, NT], ALP, 1949-1966)

John Nelson enlisted in the AIF on 14 February 1942, and was promoted to corporal. He served in Morotai from 25 February to 23 September 1945 with the Royal Australian Engineers in the 2/1 Australian Boring Platoon. While in Morotai, Nelson was hospitalised with thermal dermatitis in July 1945. He was discharged on 18 October 1945.147

Martin Nicholls (MP [Bonython, SA], ALP, 1963-1977)

Martin Nicholls enlisted in the AIF on 17 July 1940. He served until 17 December 1940 in the Reinforcements Reception Depot, but was discharged as being medically unfit. On 10 December 1941 he enlisted in the CMF, served in Darwin from 10 June 1942 to 2 September 1943 and was discharged on 11 April 1945.148

Justin O’Byrne (Senator [Tas.], ALP, 1947-1981)

Justin O’Byrne enlisted in the RAAF on 23 June 1940 and served in Canada and the UK. His plane was shot down over France and he was captured and held as a prisoner-of-war in Germany from 9 August 1941 until 1945.149 O’Byrne returned to Australia on 9 September 1945 and was discharged on 1 February 1946 at the rank of flight lieutenant.150

During his parliamentary career he served from 1974 to 1975 as President of the Senate.

Hubert Opperman (MP [Corio, Vic.], LIB, 1949-1967)

Hubert Opperman enlisted with the RAAF on 19 August 1940. He was commissioned in the Administrative and Special Duties Branch on 15 March 1942 and served there until his discharge on 15 November 1945 at the rank of flight lieutenant.151

During his parliamentary career he served from 1960 to 1963 as Minister for Shipping and Transport; and from 1963 to 1966 as Minister for Immigration.

Frederick Osborne (MP [Evans, NSW], LIB, 1949-1961)

Frederick Osborne enlisted with the RANVR on 23 September 1939 and was subsequently sent to the British Royal Navy from 10 January 1940, where he stayed until August 1946. During this time he commanded the ships HMS Gentian, Vanquisher, and Peacock and was awarded the DSC and Bar. He was demobilised on 3 October 1946 but continued in the RANVR, reaching the rank of commander in 1955.152

144. Parliamentary handbook, 13th edn, 1959, p. 161. 145. DVA, ‘Second World War service record: Murray, John’, DVA website. 146. G Winter, ‘Murray, Reginald James (1906-1962)’, BDAS; NAA, RJ Murray, Service no. TX6142, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1948, Series no. B883. 147. NAA, JN Nelson, Service no. SX17391, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; Parliamentary handbook,

12th edn, 1971, p. 204. 148. NAA, MH Nicholls, Service no. SX9079, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 149. NAA, JH O’Byrne, Service no. 408022, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300. 150. DVA, ‘Second World War service record: Osborne, Frederick Meares’, DVA website. 151. NAA, HF Opperman, Service no. 254544, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300; Parliamentary

handbook, 13th edn, 1959, p. 167. 152. NAA, FM Osborne, [service record], Service Cards for Navy Officers, 1911-1970, Series no. A6769; Parliamentary handbook, 12th edn, 1957, p. 211.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 27

During his parliamentary career he served in 1956 as Minister for Customs and Excise; from 1956 to 1960 as the Minister for Air; and from 1960 to 1961 as the Minister for Repatriation.

Neil O’Sullivan (Senator [Qld], LIB, 1947-1962)

Neil O’Sullivan enlisted in the RAAF on 8 May 1942 and was promoted to flying officer in June. He performed intelligence and administrative duties in Australia and the South-West Pacific, including a tour of New Guinea. He was discharged on 15 December 1944 at the rank of flying officer.153

During his parliamentary career he served from 1949 to 1956 as Minister for Trade and Customs; from 1956 to 1958 as Minister for the Navy; and from 1956 to 1958 as Attorney-General and Vice-President of the Executive Council.

Shane Paltridge (Senator [WA], LIB, 1951-1966)

On 12 February 1940 Shane Paltridge enlisted in the RAAF, but he failed flying training and was discharged on 3 December 1941. He then enlisted in the AIF on 5 January 1942, and in November 1944 was posted as a gunner to the 2/7th Field Artillery Regiment. His service in this regiment took him to Morotai in April 1945 and Tarakan Island. He returned to Australia and was discharged on 5 November 1945.154

During his parliamentary career he served from 1955 to 1960 as Minister for Shipping and Transport; from 1956 to 1964 as Minister for Civil Aviation; and from 1964 to 1966 as Minister for Defence.

Thomas Pearsall (MP [Franklin, Tas.], LIB, 1966-1969)

A former labourer, Thomas Pearsall enlisted in the militia on 13 April 1939 before transferring to the AIF on 7 July 1941. As a member of the 2/29th Battalion, Pearsall left Sydney on 10 January 1942 and arrived in Singapore a fortnight later. Taken prisoner on 15 February 1942, Pearsall remained a prisoner-of-war until he was recovered from Changi on 5 September 1945. Pearsall returned to Australia and was discharged on 24 December 1945.155

John Pettitt (MP [Hume, NSW], CP, 1963-1972)

John Pettitt enlisted in the AIF on 1 July 1940. Posted to the 2/2nd Australian Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment stationed at Puckapunyal, he departed to the Middle East on 5 February 1941. During the next year Pettitt was evacuated with illness three times before returning to Australia on 17 March 1942. Transferred to the 2/6th Australian Anti-Aircraft Battery, he returned overseas to Port Moresby in July 1942. However, having been evacuated with malaria the month before, Pettitt left Milne Bay for Sydney in December 1942. Suffering a relapse of malaria in February 1943, he was discharged from the AIF on 14 June 1943.156

Alan Pittard (MP [Ballaarat, Vic.], LIB, 1949-1951)

Previously employed as a shoe retailer, Alan Pittard enlisted in the RAAF on 21 February 1942, and was promoted to flying officer by September 1942. Initially posted to Fighter Sector Headquarters in Sydney, Pittard then transferred to Darwin where he was posted to Fighter Sector Headquarters and then the RAAF’s North-West Area Headquarters until April 1943. The following month he moved to Air Force Headquarters, where he remained until January 1945 when he was discharged at the rank of flight lieutenant.157

Cyril Primmer (Senator [Vic.], ALP, 1971-1985)

Cyril Primmer enlisted with the AIF on 21 August 1943. He served with the 3rd Australian Field Survey Corps in New Guinea from 15 December 1943 until 7 April 1945, and in Bougainville from 30 May 1945 until 28 November 1945. He was discharged on 2 September 1946 at the rank of corporal.158

153. NAA, N O’Sullivan, Service no. 275679, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300; Brian F Stevenson, ‘O'Sullivan, Sir Michael Neil (1900-1968)’, BDAS; DVA, ‘Second World War service record: O’Sullivan, Neil ’, DVA website. 154. B De Garis, ‘Paltridge, Sir Shane Dunne (1910-1966)’, ADB; NAA, SD Paltridge, Service no. 7248, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-1948, Series no. A9301. 155. NAA, TG Pearsall, Service no. TX6060, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 156. NAA, JA Pettitt, Service no. VX29300, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 157. NAA, AC Pittard, Service no. 254555, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300. 158. NAA, CG Primmer, Service no. VX127291 [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; DVA, ‘Second World

War service record: Primmer, Cyril Graham’, DVA website.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 28

George Rankin (MP [Bendigo, Vic.], ST CP; UCP; CP, 1937-1949 and Senator [Vic.], CP, 1949-1956)

A First World War veteran, George Rankin was general officer commanding the 2nd Cavalry Division from 16 October 1941 when he re-joined the unit until he was placed on the Unattached List on 12 February 1942. However, he continued to serve until 31 July 1944 as colonel commandant of the North-West Group, Volunteer Defence Corps, Victoria.159

Albert Reid (Senator [NSW], CP, 1949-1962)

A veteran of the First World War, Albert Reid enlisted in the AIF on 21 May 1941 after the UAP and CP Government, in which he had served as Minister for Agriculture, was defeated at the NSW State Elections. He initially served in AIF recruitment but moved to Headquarters Eastern Command until his discharge on 9 September 1943 at the rank of lieutenant colonel.160

Leonard Reynolds (MP [Barton, NSW], ALP, 1958-1966; 1969-1975)

Leonard Reynolds enlisted in the RAAF on 23 February 1943 and was promoted to leading aircraftman on 18 December 1943. He served on Morotai during 1945 and was discharged on 8 March 1946.161

Hugh Roberton (MP [Riverina, NSW], CP, 1949-1965)

Claiming to be 39 years old (when actually 42), Hugh Roberton enlisted in the AIF on 16 April 1942. He trained as a gunner and performed clerical duties in Palestine between 8 October 1942 and 29 January 1943, after which he returned to Australia where he served in the 2/3rd Tank-Attack Regiment until 3 January 1946.162

During his parliamentary career he served from 1956 to 1965 as Minister for Social Services.

William Robinson (Senator [WA], CP, 1952-1953)

William Robinson enlisted with the RAAF on 1 September 1942. He worked as a wireless maintenance mechanic on bases in Victoria, New South Wales and Western Australia. He was discharged on 6 September 1945, attaining the rank of corporal.163

Charles Russell (MP [Maranoa, Qld], CP, 1949-1951)

Charles Russell enlisted on 10 February 1941 in the RAAF as an airman pilot. He was commissioned pilot officer in May, promoted to flying officer on 12 November 1942, and flight lieutenant on 1 April 1943. Russell served as an instructor in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, before being transferred to the RAAF Reserve on 28 February 1944. He was discharged on 1 July 1947.164

Douglas Scott (Senator [NSW], CP; NCP; NPA, 1970; 1974-1985)

Douglas Scott served with the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) from 1941 to 1945. Based at HMAS Moreton and HMAS Kuttabul, he was promoted to lieutenant on 16 March 1943. He was discharged on 20 October 1945.165

During his parliamentary career he served from 1979 to 1980 as Minister Assisting the Minister for Trade and Resources; and Minister for Special Trade Representations.

John Sim (Senator [WA], LIB, 1964-1981)

John Sim enlisted in the AIF on 3 March 1941 and was posted to the 23/21st Infantry Battalion Headquarters in Geelong, rural Victoria and the Northern Territory until August 1943. Transferring to the 14th/32nd Infantry Battalion, he spent much of the next two years in New Guinea, interspersed with military intelligence training

159. NAA, GJ Rankin, Service no. V20399, [service record], CMF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B884; M Saunders, ‘Rankin, George James (1887-1957)’, ADB; Parliamentary handbook, 12th edn, 1957, p. 223. 160. NAA, AD Reid, Service no. N270643, [service record], CMF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B884; C Beauchamp, Reid, Albert David (1886-1962), BDAS; Parliamentary handbook, 12th edn, 1957, p. 224. 161. NAA, LJW Reynolds, Service no. 131434, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-

1948, Series no. A9301. 162. NAA, HS Robertson, Service no. NX95153, Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; D Boadle, ‘Roberton, Hugh Stevenson (1900-1987)’, ADB; DVA, ‘Second World War service record: Roberton, Hugh Stevenson’, DVA website. 163. NAA, WC Robinson, Service no. 81866, [service record], RAAF Personnel files of Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and other ranks, 1921-

1948, Series no. A9301; L Aungiers, ‘Robinson, William Charles (1907-1981)’, ADB. 164. NAA, CW Russell, Service no. 272644 [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. A9300; E Brown, ‘Russell, Charles Wilfred (1907-1977)’, ADB. 165. NAA, DB Scott, [service record], Confidential Reports - Naval Officers, Series no. A3978; Parliamentary handbook, 19th edn, 1976, p. 138.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 29

and photo interpretation in Queensland. By 1945 he had become commander of the Rabaul compound for suspected war criminals. Transferred to the 3rd New Guinea Infantry Battalion in October 1945, he became a temporary captain on 11 December 1945, which he relinquished upon his transfer to the reserve of officers on 5 June 1946.166

Billy Snedden (MP [Bruce, Vic.], LIB, 1955-1983)

Billy Snedden was an air crew trainee with the RAAF from January to September 1945.167

During his parliamentary career he served from 1964 to 1966 as Attorney-General; from 1966 to 1969 as Minister for Immigration; from 1969 to 1971 as Minister for Labour and National Service; and as Treasurer from 1971 to 1972. He was Leader of the Opposition from 1972 to 1975 and the Speaker of the House of Representatives from 1976 to 1983.

Edward St John (MP [Warringah, NSW], LIB; IND LIB, 1966-1969)

Edward St John enlisted in the AIF on 28 May 1940, serving in the Middle East from 25 July 1941 to 31 January 1943. He fought in the defence of Alexandria with the 2/1st Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment and in New Guinea between 1943 and 1944. St John was hospitalised with malaria at least twice. He attained the rank of lieutenant on 1 September 1942 and captain on 15 May 1943. He transferred to the reserve of officers on 30 June 1945 but continued to serve in the Australian Army Legal Department upon his discharge.168

Francis (Frank) Stewart (MP [Lang and Grayndler, NSW], ALP, 1953-1979)

Frank Stewart enlisted in the AIF on 15 November 1943. He served as a sergeant in the 39th Australian Transport Platoon, including in New Guinea from 1944 to 1945. He was discharged on 11 December 1945.169

During his parliamentary career he served from 1972 to 1975 as Minister for Tourism and Recreation; from 1973 to 1975 as Minister Assisting the Treasurer and Vice-President of the Executive Council; and in 1975 as the Minister Assisting the Minister for Repatriation and Compensation and Minister Assisting the Minister for Social Security.

Philip Stokes (MP [Maribyrnong, Vic.], LIB, 1955-1969)

Having served in the CMF since 1927, Philip Stokes was appointed to the AIF with the rank of major in 1940 and served as a lieutenant colonel from 15 May 1942. He served in the Middle East from 29 December 1940 until 17 March 1942 and in New Guinea from 25 April to 3 August 1945. Stokes was mentioned in despatches and awarded the Efficiency Decoration in 1946 for distinguished services in the Middle East. He transferred to the reserve of officers on 3 October 1946.170

Anthony (Tony) Street (MP Corangamite, Vic.], LIB, 1966-1984)

Tony Street was mobilised in the RANVR on 6 February 1945, and was discharged on 10 September 1946 with the rank of able seaman.171

During his parliamentary career he served from 1971 to 1972 as Assistant Minister assisting the Minister for Labour and National Service; 1975 as Minister for Labour and Immigration; from 1975 to 1977 as Minister assisting the Prime Minister in Public Service Matters; from 1975 to 1978 as Minister for Employment and Industrial Relations; 1976 as Minister Assisting the Prime Minister in Women’s Affairs; from 1978 to 1980 as Minister for Industrial Relations; and from 1980 to 1983 as Minister for Foreign Affairs.

166. NAA, JP Sim, Service no.VX50097, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; G Bolton, ‘Sim, John Peter (1917-2015)’, BDAS. 167. NAA, BM Snedden, Service no. A51421 [service record], RAAF Personnel files - All Ranks, Series no. A12372; Parliamentary handbook, 12th edn, 1971, p. 242. 168. NAA EH St John, Service no. NX18056, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1948, Series no. B883; Parliamentary handbook,

16th edn, 1968. p. 201. 169. NAA, FE Stewart, Service no.VX50097, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; Parliamentary handbook, 12th edn, 1971, p. 241. 170. NAA, PWC Stokes, Service no.VX47598, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; Parliamentary

handbook, 12th edn, 1971, p. 242. 171. NAA, AA Street, Service no. PM8024, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. A6770; Parliamentary handbook, 17th edn, 1971, p. 357.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 30

Reginald Swartz (MP [Darling Downs, Qld], LIB, 1949-1972)

Reginald Swartz enlisted with the 2nd AIF on 28 November 1940, serving with the 2/26th Infantry Battalion in Malaya. He was a prisoner-of-war of the Japanese for three and a half years during which time he worked on the Burma-Thailand railway and was imprisoned in Singapore. Swartz was awarded an MBE for his leadership during his years as a prisoner-of-war.172 He was discharged on 28 February 1946 with the rank of captain, before re-enlisting in 1948 as a major and later retiring in 1961 as a lieutenant colonel.173

During his parliamentary career he served from 1961 to 1964 as Minister for Repatriation; from 1964 to 1966 as Minister for Health; 1965 as Minister for Social Services; from 1966 to 1969 as Minister for Civil Aviation; 1969 as Minister Assisting the Treasurer; and from 1969 to 1972 as Minister for National Development.

David Thomson (MP [Leichhardt, Qld], NCP; NPA, 1975-1983)

David Thomson enlisted on 28 February 1942 and served with the 2/16th Battalion of the AIF in the South-West Pacific, including the landing at Balikpapan. He continued in the armed forces until 1972, a term of service which included the Korean War in 1951 and Konfrontasi in Malaysia and Sarawak from 1965 to 1966.174

During his parliamentary career he served from 1979 to 1980 as Minister for Science and the Environment; and from 1980 to 1983 as Minister for Science and Technology.

Thomas Timson (MP [Higginbotham, Vic.], LIB, 1949-1960)

Having previously worked as a radio broadcast salesman, Thomas Timson enlisted in the AIF on 3 June 1940 and was posted to 1st Australian Corps Headquarters Intelligence Section. In August he left for the Middle East and by 1941 Timson was commissioned as a lieutenant. He remained in the Middle East until February 1943, having nine months earlier transferred to 2/24th Battalion. In April 1943 Timson was promoted to captain and posted to the 7th Australian Infantry Brigade headquarters in 1944. He embarked for New Guinea in July 1944, serving in Port Moresby, Lae, Bougainville and Torokina. Briefly returning to Australia in June 1945, Timson served again in the South-West Pacific from July to October 1945. He was awarded an MBE for his meritorious service as an intelligence officer while serving in Bougainville from November 1944 to March 1945. He was discharged on

27 November 1945.175

Athol Townley (MP [Denison, Tas.], LIB, 1949-1963)

On 15 September 1940 Athol Townley was appointed probationary sub-lieutenant in the RANVR. Mobilized eight days later, he was promoted to provisional lieutenant on 4 February 1941 and was involved in bomb and mine disposal work in England. He subsequently returned to Australia where he commanded the patrol boat Steady Hour which assisted in destroying the famous Japanese midget submarine in Sydney Harbour on 1 June 1942. He took command of Fairmile Motor Launch No. 817 (ML817) in January 1943 and was promoted acting lieutenant commander on 31 March. Sent to Papua, he conducted anti-submarine patrols, escorted convoys, and took part in coastal surveillance and general harassment of Japanese small-boat traffic. ML817 was assigned to the United States' VII Amphibious Force for the assault on Lae, but came under bombing attack at Morobe on 3 September 1943. Townley nursed the craft to safety, enabling it to be towed to Sydney for repairs. He later commanded a flotilla of Fairmiles and was demobilized on 25 June 1945.176

During his parliamentary career he served from 1951 to 1954 as Minister for Social Services; from 1954 to 1956 in the ministries of Air and Civil Aviation; from 1956 to 1958 as Minister for Immigration; 1958 in the ministries of Defence Production and Supply; and from 1958 to 1963 as Minister for Defence.

Thomas Treloar (MP [Gwydir, NSW], CP, 1949-1953)

A First World War veteran who subsequently worked as a company manager, Treloar was given an honorary commission into the RAAF on 14 October 1941. Serving with the Air Training Corps he was quickly promoted to

172. J Farquharson, 'Swartz, Sir Reginald William Colin (Curly) (1911-2006)', Obituaries Australia, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. 173. NAA, RW Swartz, Service no. 124930 (QX6459), [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B2458; Parliamentary handbook, 12th edn, 1957, p. 243. 174. Parliamentary handbook, 19th edn, 1976, p. 150. 175. NAA, TF Timson, Service no. VX21054, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 176. NAA, AG Townley, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. A6769; S Bennett, ‘Townley, Athol Gordon (1905-

1963)’, ADB.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 31

the rank of pilot officer on 1 January 1942. Treloar was posted to the 2nd Wing Air Training Corps in Tamworth and was discharged on 15 November 1946.177

Winton Turnbull (MP [Wimmera and Mallee, Vic.], CP, 1946-1972)

Winton Turnbull enlisted in the AIF on 9 July 1940, serving in the Infantry attached to 2nd Australian Convalescent Depot and Combatant Units. Sent to Malaya in April 1941 he was captured during the fall of Singapore in 1941 by the Japanese and held as a prisoner-of-war from February 1942 until September 1945.178 During his captivity in Changi he helped to maintain morale by organizing debates and giving talks on his saleyard experiences.179 Upon his release he returned to duty in Malaya and was formally discharged on 28 February 1946.180

Henry Turner (MP [Bradfield, NSW], LIB, 1952-1974)

Henry Turner enlisted with the AIF on 6 May 1940, achieving the rank of lieutenant and serving in the Middle East from August 1940 to August 1942. He was then transferred to New Guinea where he served from September 1942 until January 1943. Turner was discharged on 11 January 1944.181

Tom Uren (MP [Reid, NSW], ALP, 1958-1990)

Tom Uren enlisted with the Royal Australian Artillery in 1939 before transferring to the AIF on 17 June 1941. He served as a bombardier in Timor before spending three years as a prisoner-of-war under the Japanese. He worked on the Burma-Thai railway and was later transferred to work in Japan, where he witnessed the sky change colour as the atomic bomb was released over Nagasaki. He was discharged on 27 December 1945.182

During his parliamentary career he served from 1972 to 1975 as Minister for Urban and Regional Development; from 1983 to 1984 as Minister for Territories and Local Government and Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Community Development and Regional Affairs; and from 1984 to 1987 as Minister for Local Government and Administrative Services.

Victor Vincent (Senator [WA], LIB, 1950-1964)

Victor Vincent joined the RAAF on 23 September 1940, and served in the Administrative and Special Duties Branch in Australia and New Guinea. In 1942 he became Director of Staff Duties at RAAF Headquarters in Melbourne and in October 1943 was promoted to acting wing commander. Vincent was discharged with the rank of squadron leader on 24 October 1945.183

William Wentworth (MP [Mackellar, NSW], LIB; IND LIB, 1949-1977)

William Wentworth joined the Australian Army on 9 June 1941, was promoted to captain on 30 September 1941, and was discharged on 19 August 1944.184

During his parliamentary career he served from 1968 to 1972 as Minister for Social Services; and from 1968 to 1971 as Minister in charge of Aboriginal Affairs under the Prime Minister.

Roy Wheeler (MP [Mitchell, NSW], LIB, 1949-1961)

Roy Wheeler enlisted in the 2nd AIF on 20 July 1940, serving with the Australian Army Pay Corps and 2/1st Australian Hospital Ship Manunda. He was discharged on 4 July 1946 having achieved the rank of captain.185

177. NAA, TJ Treloar, Service no. 4078, [service record], RAAF Officers Personnel files, 1921-1948, Series no. A9300. 178. NAA, WG Turnbull, Service no.VX23373, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; Parliamentary handbook, 17th edn, 1971, p. 367. 179. D Boadle, ‘Turnbull, Sir Winton George (1899-1980)’, ADB.

180. NAA, WG Turnbull, op. cit. 181. NAA, HB Turner, Service no. NX12461, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883. 182. NAA, T Uren, Service no. NX38458, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; DVA, ‘Second World War service record: Uren, Thomas ’, DVA website; Parliamentary handbook, 17th edn, 1971, p. 151.

183. NAA, VS Vincent, Service no. 291815, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. A9300; D Hough, ‘Vincent, Victor Seddon (1906-1964)’, BDAS; DVA, ‘Second World War service record: Vincent, Victor Seddon’, DVA website. 184. NAA, WC Wentworth, Service no. N73473, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B884; DVA, ‘Second World War service record: Wentworth, William Charles ’, DVA website. 185. NAA, RC Wheeler, Service no. NX56629, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; DVA, ‘Second World

War service record: Wheeler, Roy Crawford ’, DVA website; Parliamentary handbook, 12th edn, 1957, p. 261.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 32

Thomas White (MP [Balaclava, Vic.], NAT; UAP; LIB, 1929-1951)

A sitting Member of Parliament and lieutenant colonel in the CMF prior to the Second World War, Thomas White transferred to the Citizen Air Force as a temporary squadron leader on 9 April 1940. Taking leave from Parliament, he commanded a training school at Somers. In 1941, White went to England where he administered Australian aircrew and acted as liaison officer with the British Royal Air Force. On several occasions he is said to have surreptitiously taken part in operations as a second pilot. He returned to Melbourne in 1943 where he served at the RAAF Staff School before being demobilized as honorary group captain on 9 December 1944. His service was officially terminated on medical grounds on 6 April 1945, and returned to Parliament.186

During his parliamentary career he served from 1933 to 1938 as Minister for Trade and Customs; and from 1949 to 1951 in the ministries of Air and Civil Aviation.

Edward (Gough) Whitlam (MP [Werriwa, NSW], ALP, 1952-1978)

Gough Whitlam joined the RAAF on the day of the Pearl Harbor attack, 8 December 1941. Called up on 20 June 1942, Whitlam served as a navigator and spent much of the war at Gove, on the eastern Arnhem Land coast of the Northern Territory. His squadron protected convoys off northern Australia, and later moved further north to undertake bombing raids on enemy supply camps on the islands and the Philippines. By the end of the war Whitlam was navigator on the only Empire aircraft assigned to the RAAF Pacific Echelon at General Douglas MacArthur’s headquarters at Leyte and Manila, flying members of MacArthur’s staff between the Philippines and Australia.187 Whitlam ended his service with the rank of flight lieutenant navigator, No. 13 Squadron, on 17 October 1945.188

During his parliamentary career he was the Leader of the Opposition (ALP) from 1967 to 1972. Following the 1972 election, prior to a meeting of the Parliamentary Caucus of the ALP, Whitlam—as Prime Minister—formed an interim ministry with Deputy Leader of the ALP and Deputy Prime Minister, Lance Barnard. Whitlam and Barnard shared between them the administration of all government departments. From 1972 to 1975 he served as Prime Minister; from 1972 to 1973 as Minister for Foreign Affairs; and 1975 as Minister for Environment. From 1976 to 1977 he served again as Leader of the Opposition (ALP).

Bruce Wight (MP [Lilley, Qld], LIB, 1949-1961)

Bruce Wight enlisted in the Australian Army on 15 May 1940, serving with the 2/17th Battalion 9 Division. He served in the Middle East from 25 November 1940 until 26 January 1943 when he returned to Australia. He was discharged on medical grounds on 21 February 1944.189

Keith Wilson (Senator [SA], UAP, 1938-1944; MP [Sturt, SA], LIB; LCL; LIB, 1949-1954; 1955-1966)

On 31 May 1940 Keith Wilson enlisted in the AIF, serving in the Middle East from 17 November 1940 until 27 February 1943 with the 2/7th Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery. He was commissioned as a legal officer and promoted to lieutenant on 15 January 1942. Wilson was promoted to major on 6 December 1942 and returned to Australia on 2 March 1943 where he continued to perform legal duties until his transfer to the reserve of officers on 2 October 1945. He established the KC Wilson Housing and Welfare Fund, which gave grants and loans to members of his old regiment and their families.190

Reginald (Reg) Withers (Senator [WA], LIB, 1966; 1968-1987)

Reginald Withers enlisted in the Royal Australian Navy on 11 June 1942. Among the ships he served on was the Gawler, which was deployed in the Mediterranean. He was discharged on 10 April 1946 with the rank of coder.191

186. NAA, TW White, Service no. 250875, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. A9300; J Rickard, ‘White, Sir Thomas Walter (1888-1957)’, ADB. 187. NAA, ‘Gough Whitlam: before office’, Australia’s Prime Ministers, NAA website; NAA, EG Whitlam, Service no. 423371, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. A9300. 188. DVA, ‘Second World War service record: Whitlam, Edward Gough’, DVA website. 189. NAA, BM Wight, Service no. NX15066, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; DVA, ‘Second World War

service record: Wight, Bruce McDonald’, DVA website. 190. NAA, KC Wilson, Service no. SX4061, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B883; J Brown, ‘Wilson, Sir Keith Cameron (1900-1987)’, ADB. 191. NAA, RG Withers, Service no. 25989, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. A6770; Parliamentary handbook,

16th edn, 1968, p. 228.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 33

During his parliamentary career he served in 1975 in the ministries of Capital Territory; Media; Tourism and Recreation; and as Special Minister of State. From 1975 to 1978 he served as Vice-President of the Executive Council and as Minister for Administrative Services.

Kenneth Wriedt (Senator [Tas.], ALP, 1968-1980)

Kenneth Wriedt served in the Merchant Navy from 1943 to 1945, an occupation he continued after the war ended.192

During his parliamentary career he served from 1972 to 1974 as Minister for Primary Industry; from 1974 to 1975 as Minister for Agriculture; and 1975 as Minister for Minerals and Energy.

Reginald (Reg) Wright (Senator [Tas.], LIB; IND, 1949-1978)

Having been active in the militia, Reg Wright volunteered for the AIF in 1941 and served in Tasmania with the 6th Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery. He retired with the rank of captain in 1944.193

During his parliamentary career he served from 1968 to 1972 as Minister for Works and Minister in charge of Tourist Activities under the Minister for Trade and Industry.

192. M Roe, ‘Wriedt, Kenneth Shaw (1927-2010)’, BDAS. 193. NAA, RC Wright, Service no. TX6066, [service record], Second AIF Personnel Dossiers, 1939-1947, Series no. B4747; S Bennett, ‘Wright, Sir Reginald Charles (1905-1990)’, ADB.

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 34

Appendix: MPs by state and chamber Please note that some Parliamentarians may appear more than once as they may have represented more than one electorate or may have served in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. +

served in multiple electorates

* served in both Chambers

New South Wales

Senate • Albert Reid, CP, 1949-1962

• Alister McMullin, LIB, 1951-1971

• Kenneth Anderson, LIB, 1953-1975

• Gerald McKellar, CP, 1958-1970

• Douglas McClelland, ALP, 1962-1987

• Robert Cotton, LIB, 1965-1978

• Douglas Scott, CP; NCP; NPA, 1970; 1974-1985

• John Carrick, LIB, 1971-1987

• Arthur Gietzelt, ALP, 1971-1989

• James McClelland, ALP, 1971-1978

House of Representatives Barton

• William Arthur, LIB, 1966-1969

• Leonard Reynolds, ALP, 1958-1966; 1969-1975

Berowra

• Thomas Hughes, LIB, 1969-1972 +

Bradfield

• Henry Turner, LIB, 1952-1974

Calare

• John England, CP; NCP, 1960-1975

Chifley

• John Armitage, ALP, 1969-1983

• Russell Gorman, ALP, 1983-1984 +

East Sydney

• Leonard Devine , ALP, 1963-1969

Evans

• Frederick Osborne , LIB, 1949-1961

• Malcolm Mackay, LIB, 1963-1972

Farrer

• David Fairbairn, LIB, 1949-1975

Grayndler

• Francis (Frank) Stewart, ALP, 1977-1979 +

Greenway

• Russell Gorman, ALP, 1984-1996 +

Gwydir

Macarthur

• Henry Bate, LIB; IND, 1949-1972

Mackellar

• William Wentworth, LIB; IND LIB, 1949-1977

Macquarie

• Reginald Gillard, LIB, 1975-1980

Mitchell

• Roy Wheeler, LIB, 1949-1961

• John Armitage, ALP, 1961-1963

North Sydney

• Bruce Graham, LIB, 1955-1958; 1966-1980 +

Parkes

• Thomas Hughes, LIB, 1963-1969 +

Parramatta

• Nigel Bowen, LIB, 1964-1973

Phillip

• William Aston, LIB, 1955-1961; 1963-1972

Reid

• Tom Uren, ALP, 1958-1990

Riverina

• Adam Armstrong, CP, 1965-1969

• Hugh Roberton, CP, 1949-1965

Robertson

• Roger Dean, LIB, 1949-1964

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 35

• Thomas Treloar, CP, 1949-1953

• Archibald Allan, CP, 1953-1969

Hume

• Charles Anderson, CP, 1949-1951; 1955-1961

• John Pettitt, CP, 1963-1972

Kingsford-Smith

• Lionel Bowen, ALP, 1969-1990

Lang

• Francis (Frank) Stewart, ALP, 1953-1977 +

Lawson

• Laurence Failes, CP, 1949-1969

Lowe

• William McMahon, LIB, 1949-1982

Lyne

• Philip Lucock, CP; NCP, 1952-1980

St George

• Bruce Graham, LIB, 1949-1954 +

• Leonard Bosman, LIB, 1963-1969

Watson

• Sydney (Max) Falstein, ALP, 1940-1949

Warringah

• John Cockle, LIB, 1961-1966

• Edward St John, LIB; IND LIB, 1966-1969

Wentworth

• Leslie Bury, LIB, 1956-1974

Werriwa

• Edward (Gough) Whitlam, ALP, 1952-1978

Wide Bay

Percival Millar, CP; NCP; NPA, 1974-1990

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 36

Victoria

Senate • George Rankin, CP, 1949-1956*

• John Gorton, LIB, 1949-1968*

• Magnus Cormack, LIB, 1951-1953; 1962-1978

• George Hannan, LIB; NAT LIB, 1956-1965; 1970- 1974

• William Brown, ALP, 1969-1970; 1971-1978

• Cyril Primmer, ALP, 1971-1985

• Donald Chipp, AD, 1978-1986

• David Hamer, LIB, 1978-1990

House of Representatives Balaclava

• Thomas White, NAT; UAP; LIB, 1929-1951

Ballaarat

• Alan Pittard, LIB, 1949-1951

• Robert Joshua, ALP; ALP A-C, 1951-1955

• George Erwin, LIB, 1955-1975

Batman

• Samuel Benson, ALP; IND, 1962-1969

Bendigo

• George Rankin, ST CP; UCP; CP, 1937-1949*

• Noel Beaton, ALP, 1960-1969

Bruce

• Billy Snedden, LIB, 1955-1983

Chisolm

• Wilfrid Kent Hughes, LIB, 1949-1970

Corangamite

• Ewen MacKinnon, LIB, 1953-1966 +

• Anthony (Tony) Street, LIB, 1966-1984

Corio

• Hubert Opperman, LIB, 1949-1967

Darebin

• Robert Holt, ALP, 1955-1958

Deakin

• William Hutchinson, UAP; LIB, 1937-1949 +

• Alan Jarman, LIB, 1966-1983

Fawkner

• William Bourke, ALP; ALP A-C, 1949-1955)

• Harold Holt, UAP; LIB, 1935-1949 +

Gippsland

• George Bowden, CP, 1943-1961

Higinbotham

• Thomas Timson, LIB, 1949-1960

• Donald Chipp, LIB, 1960-1969 + *

Hotham

• Donald Chipp, LIB; IND; AD, 1969-1977 + *

Indi

• William Hutchinson, UAP, 1931-1937 +

• William Bostock, LIB, 1949-1958

• Rendle Holten, CP; NCP, 1958-1977

Isaacs

• William Haworth, LIB, 1949-1969

• David Hamer, LIB, 1969-1974; 1975-1977*

La Trobe

• John Jess, LIB, 1960-1972

Lalor

• Mervyn Lee, LIB, 1966-1969

• James (Jim) Cairns, ALP, 1969-1977 +

McMillan

• Alexander Buchanan, LIB; IND, 1955-1972

Mallee

• Winton Turnbull, CP, 1949-1972 +

Maribyrnong

• Philip Stokes, LIB, 1955-1969

Wannon

• Ewen MacKinnon, LIB, 1949-1951 +

Wills

• Gordon Bryant, ALP, 1955-1980

Wimmera

• Robert King, CP; NCP, 1958-1977

• Winton Turnbull, CP, 1946-1949 +

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 37

Henty

• Edmund Fox, LIB, 1955-1974

Higgins

• John Gorton, LIB; IND, 1968-1975*

• Harold Holt, LIB, 1949-1967 +

Yarra

• James (Jim) Cairns, ALP, 1955-1969 +

Queensland

Senate

• Neil O’Sullivan, LIB, 1947-1962

• Kenneth Morris, LIB, 1963-1968

• James Keeffe, ALP, 1965-1983

• William Heatley, LIB, 1966-1968

• Charles Maunsell, CP; NCP, 1968-1981

• Ronald McAuliffe, ALP, 1971-1981

House of Representatives Bowman

• Jack Comber, ALP, 1961-1963

Capricornia

• George Gray, ALP, 1961-1967

• Charles Davidson, LIB, 1946-1949 +

Darling Downs

• Reginald Swartz, LIB, 1949-1972

Dawson

• Charles Davidson, CP, 1949-1963 +

Griffith

• Arthur Chresby , LIB, 1958-1961

• Wilfred Coutts, ALP, 1954-1958; 1961-1966

Herbert

• John Murray, LIB, 1958-1961

• Ernest Harding, ALP, 1961-1966

• Robert Bonnett, LIB, 1966-1977

Kennedy

• Robert C Katter, CP; NCP, 1966-1990

Leichhardt

• Thomas Gilmore, CP, 1949-1951

• William Fulton, ALP, 1958-1975

• David Thomson, NCP; NPA, 1975-1983

Lilley

• Bruce Wight, LIB, 1949-1961

McPherson

• Charles Barnes, CP, 1958-1972

Maranoa

• Charles Russell, CP, 1949-1951

Moreton

• Denis (Jim) Killen, LIB, 1955-1983

Oxley

• Donald Cameron, LIB, 1949-1961

Ryan

• Edward Drury, LIB, 1949-1975

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 38

South Australia

Senate • Keith Wilson, UAP, 1938-1944*

• Edward Mattner, LIB, 1944-1946; 1949-1968

• Keith Laught, LIB, 1951-1969

• Arnold Drury, ALP, 1959-1975

• Reginald Bishop, ALP, 1962-1981

House of Representatives Adelaide

• Cyril Chambers, ALP, 1943-1958

Angas

• Alexander Downer, LIB, 1949-1964

• Geoffrey Giles, LIB, 1964-1967 +

Barker

• Archie Cameron, CP; LIB; LCL; LIB, 1934-1956

Bonython

• Martin Nicholls, ALP, 1963-1977

Boothby

• John Elden McLeay, LIB, 1966-1981

Kingston

• Herbert Handby, LIB, 1949-1951

Grey

• Jack Mortimer, ALP, 1963-1966

Sturt

• Keith Wilson, LIB; LCL; LIB, 1949-1954; 1955-1966*

• Norman Foster, ALP, 1969-1972

Port Adelaide

• Frederick Birrell, ALP, 1963-1974

Wakefield

• Geoffrey Giles, LIB, 1977-1983 +

Northern Territory

Senate • Bernard Kilgariff, CLP, 1975-1987

House of Representatives Northern Territory

• Adair Blain, IND, 1934-1949

• John Nelson, ALP, 1949-1966

• Stephen Calder, CP; NCP, 1966-1980

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 39

Western Australia

Senate • Victor Vincent, LIB, 1950-1964

• Shane Paltridge, LIB, 1951-1966

• William Robinson, CP, 1952-1953

• Reginald (Reg) Withers, LIB, 1966; 1968-1987

• George Branson, LIB, 1958-1971

• Thomas Drake-Brockman, CP; NCP, 1958; 1959-1978

• John Sim, LIB, 1964-1981

House of Representatives Canning

• Leonard Hamilton, CP, 1949-1961 +

• Neil McNeill, LIB, 1961-1963

Forrest

• Gordon Freeth, LIB, 1949-1969

Kalgoorlie

• Peter Browne, LIB, 1958-1961

• Frederick Collard, ALP, 1961-1975

Moore

• Hugh Leslie, CP, 1949-1958; 1961-1963

Perth

• Thomas Burke, ALP, 1943-1955

• Frederick Chaney, LIB, 1955-1969

Stirling

• Earl Cash, LIB, 1958-1961

Swan

• Leonard Hamilton, CP, 1946-1949 +

• William Grayden, LIB, 1949-1954

• Richard Cleaver, LIB, 1955-1969

Tasmania

Senate • Reginald Murray, ALP, 1947-1951

• Justin O’Byrne, ALP, 1947-1981

• Reginald Wright, LIB; IND, 1949-1978

• George Cole, ALP; ALP A-C, 1949-1965

• John Marriott, LIB, 1953-1975

• Donald Devitt, ALP, 1965-1978

• Kenneth Wriedt, ALP, 1968-1980

House of Representatives Bass

• Bruce Kekwick, LIB, 1949-1954

• Lance Barnard, ALP, 1954-1975

Braddon

• Ronald Davies, ALP, 1958-1975

Denison

• Athol Townley, LIB, 1949-1963

Franklin

• Charles Falkinder, LIB, 1946-1966

• Thomas Pearsall, LIB, 1966-1969

Australian Capital Territory

House of Representatives Australian Capital Territory

• James Fraser, ALP, 1951-1970

Fraser

• Kenneth Fry, ALP, 1974-1984

Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war: the Second World War 40

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