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Youth unemployment statistics for small geographic areas: a quick guide

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Youth unemployment statistics for small geographic areas: a quick guide Penny Vandenbroek Statistics and Mapping

This guide provides a brief overview of the youth unemployment data available for small geographic areas. This is one in a series of Quick Guides related to labour statistics, designed to provide a basic understanding of Australian labour market data. Other guides include labour force, unemployment, youth unemployment and employment, which are available from the Parliamentary Library website.

Labour force data for small geographic areas The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) recently moved to a new geographic standard for the dissemination of regional data from the Labour Force Survey. The survey is a key source of information on employment, unemployment, the labour force and associated rates and ratios. The change was designed to provide more robust data for smaller geographic areas, with a focus on regional labour markets.

While the focus of this paper is on data available on youth unemployment at the smallest geographical level, data is also available for states and territories, and by greater capital city and balance of state. For more information, summaries and fact sheets on the new ABS geographical framework, see Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS).

Youth unemployment The ABS produces labour force estimates through the monthly Labour Force Survey. This household survey is designed to produce key estimates of unemployment (and employment) from a sample of approximately 56,000 people across Australia. Unemployed people are defined by the ABS as persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the survey reference week and:

• had actively looked for work and were available to work (in the reference week), or

• were waiting to start a new job.

Young unemployed people are those who have been classified as unemployed and are aged 15 to 24 years. See the separate release, Labour Stats 101 youth unemployment: a quick guide for more detailed information.

Regional labour force data There is limited data available on young unemployed persons (aged 15 to 24 years) for small areas such as Commonwealth Electoral Divisions (CEDs). This is due to the volatile nature of estimates based on small numbers of people (i.e. young unemployed people are a sub-set of all unemployed people). The exception to this is Census data, however it only relates to a small time frame every five years (the most recent data is at August 2011). The ABS does however, release unemployment rates by age group for regional areas using Statistical Areas Level 4.

ISSN 2203-5249

Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4) The Statistical Areas Level 4 classification is used to produce labour force estimates for 87 spatial areas across Australia. These spatial areas form part of the new geographic standard through which labour force estimates are now disseminated. These areas replace the formerly used labour force statistical regions.

SA4s are the largest sub-State regions in the new geographic structure. They are designed for the output of labour force data and to reflect labour markets within each State and Territory. More information is available from:

• ABS, Information paper: Regional labour force statistics, 2014, Cat. no. 6262.0 and

• ABS, Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main structure and Greater capital city statistical areas, July 2011, Cat. No. 1270.0.55.001 (see Main Structure > Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4)).

SA4 data is from the original (unadjusted) series. Due to the small sample size involved, the sampling errors with some estimates may be quite high.

From January 2014, labour force estimates are compiled using population benchmarks from the 2011 Census. Therefore, the estimates may vary to data previously published. Past estimates (prior to December 2013) have also been adjusted using the revised population benchmarks. . For more information see the ‘Summary’ tab information with the ABS release, Labour force, detailed - electronic delivery, Dec 2013 (Cat. no. 6291.0.55.001).

Estimates by SA4s are available from October 1998 however, caution should be used when analysing estimates prior to April 2001, as a new survey questionnaire was introduced at this time and only core labour force estimates were revised.

Available data Each month the ABS releases regional labour force data in their publication, Labour Force, Australia, Detailed - Electronic delivery (Cat. No. 6291.0.55.001), see:

• Table 16. Labour force status by Regions (SA4) and sex

• RM1. Labour force status by Regions (SA4), Sex and Age, October 1998 onwards

There are also two associated data cubes, relating specifically to unemployed people:

• RM2. Unemployed persons by Regions (SA4) and Duration of unemployment since last full-time job, October 1998 onwards

• RM3. Unemployed persons by Regions (SA4) and Duration of job search, April 2001 onwards

Available data (cont.) The data released by regions and age group (RM1) can be used to assess the youth labour market (e.g. employment, unemployment, and participation rates). It can also be used to look at the older labour market (e.g. people aged 55 years and over). SA4s are the smallest statistical area for which labour force estimates by age group are available.

The Statistics and Mapping Section of the Parliamentary Library has published 2013 annual average unemployment rates for each SA4, as well as comparable state/territory (or part thereof) estimates in FlagPost. The annual averages are calculated using 12 months of original data from January to December, with youth unemployment rates ranging from 5.7% to 20.2%.

Which Statistical Area (SA4) is relevant? Local Government Areas (LGAs, 2011 boundaries) can be used to approximate Commonwealth Electoral Divisions (2012 boundaries) and to then assess the most appropriate Statistical Area(s) from which to select labour force data. While generally not an exact match, LGAs serve as a guide to selecting the best available regional data for an electorate.

Based on the largest proportion(s) of people who lived in LGAs that fell either partly or wholly within an electorate a suggestion for up to two SA4s can be provided. The Statistics and Mapping Section of the Parliamentary Library is currently providing this assessment for individual clients, but in the coming months this process will be automated and then become available on the Statistics webpage - Small area labour market

Youth unemployment statistics for small geographic areas: a quick guide 2

data. In the interim, the following table provides a list of electorates (2012 boundaries) and their suggested SA4s.

Suggested Statistical Areas (SA4) by Commonwealth Electoral Division Electoral Division(a) SA4: Suggestion 1 SA4: Suggestion 2

Adelaide Adelaide - Central and Hills Adelaide - North

Aston Melbourne - Outer East

Ballarat Ballarat

Banks Sydney - Inner South West

Barker South Australia - South East

Barton Sydney - Inner South West

Bass Launceston and North East

Batman Melbourne - North East Melbourne - Inner

Bendigo Bendigo

Bennelong Sydney - Ryde Sydney - Parramatta

Berowra Sydney - Baulkham Hills and Hawkesbury Sydney - North Sydney and Hornsby

Blair Ipswich

Blaxland Sydney - Parramatta Sydney - Inner South West

Bonner Brisbane - East Brisbane - South

Boothby Adelaide - South

Bowman Brisbane - East

Braddon West and North West

Bradfield Sydney - North Sydney and Hornsby

Brand Perth - South West Mandurah

Brisbane Brisbane Inner City

Bruce Melbourne - South East

Calare Central West

Calwell Melbourne - North West Melbourne West

Canberra Australian Capital Territory

Canning Perth - South East Mandurah

Capricornia Fitzroy Mackay

Casey Melbourne - Outer East

Charlton Newcastle and Lake Macquarie

Chifley Sydney - Blacktown

Chisholm Melbourne - South East Melbourne - Inner East

Cook Sydney - Sutherland

Corangamite Geelong Warrnambool and South West

Corio Geelong

Cowan Perth - North West Perth - North East

Cowper Coffs Harbour - Grafton Mid North Coast

Cunningham Illawarra

Curtin Perth - Inner Perth - North West

Dawson Mackay Townsville

Deakin Melbourne - Outer East Melbourne - Inner East

Denison Hobart

Dickson Moreton Bay - South

Dobell Central Coast

Dunkley Mornington Peninsula

Durack Western Australia - Outback Western Australia - Wheat Belt

Eden-Monaro Capital Region

Youth unemployment statistics for small geographic areas: a quick guide 3

Electoral Division(a) SA4: Suggestion 1 SA4: Suggestion 2

Fadden Gold Coast

Fairfax Sunshine Coast

Farrer Murray Far West and Orana

Fisher Sunshine Coast

Flinders Mornington Peninsula Melbourne - South East

Flynn Fitzroy Wide Bay

Forde Logan - Beaudesert Gold Coast

Forrest Bunbury

Fowler Sydney - South West

Franklin Hobart South East

Fraser Australian Capital Territory

Fremantle Perth - South West

Gellibrand Melbourne - West

Gilmore Southern Highlands and Shoalhaven Illawarra

Gippsland Latrobe - Gippsland

Goldstein Melbourne - Inner South

Gorton Melbourne - West

Grayndler Sydney - Inner West Sydney - City and Inner South

Greenway Sydney - Blacktown Sydney - Parramatta

Grey South Australia - Outback Barossa - Yorke - Mid North

Griffith Brisbane - South Brisbane Inner City

Groom Toowoomba Darling Downs - Maranoa

Hasluck Perth - South East Perth - North East

Herbert Townsville

Higgins Melbourne - Inner South Melbourne - Inner

Hindmarsh Adelaide - West Adelaide - South

Hinkler Wide Bay

Holt Melbourne - South East

Hotham Melbourne - South East Melbourne - Inner South

Hughes Sydney - Sutherland Sydney - South West

Hume Capital Region Sydney - Outer South West

Hunter Hunter Valley exc Newcastle

Indi Hume

Isaacs Melbourne - Inner South Melbourne - South East

Jagajaga Melbourne - North East

Kennedy Cairns Queensland - Outback

Kingsford Smith Sydney - Eastern Suburbs Sydney - City and Inner South

Kingston Adelaide - South

Kooyong Melbourne - Inner East

La Trobe Melbourne - South East Melbourne - Outer East

Lalor Melbourne - West

Leichhardt Cairns Queensland - Outback

Lilley Brisbane - North

Lindsay Sydney - Outer West and Blue Mountains

Lingiari Northern Territory - Outback Darwin

Longman Moreton Bay - North

Lyne Mid North Coast

Lyons Launceston and North East Hobart

Macarthur Sydney - Outer South West

Youth unemployment statistics for small geographic areas: a quick guide 4

Electoral Division(a) SA4: Suggestion 1 SA4: Suggestion 2

Mackellar Sydney - Northern Beaches

Macquarie Sydney - Outer West and Blue Mountains Sydney - Baulkham Hills and Hawkesbury Makin Adelaide - North

Mallee North West

Maranoa Darling Downs - Maranoa Wide Bay

Maribyrnong Melbourne - West Melbourne - North West

Mayo Adelaide - Central and Hills South Australia - South East

McEwen Melbourne - North West Melbourne - North East

McMahon Sydney - South West Sydney - Parramatta

Mcmillan Latrobe - Gippsland Melbourne - South East

Mcpherson Gold Coast

Melbourne Melbourne - Inner

Melbourne Ports Melbourne - Inner Melbourne - Inner South

Menzies Melbourne - Inner East Melbourne - Outer East

Mitchell Sydney - Baulkham Hills and Hawkesbury Sydney - Parramatta

Moncrieff Gold Coast

Moore Perth - North West

Moreton Brisbane - South Brisbane - West

Murray Shepparton

New England New England and North West

Newcastle Newcastle and Lake Macquarie

North Sydney Sydney - North Sydney and Hornsby O'Connor Western Australia - Wheat Belt Western Australia - Outback

Oxley Ipswich Brisbane - West

Page Richmond - Tweed Coffs Harbour - Grafton

Parkes Far West and Orana New England and North West

Parramatta Sydney - Parramatta

Paterson Hunter Valley exc Newcastle Mid North Coast

Pearce Perth - North East Perth - North West

Perth Perth - North East Perth - Inner

Petrie Moreton Bay - North Brisbane - North

Port Adelaide Adelaide - West Adelaide - North

Rankin Logan - Beaudesert Brisbane - South

Reid Sydney - Inner West Sydney - Parramatta

Richmond Richmond - Tweed

Riverina Riverina

Robertson Central Coast

Ryan Brisbane - West Brisbane Inner City

Scullin Melbourne - North East

Shortland Newcastle and Lake Macquarie Central Coast

Solomon Darwin

Stirling Perth - North West

Sturt Adelaide - Central and Hills Adelaide - North

Swan Perth - South East

Sydney Sydney - City and Inner South Sydney - Inner West

Tangney Perth - South West Perth - South East

Throsby Illawarra Southern Highlands and Shoalhaven

Wakefield Adelaide - North Barossa - Yorke - Mid North

Wannon Warrnambool and South West Ballarat

Youth unemployment statistics for small geographic areas: a quick guide 5

Electoral Division(a) SA4: Suggestion 1 SA4: Suggestion 2

Warringah Sydney - Northern Beaches Sydney - North Sydney and Hornsby

Watson Sydney - Inner South West Sydney - Inner West

Wentworth Sydney - Eastern Suburbs Sydney - City and Inner South

Werriwa Sydney - Outer South West Sydney - South West

Wide Bay Wide Bay Sunshine Coast

Wills Melbourne - Inner Melbourne - North West

Wright Logan - Beaudesert Gold Coast

(a) 2012 boundaries.

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