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House of Representatives by-elections 1901—2014
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RESEARCH PAPER SERIES, 2013-14 12 JUNE 2014

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 Stephen Barber Statistics and Mapping Section

Executive summary This paper provides details of House of Representatives by-elections held from that for Darling Downs on 14 September 1901 to the most recent held on 8 February 2014 for Griffith:

• there have been 147 by-elections, an average of 3.3 per parliament

• the number of nominations has grown over the years from 2.2 per by-election to 11.5 per by-election

• in only four cases was a by-election contested by just a single candidate

• an increasing tendency has been for governments to avoid contesting by-elections in their opponents’ safe seats

• in only seven cases have the Opposition party failed to contest a by-election

• sixty-seven of the by-elections followed the death of the member, 74 members resigned, there have been five voided elections, and one MP was expelled from the House

• since 1949 most by-elections have been caused by the resignation of the sitting member and have occurred in safe seats

• on 35 occasions the party complexion of a seat has altered at a by-election

• five of the losses have been by the opposition of the day

• the average two-party preferred swing against the government of the day has been 4.0 per cent

• since 1949 the largest two-party swing against a government occurred in Canberra in 1995. The largest swing to a government occurred in McPherson in 1981.

ISSN 2203-5249

Contents

Executive summary ..................................................................................... 1

Party abbreviations ..................................................................................... 3

Introduction ................................................................................................ 5

The organisation of Commonwealth by-elections ............................................. 5

The reasons why by-elections have been held ................................................... 5

The timing of by-elections .................................................................................. 5

Vacancies for which no by-election held ............................................................ 6

Number of nominations ..................................................................................... 7

Voter turnout ...................................................................................................... 8

Party performance ...................................................................................... 9

Seats lost at by-elections .................................................................................... 9

Impact upon party ............................................................................................ 9

Impact upon Government/Opposition ........................................................... 10

Party win/loss performance ........................................................................... 10

By-elections caused by resignation—safeness of seat ..................................... 10

Analysing by-election swings since 1949 .......................................................... 11

Average swings against government .............................................................. 11

Two-party preferred swings, by-elections, 1949-2014 ................................. 12

Personal and political matters ..................................................................... 13

The changing of the old guard .......................................................................... 13

Future Prime Ministers ..................................................................................... 13

The exiting of Prime Ministers .......................................................................... 13

Future leaders of the Opposition ..................................................................... 13

The exiting of leaders of the Opposition .......................................................... 13

Family matters .................................................................................................. 14

Famous entries into the House ........................................................................ 14

Kicked upstairs? ................................................................................................ 14

A matter of treason .......................................................................................... 15

By-elections that caused ripples ....................................................................... 15

Voided elections ............................................................................................... 16

Appendix 1: House of Representatives by-elections, 1901-2014 ................... 17

Appendix 2: By-election results by electoral division, 1901-2014 ................. 21

First past the post electoral system ................................................................. 21

Preferential voting electoral system ................................................................ 23

Appendix 3: Notes on Commonwealth by-elections, 1901-2014 ................... 43

Appendix 4: By-election timing, 1901-2014 ................................................. 51

Appendix 5: Sources on by-elections in Australia ......................................... 54

General studies ................................................................................................. 54

Case studies ...................................................................................................... 54

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 2

Party abbreviations AAP Advance Australia Party AC Australian Constitutionalist AFI Australians Against Further Immigration ALP Australian Labor Party

ANAG Australian National Action Group AntiSoc Anti-Socialist AP Australia Party

APPG Australian Pensioner Pressure Group AR Australian Republican

ARM Australian Reform Movement ASP Australian Shooters Party ASxP Australian Sex Party Atok Atokist

BTA Bullet Train for Australia CCC Climate Change Coalition CDP Christian Democratic Party CCE Conservatives for Climate and Environment CEC Citizens Electoral Council Com Communist Party

Cons Conservative

Const Constitutionalist CP Country Party

CRep Constitutional Republican CTA Call to Australia

Dem Australian Democrats DLP Democratic Labor Party DOGS Council for the Defence of Government Schools DSP Deadly Serious Party

EcRef Economic Reform EFN Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy FFP Family First Party

FishP The Fishing Party

FLP Federal Labor Party

FLR Family Law Reform Party

FP Farmers' Party

FPA Federal Party of Australia FST Australia First Party

FT Free Trade

Grn Greens

Gry Grey Power

GWA The Greens (WA)

HAN Pauline Hanson’s One Nation HMP Help End Marijuana Prohibition HPA Hope Party Australia

ICP Independent Country Party ILab Independent Labor

ILCL Independent Liberal Country League ILib Independent Liberal

INat Independent Nationalist Ind Independent

KAP Katter’s Australian Party LDP Liberty and Democracy Party LFF Liberals for Forests

Lib Liberal Party

LibF Liberal Forum

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 3

LLab Lang Labor

LNP Liberal National Party

LP Liberal Party

LRG Liberal Reform Group

NA National Alliance

NAP New Australian Party

Nat Nationalist

NCPP Non-Custodial Parents Party NGST No GST Party

NHP National Humanitarian Party NLP Natural Law Party

NP National Party

NSP National Socialist Party ON One Nation

ONNSW One Nation NSW Division PCP Progressive Conservative Party PIR Pirate Party Australia

PLP Progressive Labour Party PORP Property Owners’ Rights Party PP Progress Party

Prot Protectionist

ProtLab Protestant Labor RARI Reclaim Australia: Reduce Immigration RPA Republican Party of Australia RSNP Returned Soldiers National Party SA Socialist Alliance

SC Social Credit

SLib State Liberal

Soc Socialist

SP Socialist Party of Australia

SPA Secular Party of Australia SPP Stable Population Party ST Single Tax League

SWP Socialist Workers’ Party TA Taxpayers’ Association

UAP United Australia Party UM Uninflated Movement Unite Unite Australia Party UTG United Tasmanian Group UWU Unemployed Workers Union VFU Victorian Farmers’ Union VOTE Voice of the Elderly

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 4

Introduction This Research Paper is an update to an earlier Parliamentary Library Research paper and details the 147 by-elections for the House of Representatives held to date, including some of the factors involved in their being held.1

It also discusses relevant factors such as the timing of by-elections, the number of nominations, the voter turnout and party performance over the years, and the swings that have occurred.

The paper concludes with a general discussion of some of the personal and political aspects of the by-elections.

The organisation of Commonwealth by-elections By-elections are held to fill vacancies in the House of Representatives resulting from the death, resignation, absence without leave, expulsion, disqualification or ineligibility of a member:

• the first was held in the Queensland electorate of Darling Downs, on 14 September 1901, barely four months after the opening of the new Commonwealth Parliament. The by-election followed the death of the sitting member, William Groom

• the most recent by-election was held in the electorate of Griffith (Qld) on 8 February 2014 following the resignation of the sitting member, Kevin Rudd.

The reasons why by-elections have been held Of the 147 by-elections, 67 (45.6 per cent) have occurred because of the death of the member, 74 (50.3 per cent) as the result of the resignation of the member, five (3.4 per cent) because of voided elections, and one (0.7 per cent) because of the expulsion of the member from the House (Kalgoorlie 1920).

The pattern has altered quite markedly, however:

• from 1901 to 1970, 63.3 per cent of all by-elections were brought about by death

• by contrast, since 1971, 87.8 per cent of all by-elections have been brought about by resignation.

Vacancies brought about by resignation and death

Years

Vacancy due to death (%) Vacancy due to resignation (%)

Other (%)

1901-1970 63.3 31.6 5.1

Since 1971 10.2 87.8 2.1

One factor contributing to this phenomenon is that members today enter the House of Representatives at a generally younger age than used to be the case. Of the 41 parliaments to 2005, the second quarter’s intake (1929-1951) was the oldest, averaging 48.3 years per new member. By contrast, the fourth quarter’s intake (1977-2005) was the youngest at 42.2 years per new member and the period 1977-2013 was 42.7 years.2 Another factor is the greater preparedness of members to leave Parliament before death, quite often to pursue another career. This has been aided by a third consideration, namely the general increase in longevity of Australians.

The timing of by-elections The Constitution (section 33) confers on the Speaker of the House of Representatives the power to issue a writ for the election of a new member. The Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 specifies that the election (polling day) must be held between 33 and 68 days from the date the writ is issued.3

There is no prescribed time period within which a by-election writ must be issued and, in fact, there is no accepted view as to the period that should elapse between vacancy and polling day.

1. S Barber, C Lawley, S Bennett and G Newman, House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2009, Research paper 2, 9 August 2010, Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2010, accessed 5 June 2014. 2. Figures from Chamber Research Office, Department of the House of Representatives. 3. Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 (Cth), accessed 5 June 2014.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 5

Perhaps surprisingly, this has not become a matter of any long-term political debate, allowing governments a great deal of freedom in the setting of by-election dates. The length of time from a vacancy until polling day has, therefore, varied considerably, with the maximum number of days being the 82 days for Moreton in 1983, and the minimum being the 17 days for East Sydney in 1903.4 The total elapsed time from vacancy to election has increased since 1901. Between 1901 and 1949, the average was 40.3 days, whereas during the period 1949 to 2014 the average has been 51.7 days. The average figure for all by-elections has been 47.2 days.

Ideally, by-elections are held as early as possible after a seat becomes vacant, ‘so that the electors are not left without representation any longer than is necessary’.5 In fact, such a consideration is occasionally pushed aside by short-term political factors. On 22 October 1982 the Member for Flinders (Phillip Lynch) resigned his seat. The Speaker fixed 4 December as the date for a by-election, but also declared that there would be a delay of almost three weeks before the writs for the by-election would be issued. According to Anne Summers, this gave the Fraser Government the option of calling a general election for 4 or 11 December.6 The by-election could, therefore, have been pushed aside (although a double dissolution election was eventually held on 5 March 1983).

In the cases of the 11 by-elections held during 2000-2014, the delay between the date of the seat becoming vacant and the date of the issuing of the writ varied considerably. The cases of Griffith (45 days) and Gippsland (40 days) contrasted with the virtually instantaneous issuing of writs for by-elections in Ryan and Lyne.

By-elections, 2000-2014

Division Held by

Date of vacancy Date of writ

Delay in issuing writ

Elapsed time from vacancy to by-election

Isaacs (Vic) ALP 14.06.00 30.06.00 16 days 59 days

Ryan (Qld) LP 05.02.01 09.02.01 4 days 40 days

Aston (Vic) LP 24.04.01 01.06.01 7 days 81 days

Cunningham (NSW) ALP 16.08.02 16.09.02 31 days 64 days

Werriwa (NSW) ALP 21.01.05 14.02.05 24 days 57 days

Gippsland (Vic) LP 09.04.08 19.05.08 40 days 80 days

Lyne (NSW) LP 30.07.08 04.08.09 5 days 38 days

Mayo (SA) LP 14.07.08 04.08.09 21 days 54 days

Bradfield (NSW) LP 19.10.09 30.10.09 11 days 47 days

Higgins (Vic) LP 19.10.09 30.10.09 11 days 47 days

Griffith (Qld) ALP 22.11.13 06.01.14 45 days 78 days

The variation allowed in regard to by-election dates is thus an anomaly in an electoral system that is generally highly regulated.

Appendix 4 provides details of the timing of all by-elections held between September 1901 and February 2014. It also shows the number of days elapsed between the seat becoming vacant and the by-election date, the number of days elapsed since the previous general election, and the number of days between the by-election and the next general election.

Vacancies for which no by-election held There have been 20 occasions when the Speaker has, in fact, declined to issue such a writ for a by-election due to a pending general election. The longest period a seat has been without a member prior to a general

4. Such a short period is no longer possible under the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918. 5. IE Harris, ed., House of Representatives practice, sixth edn, Chapter 3: elections and the electoral system, Department of the House of Representatives, Canberra, 2005, p. 93, accessed 5 June 2014.

6. A Summers, Gamble for power: how Bob Hawke beat Malcolm Fraser, the 1983 Federal election, Nelson, Melbourne, 1983, p. 63.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 6

election was 128 days in the case of Hindmarsh in 1909-10. The shortest period was the 39 days between 13 August 1940, when three MPs were killed in a plane crash, and the election of 21 September 1940.

Vacancies for which no by-election was held, 1901-2014

Division Vacant Next election Days

Hunter (NSW) 30.09.03 16.12.03 77

Indi (Vic) 12.10.06 12.12.06 61

Northern Melbourne (Vic) 13.10.06 12.12.06 60

Hindmarsh (SA) 06.12.09 13.04.10 128

East Sydney (NSW) 24.12.09 13.04.10 110

West Sydney (NSW) 06.09.28 17.11.28 72

Wimmera (Vic) 14.10.31 19.12.31 66

Martin (NSW) 05.06.34 15.09.34 102

Ballarat (Vic) 31.07.34 15.09.34 46

Werriwa (NSW) 02.08.34 15.09.34 44

Henty (Vic) 13.08.40 21.09.40 39

Flinders (Vic) 13.08.40 21.09.40 39

Corangamite (Vic) 13.08.40 21.09.40 39

West Sydney (NSW) 14.08.46 28.09.46 45

Hindmarsh (SA) 14.08.46 28.09.46 45

McMillan (Vic) 14.10.55 10.12.55 57

Leichhardt (Qld) 11.10.58 22.11.58 42

Warringah (NSW) 03.08.66 26.11.66 110

Bonython (SA) 30.09.77 10.12.77 71

Wills (Vic) 25.11.92 13.03.93 108

Number of nominations The 147 by-elections have been contested by an average of 4.9 candidates. Over the years, however, there has been a steady increase in the number of nominations.

In the 24 first-past-the-post cases between 1901 and October 1918 the average number of nominations was 2.2 per contest.

In the 123 preferential voting cases there has been an average of 5.4 nominations per by-election:

• from the introduction of preferential voting in December 1918 to the end of the 1960s there was an average of 3.7 nominations per by-election

• the 1970s and 1980s saw the first of two significant increases in candidate numbers, with 6.2 candidates per by-election over these decades

• this was exceeded during the 1990s, with the average climbing to 8.1 candidates per contest

• since 2000 a further climb to 11.5 candidates per by-election has occurred.

The record number of nominations has occurred twice in by-elections: Wills (Vic) in 1992 and Bradfield (NSW) in 2009. In the 1992 by-election 22 nominations were received to fill the seat vacated by former Prime Minister Hawke. The field of 22 candidates that contested the 2009 Bradfield by-election was inflated due to the presence of nine Christian Democratic Party candidates. The 2005 Werriwa by-election had 16 nominations, the third highest on record.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 7

Candidates per by-election

Years By-elections

Average number of candidates Largest number of candidates

1901-2014 147 4.9 22 (2 cases)

1901-1918 (First-past-the-post) 24 2.2 4 (Tasmania 1902)

1918-2014 (Preferential voting) 123 5.4 22 (2 cases)

Preferential voting

1918-1929 15 3.1 5 (3 cases)

1930-1939 12 3.7 6 (Wilmot 1939)

1940-1949 7 4.0 7 (Wimmera 1946)

1950-1959 16 3.7 6 (3 cases)

1960-1969 22 3.9 5 (8 cases)

1970-1979 8 6.5 12 (Parramatta 1973)

1980-1989 18 6.1 12 (Lowe 1982)

1990-1999 14 8.1 22 (Wills 1992)

Since 2000 11 11.5 22 (Bradfield 2009)

In only four cases, or 2.7 per cent, was a by-election contested by just a single candidate (Kalgoorlie 1913, Dalley 1915, Wide Bay 1928 and Cunningham 1956).

In recent years there has been a tendency for governments to avoid contesting by-elections in their opponents’ safe seats. Since 1990 the incumbent government has failed to contest 15 of the 25 by-elections held. In all cases bar one this has meant an easy win to the party holding the seat. In the case of Cunningham in 2002, however, the absence of a Liberal candidate helped the Australian Greens candidate win the seat from the ALP.7

By contrast, the official Opposition has contested every by-election since Dalley in 1953. Over the whole period the Opposition has failed to contest seven or 4.8 per cent of by-elections (Darling Downs 1901, Echuca 1907, Dalley 1915, Echuca 1919, Wide Bay 1928, Balaclava 1929 and Bradfield 1952).

Voter turnout • during the period of voluntary voting (1901-1924) the average turnout was just 56.7 per cent. The lowest figure was 15.1 per cent (East Sydney 1903)

• since the introduction of compulsory voting in 1924 the average by-election turnout figure has been 87.5 per cent. This contrasts with a 94.5 per cent turnout in general elections over that period

• during the compulsory voting years there has been a slight fall in the by-election turnout figure. Prior to 1970 the turnout in 62 by-elections was 88.5 per cent; the turnout for the 51 by-elections since 1970 has been 86.3 per cent

• the lowest turnout figure over the compulsory voting period has been 69.5 per cent (Wentworth 1981). Remarkably, there have been three by-elections in this electorate (1956, 1981 and 1995) and the average turnout has been only 75.9 per cent.

Note: The enrolment figure for the first by-election in Darling Downs in 1901 is not available, therefore, turnout cannot be calculated. Also the four by-elections contested by a single candidate are excluded from the calculations in this section.

7. S Bennett, The Cunningham by-election 2002, Research note, 18, 12 November 2002, Department of the Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 2002, accessed 5 June 2014.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 8

Party performance Seats lost at by-elections In only 35 of the 147 by-elections (23.8 per cent) has a seat altered its party complexion.

Seats lost at by-elections, 1901-2014

Division Government Sitting party Winning party

Melbourne (Vic) 1904 Prot Prot ALP

Riverina (NSW) 1904 ALP FT Prot

Adelaide (SA) 1908 Prot Prot ALP

Boothby (SA) 1911 ALP ALP Lib

Grampians (Vic) 1915 ALP ALP Lib

Wide Bay (Qld) 1915 ALP ALP Lib

Swan (WA) 1918 Nat Nat ALP

Corangamite (Vic) 1918 Nat Nat VFU

Echuca (Vic) 1919 Nat Nat VFU

Ballarat (Vic) 1920 Nat Nat ALP

Kalgoorlie (WA) 1920 Nat ALP Nat

Maranoa (Qld) 1921 Nat ALP CP

Wide Bay (Qld) 1928 Nat Nat CP

Franklin (Tas) 1929 ALP Ind ALP

Parkes (NSW) 1931 ALP ALP Nat

East Sydney (NSW) 1932 UAP UAP LLab

Darling Downs (Qld) 1936 UAP UAP CP

Gwydir (NSW) 1937 UAP/CP CP ALP

Wakefield (SA) 1938 UAP/CP UAP ALP

Wilmot (Tas) 1939 UAP/CP UAP ALP

Corio (Vic) 1940 UAP UAP ALP

Henty (Vic) 1946 ALP Ind LP

Flinders (Vic) 1952 LP/CP LP ALP

Calare (NSW) 1960 LP/CP LP CP

Dawson (Qld) 1966 LP/CP CP ALP

Corio (Vic) 1967 LP/CP LP ALP

Bass (Tas) 1975 ALP ALP LP

Lowe (NSW) 1982 LP/NP LP ALP

Adelaide (SA) 1988 ALP ALP LP

Groom (Qld) 1988 ALP NP LP

Wills (Vic) 1992 ALP ALP Ind

Canberra (ACT) 1995 ALP ALP LP

Ryan (Qld) 2001 LP/NP LP ALP

Cunningham (NSW) 2002 LP/NP ALP Grn

Lyne (NSW) 2008 ALP NP Ind

Note: By the time of the Grampians by-election of 1917, the Liberal Party had been subsumed by the Nationalist Party. This by-election is, therefore, not included as an occasion when the seat changed party hands

Impact upon party • twenty-seven (18.4 per cent) by-elections have been lost by a major party to another major party.

• four (2.7 per cent) have been lost by a major party to a minor party (Corangamite 1918, Echuca 1919, East Sydney 1932 and Cunningham 2002)

• one (0.7 per cent) has been lost by a major party to an independent (Wills 1992)

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 9

• two (1.4 per cent) previously held by independents were won by a major party (Franklin 1929 and Henty 1946).

Impact upon Government/Opposition • in 24 by-elections (16.3 per cent) the seat has been lost by the government of the day

• five seats (3.4 per cent) have been lost by the opposition of the day (Riverina 1904, Kalgoorlie 1920, Maranoa 1921, Cunningham 2002 and Lyne 2008)

• four seats (2.7 per cent) have been lost by one Coalition partner to another (Wide Bay 1928, Darling Downs 1936, Calare 1960 and Groom 1988). Note that the losses of Corangamite in 1918 and Echuca in 1919 by the Nationalist Party were both to the Victorian Farmers Union which shortly thereafter formed the Country Party. However, as there was no formal anti-Labor coalition at this time, these are not included here

• two seats (1.4 per cent) that had been held by an independent MP were won by the government of the day (Franklin 1929 and Henty 1946).

Party win/loss performance The table below shows, over the long haul, the major non-Labor parties of the day have not done quite as well as their rivals in terms of winning seats from other parties.

Party win/loss performance at by-elections, 1901-2014

Party Seats gained Seats lost

ALP 14 11

Major non-Labor parties* 11 18

CP/NP 4 4

Other 6 2

Total 35 35

* These figures include Riverina 1904, won by the Protectionists from the Free Traders.

On nine of the 35 occasions where a seat has changed party hands at a by-election (Boothby 1911, Swan 1918, Kalgoorlie 1920, Wakefield 1938, Wilmot 1939, Flinders 1952, Adelaide 1988, Canberra 1995 and Ryan 2001), the party that won the seat at the by-election lost the seat at the next general election.

By-elections caused by resignation—safeness of seat

The fact that relatively few seats have changed party hands in by-elections is probably due more to the propensity for by-elections to occur in safer seats, rather than any other factor. Political parties and individual members are only too aware of the possible political consequences of losing a seat at a by-election, and thus try to ensure that by-elections caused by resignation occur only in relatively safe seats. For example, since 1949, of the 59 by-elections that were caused by the resignation of the sitting member, only 11 have been in marginal seats (that is, seats requiring a swing of less than six per cent to change hands). By far the largest number of by-elections, 32, has occurred in safe seats (that is, seats requiring a swing of over ten per cent to change hands).

By-elections caused by resignation—safeness of seat, 1949-2014

Number Percentage

Marginal 11 18.6

Fairly Safe 16 27.1

Safe 32 54.2

Total 59 100.0

Interestingly, since 1901 15 of the 67 seats vacated by death have been lost by the party holding the seat, identical figures for the 74 seats vacated by resignation.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 10

Analysing by-election swings since 1949 Apart from a party’s success or defeat in a by-election, the most important aspect of a by-election is the swing that takes place. Conventional wisdom holds that there is usually a swing against the government of the day at a by-election. The success or otherwise of a government, opposition, or party leader at the by-election is often measured by the size of the swing in comparison with the average swing recorded in past by-elections. However, by-elections occur in varied and disparate electoral divisions, with different numbers and mixes of candidates and with a variety of local, state and national issues involved. It could, therefore, be argued that, given the variety of factors involved, there is no 'normal' by-election swing. By-elections are held in such varying circumstances that none can be regarded as typical, and it is generally agreed that any swing that occurs is usually explained by the special factors pertaining to each by-election.8

By-election swings can be calculated by comparing the first preference and two-party preferred votes received by the various parties at the by-election with the votes at the previous general election. The two-party preferred swing is more commonly used as it overcomes some of the difficulties inherent in using first preference swings. First preference swings can be affected by the number and nature of candidates and parties contesting the by-election when compared with the previous general election.

Average first preference and two-party preferred vote swings for by-elections held between 1949 and February 2014 are given below.9 Swings cannot be calculated where one of the major parties (that is, ALP or LP/NP Coalition) did not stand a candidate at the by-election or the preceding general election, or where the division was uncontested at the by-election or the preceding general election.

The average two-party preferred swing against the government of the day in all by-elections held during the period 1949 to 2014 was 4.0 per cent. The swing against ALP governments (5.5 per cent) was somewhat higher than the swing against LP/NP Coalition governments (3.3 per cent) while the swing against the government of the day in government-held seats was 5.0 per cent. The average two-party preferred swing in by-elections caused by the death of the sitting member was half the swing in by-elections caused by the resignation of the member.

Average swings against government Two-party preferred swings at by-elections during the period have varied from an anti-government swing of 16.1 per cent (Canberra 1995) to a swing of 16.2 per cent to the government (McPherson 1981). The largest swing against an ALP Government was the Canberra figure, while the largest swing against a LP/(CP)NP Coalition Government was achieved when Gough Whitlam won Werriwa in 1952 with a 12.4 per cent swing. Two-party preferred swings to the government of the day are a rare event in by-elections, with only 13 being recorded during the period. The largest swing to an ALP Government was in Wills in 1992 with a 5.9 per cent swing (although the ALP lost the seat to an independent candidate, P Cleary) while the largest swing to a LP/NP Coalition Government was in McPherson, referred to above. Because the number of candidates contesting a by-election is generally larger than the number contesting the previous general election, first preference swings against the government tend to be higher than two-party preferred swings.

Average swings against government: by-elections, 1949-2014

First preference per cent

Two-party preferred per cent

All by-elections 5.7 4.0

Government held seats 6.6 5.0

LP/NP Governments 4.8 3.3

ALP Governments 8.2 5.5

By-elections caused by death 3.6 2.5

By-elections caused by resignation 7.2 4.9

8. Perhaps, surprisingly, the academic literature on by-elections in Australia is quite sparse, see Appendix 5. 9. No effort is made to look at two-party preferred figures between the introduction of preferential voting in 1918 and 1949, due to the difficulty in establishing such figures for the earlier period. All swing figures used in the paper are calculated on two-party preferred votes unless where otherwise indicated.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 11

Two-party preferred swings, by-elections, 1949-2014

ALP Government LP/NP Government

Division Swing (%) Division Swing (%)

Parramatta 1973 -6.6 Balaclava 1951 -3.4

Bass 1975 -14.6 Macquarie 1951 +0.4

Wannon 1983 -1.5 Lyne 1952 -8.8

Bruce 1983 -3.8 Flinders 1952 -11.0

Moreton 1983 -1.2 Werriwa 1952 -12.4

Corangamite 1984 -1.3 Bradfield 1952 n.a.

Hughes 1984 -5.0 Dalley 1953 n.a.

Richmond 1984 +0.5 Corangamite 1953 -6.5

Scullin 1986 -4.4 Lang 1953 -2.5

Adelaide 1988 -8.4 Gwydir 1953 -0.4

Port Adelaide 1988 -11.1 Cook 1955 n.a.

Groom 1988 -5.2 Cunningham 1956 n.a.

Oxley 1988 -11.8 Barker 1956 -9.9

Gwydir 1989 n.a. Wentworth 1956 n.a.

Menzies 1991 n.a. Richmond 1957 n.a.

Wills 1992 +5.9 Parramatta 1958 -6.4

Werriwa 1994 -6.3 Hunter 1960 n.a.

Fremantle 1994 +1.0 La Trobe 1960 -7.5

Bonython 1994 -7.8 Balaclava 1960 -4.6

Mackellar 1994 n.a. Bendigo 1960 +0.1

Warringah 1994 n.a. Calare 1960 +1.0

Kooyong 1994 n.a. Higinbotham 1960 -9.2

Canberra 1995 -16.1 Batman 1962 n.a.

Wentworth 1995 n.a. Grey 1963 +4.9

Gippsland 2008 -6.1 East Sydney 1963 n.a.

Lyne 2008 n.a. Denison 1964 -1.9

Mayo 2008 n.a. Angas 1964 -2.1

Bradfield 2009 n.a. Parramatta 1964 -3.0

Higgins 2009 n.a. Robertson 1964 -1.4

Riverina 1965 -0.9

Dawson 1966 -11.9

Kooyong 1966 -3.8

Corio 1967 -11.1

Capricornia 1967 +1.5

Higgins 1968 -0.3

Curtin 1969 -7.1

Bendigo 1969 +2.1

Gwydir 1969 -7.7

Australian Capital Territory 1970 +13.8

Chisholm 1970 -2.8

Murray 1971 -0.4

Cunningham 1977 -0.3

Werriwa 1978 -11.3

Grayndler 1979 -6.9

Boothby 1981 -1.2

Curtin 1981 -7.5

McPherson 1981 +16.2

Wentworth 1981 -6.2

Lowe 1982 -8.5

Flinders 1982 -3.3

Blaxland 1996 n.a.

Lindsay 1996 +5.0

Fraser 1997 n.a.

Holt 1999 n.a.

Isaacs 2000 n.a.

Ryan 2001 -9.7

Aston 2001 -3.7

Cunningham 2002 n.a.

Werriwa 2005 n.a.

Griffith 2014 +1.3

n.a. not applicable

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 12

Personal and political matters A stark listing of 147 electoral contests can disguise the fact that many of them involved noteworthy personal and political matters that are part of Australia’s political history.10 Some of these are referred to below.

The changing of the old guard A number of members were senior politicians before they entered the national Parliament, with this latter service being the swan-song for a number of them:

• the death on 8 August 1901 of the only convict to enter the Parliament, William Groom, caused the first Commonwealth by-election to be held less than six months after the opening of Parliament (Darling Downs 1901)

• three Constitution-writers died in the first decade after Federation, prompting by-elections: Edward Braddon (Wilmot 1904), Charles Cameron Kingston (Adelaide 1908) and Frederick Holder (Wakefield 1909). John Forrest (Swan 1918), by contrast, had enjoyed a much longer Commonwealth career, which included several ministries, with four periods as treasurer.

Future Prime Ministers Seven future Prime Ministers entered the House of Representatives via by-elections. For Stanley Melbourne Bruce (Flinders 1918), Harold Holt (Fawkner 1935), Arthur Fadden (Darling Downs 1936), Gough Whitlam (Werriwa 1952) and Tony Abbott (Warringah 1994) this saw their entry into Parliament for the first time. James Scullin (Yarra 1922) had already served a term during 1910-1913, while John Gorton (Higgins 1968) had recently retired from the Senate.

The exiting of Prime Ministers The passing from Parliament of 16 of the 28 MPs who have held the office of Prime Minister has been the trigger for a by-election:

• in two cases (Wilmot 1939 and Fremantle 1945) the by-election followed the death of the Prime Minister while in office—Joe Lyons and John Curtin, respectively. The by-election in Higgins in 1968 was caused by the disappearance, while swimming, of Prime Minister Harold Holt

• Ben Chifley (Macquarie 1951) and William ‘Billy’ Hughes (Bradfield 1952) remained in Parliament after losing office, and both died while still MPs

• some early Prime Ministers resigned from Parliament to assume other positions. Andrew Fisher (Wide Bay 1915) and Joseph Cook (Parramatta 1921) both became Australian High Commissioner in London. Stanley Melbourne Bruce had lost his seat in 1929, returned to the House in 1931, and left Parliament for good when he was appointed as Resident Minister in London (Flinders 1933)

• since the departure of Robert Menzies (Kooyong 1966), John Gorton and John Howard have been the only former Prime Ministers not to have caused a by-election by their departure from the House of Representatives. John McEwen (Murray 1971), William McMahon (Lowe 1982) and Gough Whitlam (Werriwa 1978) all remained in Parliament for a time after ceasing to be Prime Minister before resigning from the House. By contrast, Malcolm Fraser (Wannon 1983), Bob Hawke (Wills 1992), Paul Keating (Blaxland 1996) and, most recently, Kevin Rudd (Griffith 2014) all resigned their seats very soon after their loss of office. Kevin Rudd’s resignation came after his loss of office for the second time.

Future leaders of the Opposition Seven future leaders of the Opposition have been elected to the House of Representatives at by-elections: Stanley Melbourne Bruce (Flinders 1918), James Scullin (Yarra 1922), Arthur Fadden (Darling Downs 1936), Gough Whitlam (Werriwa 1952) and Tony Abbott (Warringah 1994), who all went on to become Prime Minster, and Andrew Peacock (Kooyong 1966) and Mark Latham (Werriwa 1994).

The exiting of leaders of the Opposition Of the sixteen Leaders of the Opposition who have not become Prime Minister, the passing from Parliament of seven has caused a by-election:

10. For general notes on by-elections, see Appendix 2.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 13

• Frank Tudor (Yarra 1922) died in office

• Herbert Vere Evatt (Hunter 1960), Bill Snedden (Bruce 1983), Bill Hayden (Oxley 1988), Andrew Peacock (Kooyong 1994), John Hewson (Wentworth 1995), Mark Latham (Werriwa 2005) and Brendan Nelson (Bradfield 2009) all left Parliament between general elections.

Family matters Many retiring MPs have been replaced by family members. In four by-elections such a generational transfer has been from father to son:

• three were caused by death—Littleton Groom replaced William Groom (Darling Downs 1901), Bernard Corser replaced Edward Corser (Wide Bay 1928) and David Oliver Watkins replaced David Watkins (Newcastle 1935)

• the fourth father to son replacement was when Harry Jenkins senior became Ambassador to Spain in 1986. He was replaced by Harry Jenkins junior (Scullin 1986).

The retirements of both Alexander Downer senior (Angas 1964) and Alexander Downer junior (Mayo 2008) were both the occasion for a by-election to be held.

In two cases the family transfer has been from uncle to nephew:

• Herbert Pratten to Frederick Pratten (Martin 1928) and David Riordan to William Riordan (Kennedy 1936).

Famous entries into the House Some MPs have achieved a national prominence prior to their election to the House of Representatives via a by-election:

• William Spence (Darwin 1917) had been a co-founder and long-time President of the Australian Workers' Union

• successive Queensland Labor Premiers, Thomas Joseph Ryan (1915-1919) and Edward Theodore (1919- 1925) entered the House of Representatives as MPs for New South Wales seats—Ryan in 1921 for West Sydney, and Theodore for Dalley in 1925

• Archie Grenfell Price (Boothby 1941), Master of St Mark's College, University of Adelaide, was a noted Australian geographer

• Garfield Barwick KC (Parramatta 1958) was a leading Australian barrister

• John Gorton (Higgins 1968), former prominent member of the Senate, entered the House following his replacement of Harold Holt as Prime Minister

• Steele Hall (Boothby 1981) had been Premier of South Australia 1968-1970, as well as a Senator for South Australia

• Carmen Lawrence (Fremantle 1994) had been Premier of Western Australia 1990-1993. Lawrence's success was the first by-election victory by a woman candidate.

Kicked upstairs? Many MPs have been appointed to prominent positions, thus ending their parliamentary careers. Some have seen this as an ideal way in which to leave the political hurly-burly, while for others there has been a suggestion that this was a means to push a potential leadership contender out of the picture:

• by-elections were caused when Paul Hasluck (Curtin 1969) and Bill Hayden (Oxley 1988) accepted the office of Governor-General

• Charles Abbott (Gwydir 1937) and Roger Dean (Robertson 1964) were both appointed Administrator of the Northern Territory, while Alex Wilson (Wimmera 1946) was appointed Administrator of Norfolk Island

• some sudden departures have been caused by appointment to the judiciary. Edward McTiernan (Parkes 1931) and Garfield Barwick (Parramatta 1964) joined the High Court. Supreme Court appointments have also been made: William Irvine (Flinders 1918) in Victoria, Herbert Vere Evatt (Hunter 1960) in New South Wales, and Percy Joske (Balaclava 1960) in the Australian Capital Territory. Bob Ellicott (Wentworth 1981)

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 14

was appointed to the Federal Court, while Lionel Bowen (Parramatta 1973) joined the New South Wales Court of Appeal

• various people have accepted ambassadorships: Richard Casey (Corio 1940) and Howard Beale (Parramatta 1958) to the USA, Hugh Roberton (Riverina 1965) to Ireland, Lance Barnard (Bass 1975) to Norway, Finland and Sweden, Harry Jenkins senior (Scullin 1986) to Spain, and Brendan Nelson to the European Communities, Belgium and Luxembourg

• by far the most-used diplomatic position for appointments of former MPs has been the High Commissioner position in London, with the appointment of eight former members forcing by-elections. Former Prime Ministers Fisher (Wide Bay 1915) and Cook (Parramatta 1921) began the list, followed by Granville Ryrie (Warringah 1927), Thomas White (Balaclava 1951), Eli James Harrison (Wentworth 1956), Alexander Downer senior (Angas 1964), Vic Garland (Curtin 1981) and Neal Blewett (Bonython 1994). Hubert Opperman (Corio 1967) became High Commissioner to Malta, while Les Johnson (Hughes 1984) became High Commissioner to New Zealand

• other unusual official appointments include A I Allan (Gwydir 1969) to the Secretary-Generalship of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, Alexander Downer junior (Mayo 2008) moved to the position of United Nations Special Envoy for Cyprus, and Brendan Nelson (Bradfield 2009) to the positions of Representative to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and Special Representative to the World Health Organisation.

A matter of treason On 7 November 1920 Hugh Mahon chaired a public meeting in Melbourne sponsored by the Irish Ireland League and, in a speech attacking the British presence in Ireland, spoke of ‘this bloody and accursed Empire’. His expulsion from the House of Representatives four days later for his ‘seditious and disloyal utterances’ was due to the House finding that he had been ‘guilty of conduct unfitting him to remain a member of this House’. Mahon's is the only expulsion to have occurred from the Parliament, and it forced a by-election (Kalgoorlie 1920) which he contested but ultimately lost. 11 The House of Representatives lost the power to expel members with the passage of the Parliamentary Privileges Act 1987. 12

By-elections that caused ripples Occasionally by-elections can be seen as having an importance beyond the immediate contest to fill a vacancy in the House of Representatives.

Some were a sign of things to come electorally:

• the by-election (Bass 1975) to replace Deputy Prime Minister Lance Barnard gave a very clear indication of the decline in popularity of the Whitlam Government that was confirmed in the December 1975 election13

• the by-election to replace former Hawke and Keating Minister, Ros Kelly (Canberra 1995), presaged the Keating Government's defeat in the March 1996 election.14

Other by-elections have had a different type of political impact:

• in late 1939, coalition negotiations between the United Australia Party and the Country Party broke down over Prime Minister Menzies’ insistence on his right to choose all ministers. The 1940 Corio by-election to fill the place of Richard Casey unexpectedly produced a Labor victory. According to former Country Party leader Earle Page this was instrumental in Menzies' weakening his stance and offering five Cabinet positions to the Country Party, with the leader of each party to choose his own party's representatives15

• the Dawson by-election of 26 February 1966 was fought largely for Labor by the candidate, Rex Patterson, and the party's deputy leader, Gough Whitlam. The national leader, Arthur Calwell, was convinced that

11. I E Harris, ed., House of Representatives practice, sixth edn, Department of the House of Representatives, Canberra, 2012, Chapter 5, p. 157, accessed 5 June 2014. 12. Parliamentary Privileges Act 1987, accessed 5 June 2014. 13. P Kelly, The unmaking of Gough, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1994, pp. 234-5. 14. M Gordon, A true believer: Paul Keating, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, 1996, pp. 297-301. 15. E Page, Truant surgeon: the inside story of forty years of Australian political life, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1963, pp. 284-6.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 15

Labor could not win and took little part. To the surprise of many, Patterson was successful. Whitlam was due to come before the Federal Executive of the ALP on 2 March to face possible disciplinary treatment, possibly even expulsion. According to Graham Freudenberg, the last-minute change of stance of the Queensland delegates, grateful to Whitlam for the Dawson result, saved his position—and possibly his political career16

• Labor’s failure to win the seat of Flinders in a by-election of late 1982 was said to have had a double impact. Bill Hayden’s position as Labor leader became increasingly insecure, while Prime Minister Fraser apparently became convinced of the need for an early election before there was any chance of Hayden’s replacement by Bob Hawke. The consequential replacement of Hayden and the announcement of an early election on the same day were thus intimately connected with the by-election's outcome17

• during 1993-1994 much media discussion focussed on the possibility of Senator Bronwyn Bishop eventually assuming the leadership of the Liberal Party. When the seat of Mackellar fell vacant in 1994 Bishop secured Liberal preselection in an apparent move to clear the way for a push to the leadership. Labor did not contest the by-election and Bishop’s main rival was the writer, Bob Ellis, standing as an independent. Although Bishop won the seat comfortably with 52.2 per cent of first preferences, the Liberal first preference vote had fallen by 4.4 per cent. Although this was hardly a major loss of votes, her failure to increase her vote in the absence of a Labor candidate was considered enough to end any chance she may have had for the Liberals' top job. As fellow Liberal, Peter Reith, put it, ‘Most people within the parliamentary party were of the opinion that Bronwyn didn't have any votes within the parliamentary party … if she didn’t have many before Saturday [that is, the by-election], she hasn’t got any more today.’18

Voided elections Some by-elections have been caused by the voiding of particular results after a general election: Melbourne and Riverina in 1904, Echuca 1907, Ballarat 1920 and Lindsay 1996.

The Wills by-election of 1992 was itself voided, but another by-election was not held because of the proximity of the next general election.

16. Graham Freudenberg, A certain grandeur: Gough Whitlam in politics, Rev. and updated ed, Penguin, Melbourne, 2009, pp. 35-9. 17. Summers, Gamble for power, op. cit., pp. 13, 63. 18. L Taylor, ‘Poll result a blow to Bishop Libs’, The Australian, 29 March 1994.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 16

Appendix 1: House of Representatives by-elections, 1901-2014 No. Date Division Member Elected Previous Member Reason for Vacancy

1 14.09.01 Darling Downs (Qld) Groom LE (Prot) Groom WH (Prot) Died

2 26.03.02 Tasmania Hartnoll W (FT) Piesse FW (FT) Died

3 04.09.03 East Sydney (NSW) Reid GH (FT) Reid GH (FT) Resigned in protest against rejection of

proposals for redistribution of NSW

4 26.02.04 Wilmot (Tas) Cameron DN (FT) Braddon ENC (FT) Died

5 30.03.04 Melbourne (Vic) Maloney WRN (ALP) McEacharn MD (Prot) Election declared void

6 18.05.04 Riverina (NSW) Chanter JM (Prot) Blackwood RO (FT) Election declared void

7 10.07.07 Echuca (Vic) Palmer AC (Prot) Palmer AC (Prot) Election declared void

8 13.06.08 Adelaide (SA) Roberts EA (ALP) Kingston CC (Prot) Died

9 28.08.09 Wakefield (SA) Foster,RW (AntiSoc) Holder FW (AntiSoc) Died

10 24.08.10 Kooyong (Vic) Best RW (Lib) Knox W (Lib) Resigned

11 08.02.11 Batman (Vic) Brennan F (ALP) Beard HE (ALP) Died

12 11.03.11 North Sydney (NSW) Ryrie GdeL (Lib) Edwards GB (Lib) Died

13 11.11.11 Boothby (SA) Gordon DJ (Lib) Batchelor EL (ALP) Died

14 01.06.12 Werriwa (NSW) Bennett BH (ALP) Hall DR (ALP) Resigned. Appointed MLC (NSW)

15 22.12.13 Kalgoorlie (WA) Mahon H (ALP) Frazer CE (ALP) Died

16 10.01.14 Adelaide (SA) Yates GE (ALP) Roberts EA (ALP) Died

17 06.02.15 Bendigo (Vic) Hampson AJ (ALP) Arthur JA (ALP) Died

18 20.02.15 Grampians (Vic) Salmon CC (Lib) Jolly EFG (ALP) Died

19 06.05.15 Dalley (NSW) Mahony WG (ALP) Howe R (ALP) Died

20 11.12.15 Wide Bay (Qld) Corser EBC (Lib) Fisher A (ALP) Resigned. Appointed Australian High

Commissioner to Great Britain

21 30.06.17 Darwin (Tas) Spence WG (Nat) Howroyd CR (Nat) Died

22 27.10.17 Grampians (Vic) Jowett E (Nat) Salmon CC (Lib) Died

23 11.05.18 Flinders (Vic) Bruce SM (Nat) Irvine WH (Nat) Resigned. Appointed Victorian Supreme

Court

24 26.10.18 Swan (WA) Corboy EW (ALP) Forrest J (Nat) Died

25 14.12.18 Corangamite (Vic) Gibson WG (VFU) Manifold JC (Nat) Died

26 20.09.19 Echuca (Vic) Hill WC (VFU) Palmer AC (Nat) Died

27 10.07.20 Ballaarat (Vic) McGrath DC (ALP) Kerby ETJ (Nat) Election declared void

28 18.12.20 Kalgoorlie (WA) Foley GJ (Nat) Mahon H (ALP) Expelled

29 30.07.21 Maranoa (Qld) Hunter JAJ (CP) Page J (ALP) Died

30 03.09.21 West Sydney (NSW) Lambert WH (ALP) Ryan TJ (ALP) Died

31 10.12.21 Parramatta (NSW) Pratten HE (Nat) Cook J (Nat) Resigned. Appointed Australian High

Commissioner to Great Britain

32 18.02.22 Yarra (Vic) Scullin JH (ALP) Tudor FG (ALP) Died

33 06.03.26 Eden-Monaro (NSW) Perkins JA (Nat) Chapman A (Nat) Died

34 26.02.27 Dalley (NSW) Theodore EG (ALP) Mahony WG (ALP) Resigned

35 21.05.27 Warringah (NSW) Parkhill RA (Nat) Ryrie GdeL (Nat) Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to

Great Britain.

36 16.06.28 Martin (NSW) Pratten FG (Nat) Pratten HE (Nat) Died

37 03.09.28 Wide Bay (Qld) Corser BH (CP) Corser EBC (Nat) Died

38 03.08.29 Balaclava (Vic) White TW (Nat) Watt WA (Nat) Resigned

39 14.12.29 Franklin (Tas) Frost CW (ALP) McWilliams WJ (Ind) Died

40 31.01.31 Parkes (NSW) Marr CWC (Nat) McTiernan EA (ALP) Resigned. Appointed to High Court

41 07.03.31 East Sydney (NSW) Ward EJ (ALP) West JE (ALP) Died

42 06.02.32 East Sydney (NSW) Ward EJ (LLab) Clasby JJ (UAP) Died

43 11.11.33 Flinders (Vic) Fairbairn JV (UAP) Bruce SM (UAP) Resigned. Appointed Resident Minister in

London.

44 01.06.35 Newcastle (NSW) Watkins DO (FLP) Watkins D (FLP) Died

45 17.08.35 Fawkner (Vic) Holt HE (UAP) Maxwell GA (UAP) Died

46 12.12.36 Kennedy (Qld) Riordan WJF (FLP) Riordan D (FLP) Died

47 19.12.36 Darling Downs (Qld) Fadden AW (CP) Groom LE (UAP) Died

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 17

No. Date Division Member Elected Previous Member Reason for Vacancy

48 08.05.37 Gwydir (NSW) Scully WJ (ALP) Abbott CLA (CP) Resigned. Appointed Administrator of

Northern Territory

49 10.12.38 Wakefield (SA) McHugh S (ALP) Hawker CAS (UAP) Died

50 20.05.39 Griffith (Qld) Conelan WP (ALP) Baker FMJ (FLP) Died

51 27.05.39 Wilmot (Tas) Spurr LT (ALP) Lyons JA (UAP) Died

52 02.03.40 Corio (Vic) Dedman JJ (ALP) Casey RG (UAP) Resigned. Appointed Australian Ambassador

to United States of America

53 16.11.40 Kalgoorlie (WA) Johnson HV (ALP) Green AE (ALP) Died

54 21.12.40 Swan (WA) Marwick TW (CP) Gregory H (CP) Died

55 24.05.41 Boothby (SA) Price AG (UAP) Price JL (UAP) Died

56 18.08.45 Fremantle (WA) Beazley KE (ALP) Curtin J (ALP) Died

57 09.02.46 Wimmera (Vic) Turnbull WG (CP) Wilson A (CP) Resigned. Appointed Administrator of

Norfolk Island

58 30.03.46 Henty (Vic) Gullett HBS (Lib) Coles AW (Ind) Resigned

59 28.07.51 Balaclava (Vic) Joske PE (LP) White TW (LP) Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to

Great Britain.

60 28.07.51 Macquarie (NSW) Luchetti AS (ALP) Chifley JB (ALP) Died

61 22.03.52 Lyne (NSW) Lucock PE (CP) Eggins EJ (CP) Died

62 18.10.52 Flinders (Vic) Ewert KWW (ALP) Ryan RS (LP) Died

63 29.11.52 Werriwa (NSW) Whitlam EG (ALP) Lazzarini HP (ALP) Died

64 20.12.52 Bradfield (NSW) Turner HB (LP) Hughes WM (LP) Died

65 09.05.53 Dalley (NSW) Greenup AE (ALP) Rosevear JS (ALP) Died

66 29.08.53 Corangamite (Vic) Mackinnon ED (LP) McDonald AM (LP) Died

67 29.08.53 Lang (NSW) Stewart FE (ALP) Mulcahy D (ALP) Died

68 19.12.53 Gwydir (NSW) Allan AI (CP) Treloar TJ (CP) Died

69 21.05.55 Cook (NSW) Cope JF (ALP) Sheehan T (ALP) Died

70 11.04.56 Cunningham (NSW) Kearney VD (ALP) Davies W (ALP) Died

71 13.10.56 Barker (SA) Forbes AJ (LP) Cameron AG (LP) Died

72 08.12.56 Wentworth (NSW) Bury LHE (LP) Harrison EJ (LP) Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to

Great Britain.

73 14.09.57 Richmond (NSW) Anthony JD (CP) Anthony HL (CP) Died

74 08.03.58 Parramatta (NSW) Barwick GEJ (LP) Beale OH (LP) Resigned. Appointed Ambassador to USA.

75 09.04.60 Hunter (NSW) James AW (ALP) Evatt HV (ALP) Resigned. Appointed NSW Supreme Court

76 09.04.60 La Trobe (Vic) Jess JD (LP) Casey RG (LP) Resigned

77 16.07.60 Balaclava (Vic) Whittorn RH (LP) Joske PE (LP) Resigned. Appointed ACT Supreme Court.

78 16.07.60 Bendigo (Vic) Beaton NL (ALP) Clarey PJ (ALP) Died

79 05.11.60 Calare (NSW) England JA (CP) Howse JB (LP) Resigned

80 10.12.60 Higinbotham (Vic) Chipp DL (LP) Timson TF (LP) Died

81 01.09.62 Batman (Vic) Benson SJ (ALP) Bird AC (ALP) Died

82 01.06.63 Grey (SA) Mortimer J (ALP) Russell EHD (ALP) Died

83 28.09.63 East Sydney (NSW) Devine LT (ALP) Ward EJ (ALP) Died

84 15.02.64 Denison (Tas) Gibson A (LP) Townley AG (LP) Died

85 20.06.64 Angas (SA) Giles GO (LP) Downer AR (LP) Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to

Great Britain.

86 20.06.64 Parramatta (NSW) Bowen NH (LP) Barwick GEJ (LP) Resigned. Appointed to High Court.

87 05.12.64 Robertson (NSW) Bridges-Maxwell CW

(LP)

Dean RL (LP) Resigned. Appointed Administrator of NT.

88 27.02.65 Riverina (NSW) Armstrong AA (CP) Roberton HS (CP) Resigned. Appointed Ambassador to

Ireland.

89 26.02.66 Dawson (Qld) Patterson RA (ALP) Shaw GW (CP) Died

90 02.04.66 Kooyong (Vic) Peacock AS (LP) Menzies RG (LP) Resigned

91 22.07.67 Corio (Vic) Scholes GGD (ALP) Opperman HF (LP) Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to

Malta.

92 30.09.67 Capricornia (Qld) Everingham DN (ALP) Gray GH (ALP) Died

93 24.02.68 Higgins (Vic) Gorton JG (LP) Holt HE (LP) Presumed dead

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 18

No. Date Division Member Elected Previous Member Reason for Vacancy

94 19.04.69 Curtin (WA) Garland RV (LP) Hasluck PM (LP) Resigned. Appointed Governor-General.

95 07.06.69 Bendigo (Vic) Kennedy AD (ALP) Beaton NL (ALP) Resigned

96 07.06.69 Gwydir (NSW) Hunt RJD (CP) Allan AI (CP) Resigned. Appointed Secretary-General

Commonwealth War Graves

Commission.

97 30.05.70 Australian Capital

Territory (ACT)

Enderby KE (ALP) Fraser JR (ALP) Died

98 19.09.70 Chisholm (Vic) Staley AA (LP) Kent Hughes WS (LP) Died

99 20.03.71 Murray (Vic) Lloyd EB (CP) McEwen J (CP) Resigned

100 22.09.73 Parramatta (NSW) Ruddock PM (LP) Bowen NH (LP) Resigned. Appointed to NSW Court of

Appeal.

101 28.06.75 Bass (Tas) Newman KE (LP) Barnard LH (ALP) Resigned. Appointed Ambassador to

Norway, Finland and Sweden

102 15.10.77 Cunningham (NSW) West SJ (ALP) Connor RFX (ALP) Died

103 23.09.78 Werriwa (NSW) Kerin JC (ALP) Whitlam EG (ALP) Resigned

104 23.06.79 Grayndler (NSW) McLeay LB (ALP) Stewart FE (ALP) Died

105 21.02.81 Boothby (SA) Hall S (LP) McLeay JE (LP) Resigned. Appointed Consul-General in Los

Angeles.

106 21.02.81 Curtin (WA) Rocher AC (LP) Garland RV (LP) Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to

Great Britain.

107 21.02.81 McPherson (Qld) White PND (LP) Robinson EL (LP) Died

108 11.04.81 Wentworth (NSW) Coleman WP (LP) Ellicott RJ (LP) Resigned. Appointed to Federal Court.

109 13.03.82 Lowe (NSW) Maher MJ (ALP) McMahon W (LP) Resigned

110 04.12.82 Flinders (Vic) Reith PK (LP) Lynch PR (LP) Resigned

111 07.05.83 Wannon (Vic) Hawker DPM (LP) Fraser JM (LP) Resigned

112 28.05.83 Bruce (Vic) Aldred KJ (LP) Snedden BM (LP) Resigned

113 05.11.83 Moreton (Qld) Cameron DM (LP) Killen DJ (LP) Resigned

114 18.02.84 Corangamite (Vic) McArthur FS (LP) Street AA (LP) Resigned

115 18.02.84 Hughes (NSW) Tickner RE (ALP) Johnson LR (ALP) Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to

NZ.

116 18.02.84 Richmond (NSW) Blunt CW (NP) Anthony JD (NP) Resigned

117 08.02.86 Scullin (Vic) Jenkins HA (ALP) Jenkins HA (ALP) Resigned. Appointed Ambassador to Spain.

118 06.02.88 Adelaide (SA) Pratt MP (LP) Hurford CJ (ALP) Resigned. Appointed Consul-General in New

York.

119 26.03.88 Port Adelaide (SA) Sawford RW (ALP) Young MJ (ALP) Resigned

120 09.04.88 Groom (Qld) Taylor WL (LP) McVeigh DT (NP) Resigned

121 08.10.88 Oxley (Qld) Scott LJ (ALP) Hayden WG (ALP) Resigned. Appointed Governor-General.

122 15.04.89 Gwydir (NSW) Anderson JD (NP) Hunt RJD (NP) Resigned

123 11.05.91 Menzies (Vic) Andrews KJ (LP) Brown NA (LP) Resigned

124 11.04.92 Wills (Vic) Cleary PR (Ind) Hawke RJL (ALP) Resigned

125 29.01.94 Werriwa (NSW) Latham M (ALP) Kerin JC (ALP) Resigned

126 12.03.94 Fremantle (WA) Lawrence C (ALP) Dawkins J (ALP) Resigned

127 19.03.94 Bonython (SA) Evans M (ALP) Blewett N (ALP) Resigned. Appointed High Commissioner to

the UK

128 26.03.94 Mackellar (NSW) Bishop B (LP) Carlton J (LP) Resigned

129 26.03.94 Warringah (NSW) Abbott T (LP) MacKellar M (LP) Resigned

130 19.11.94 Kooyong (Vic) Georgiou P (LP) Peacock AS (LP) Resigned

131 25.03.95 Canberra (ACT) Smyth B (LP) Kelly R (ALP) Resigned

132 08.04.95 Wentworth (NSW) Thomson A (LP) Hewson J (LP) Resigned

133 15.06.96 Blaxland (NSW) Hatton M (ALP) Keating P (ALP) Resigned

134 19.10.96 Lindsay (NSW) Kelly J (LP) Kelly J (LP) Election declared void

135 01.02.97 Fraser (ACT) Dargavel S (ALP) Langmore J (ALP) Resigned

136 06.11.99 Holt (Vic) Byrne A (ALP) Evans G (ALP) Resigned

137 12.08.00 Isaacs (Vic) Corcoran A (ALP) Wilton G (ALP) Died

138 17.03.01 Ryan (Qld) Short L (ALP) Moore J (LP) Resigned

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 19

No. Date Division Member Elected Previous Member Reason for Vacancy

139 14.07.01 Aston (Vic) Pearce C (LP) Nugent P (LP) Died

140 19.10.02 Cunningham (NSW) Organ M (Grn) Martin S (ALP) Resigned

141 19.05.05 Werriwa (NSW) Hayes C (ALP) Latham M (ALP) Resigned

142 28.06.08 Gippsland (Vic) Chester D (NP) McGauran P (NP) Resigned

143 06.09.08 Lyne (NSW) Oakeshott R (Ind) Vaile M (NP) Resigned

144 06.09.08 Mayo (SA) Briggs J (LP) Downer A (LP) Resigned

145 05.12.09 Bradfield (NSW) Fletcher P (LP) Nelson B (LP) Resigned

146 05.12.09 Higgins (Vic) O’Dwyer K (LP) Costello P (LP) Resigned

147 08.02.14 Griffith (Qld) Butler T (ALP) Rudd K (ALP) Resigned

Note: Seats which changed party hands at a by-election are highlighted. By the time of the Grampians by-election of 1917, the Liberal Party had effectively been subsumed by the Nationalist Party. Henceforth, this by-election is not regarded as an occasion when the division changed parties.

For votes received in each contest, see Appendix 2.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 20

Appendix 2: By-election results by electoral division, 1901-2014 First past the post electoral system

1. Darling Downs (Qld) 14.09.01 Enrolled n.a. Candidate Party Votes %

Bell JT Ind 2687 37.2

Groom LE Prot 4532 62.8

Formal 7219 99.4

Informal 45 0.6

Turnout 7264 ..

2. Tasmania 26.03.02 Enrolled 39762

Candidate Party Votes %

Hall C Prot 482 4.0

Hartnoll W FT 6956 57.9

McCall J Prot 2051 17.1

Whitelaw JC ALP 2525 21.0

Formal 12014 99.2

Informal 101 0.8

Turnout 12115 30.5

3. East Sydney (NSW) 04.09.03 Enrolled 13763 Candidate Party Votes %

Blake J Ind 96 4.7

Maguire WEJ Prot 259 12.6

Reid GH FT 1697 82.7

Formal 2052 99.0

Informal 21 1.0

Turnout 2073 15.1

4. Wilmot (Tas) 26.02.04 Enrolled 15718 Candidate Party Votes %

Cameron DN FT 2368 52.0

Cheek JW Prot 2183 48.0

Formal 4551 96.8

Informal 153 3.3

Turnout 4704 29.9

5. Melbourne (Vic) 30.03.04 Enrolled 26669 Candidate Party Votes %

McEacharn MD Prot 7808 47.4

Maloney WRN ALP 8667 52.6

Formal 16475 98.7

Informal 225 1.4

Turnout 16700 62.6

6. Riverina (NSW) 18.05.04 Enrolled 19031 Candidate Party Votes %

Blackwood RO FT 5184 48.3

Chanter JM Prot 5547 51.7

Formal 10731 97.6

Informal 264 2.4

Turnout 10995 57.8

7. Echuca (Vic) 10.07.07 Enrolled 31183

Candidate Party Votes %

Kennedy T Prot 10481 47.4

Palmer AC Prot 11618 52.6

Formal 22099 99.0

Informal 230 1.0

Turnout 22329 71.6

8. Adelaide (SA) 13.06.08 Enrolled 29874 Candidate Party Votes %

McLachlan AJ Ind 4887 48.8

Roberts EA ALP 5121 51.2

Formal 10008 99.4

Informal 60 0.6

Turnout 10068 33.7

9. Wakefield (SA) 28.08.09 Enrolled 30782 Candidate Party Votes %

Foster RW AntiSoc 8120 54.5

Vaughan JH ALP 6789 45.5

Formal 14909 99.4

Informal 89 0.6

Turnout 14998 48.7

10. Kooyong (Vic) 24.08.10 Enrolled 38394 Candidate Party Votes %

Best RW Lib 11926 55.5

Erson EGL ALP 1363 6.3

Lumsden AG ILib 8214 38.2

Formal 21503 97.8

Informal 477 2.2

Turnout 21980 57.2

11. Batman (Vic) 08.02.11 Enrolled 31729 Candidate Party Votes %

Brennan F ALP 9385 57.5

O'Neill FSM Lib 6932 42.5

Formal 16317 97.9

Informal 356 2.1

Turnout 16673 52.5

12. North Sydney (NSW) 11.03.11 Enrolled 39550 Candidate Party Votes %

O'Brien SE ALP 4437 27.5

Ryrie, GdeL Lib 11687 72.5

Formal 16124 99.5

Informal 86 0.5

Turnout 16210 41.0

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 21

13. Boothby (SA) 11.11.11 Enrolled 35460 Candidate Party Votes %

Gordon DJ Lib 10656 57.1

Jelley J ALP 8008 42.9

Formal 18664 99.8

Informal 38 0.2

Turnout 18702 52.7

14. Werriwa (NSW) 01.06.12 Enrolled 28565 Candidate Party Votes %

Bennett BH ALP 10884 50.8

Conroy AHB Lib 10546 49.2

Formal 21430 98.7

Informal 279 1.3

Turnout 21709 76.0

15. Kalgoorlie (WA) 22.12.13 Enrolled n.a. Candidate Party

Mahon H ALP Unopposed

16. Adelaide (SA) 10.01.14 Enrolled 33662 Candidate Party Votes %

Craigie EJ ST 1936 15.7

Yates GE ALP 10418 84.3

Formal 12354 99.3

Informal 92 0.7

Turnout 12446 37.0

17. Bendigo (Vic) 06.02.15 Enrolled 35495 Candidate Party Votes %

Hampson AJ ALP 12188 50.9

Richards WJT Lib 11761 49.1

Formal 23949 99.2

Informal 201 0.8

Turnout 24150 68.0

18. Grampians (Vic) 20.02.15 Enrolled 34977 Candidate Party Votes %

McDougall JK ALP 11522 48.7

Salmon CC Lib 12116 51.3

Formal 23638 99.5

Informal 120 0.5

Turnout 23758 67.9

19. Dalley (NSW) 06.05.15 Enrolled n.a. Candidate Party

Mahony WG ALP Unopposed

20. Wide Bay (Qld) 11.12.15 Enrolled 34276 Candidate Party Votes %

Corser EBC Lib 14027 50.2

Thompson A Soc 13941 49.9

Formal 27968 99.1

Informal 248 0.9

Turnout 28216 82.3

21. Darwin (Tas) 30.06.17 Enrolled 19300 Candidate Party Votes %

Hurst JA ALP 5225 43.9

Spence WG Nat 6665 56.1

Formal 11890 99.6

Informal 48 0.4

Turnout 11938 61.9

22. Grampians (Vic) 27.10.17 Enrolled 31346 Candidate Party Votes %

Jowett E Nat 11232 54.8

Russell DP ALP 9265 45.2

Formal 20497 99.5

Informal 109 0.5

Turnout 20606 65.7

23. Flinders (Vic) 11.05.18 Enrolled 40257 Candidate Party Votes %

Bruce SM Nat 14445 64.0

Hall JJ VFU 382 1.7

Holmes, GJ ALP 7740 34.3

Formal 22567 99.1

Informal 203 0.9

Turnout 22770 56.6

24. Swan (WA) 26.10.18 Enrolled 29892

Candidate Party Votes %

Corboy EW ALP 6540 34.7

Hedges WN Nat 5635 29.9

Murray, BL CP 5795 30.7

Formal 18854 99.1

Informal 179 0.9

Turnout 19033 63.7

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 22

Preferential voting electoral system 25. Corangamite (Vic) 14.12.18 Enrolled 34895 Candidate Party Votes %

First preference votes Coldham FR INat 1174 4.7

Gibson WG VFU 6604 26.4

Knox GH Nat 5737 22.9

Leaper, TD RSNP 892 3.6

Scullin JH ALP 10633 42.5

Two-party preferred votes Gibson WG VFU 14096 56.3

Scullin JH ALP 10944 43.7

Formal 25040 98.0

Informal 516 2.0

Turnout 25556 73.2

26. Echuca (Vic) 20.09.19 Enrolled 34704 Candidate Party Votes %

Hill WC VFU 13800 68.8

Purbrick EL INat 1418 7.1

Purcell FG Nat 4848 24.2

Formal 20066 97.2

Informal 572 2.8

Turnout 20638 59.5

27. Ballaarat (Vic) 10.07.20 Enrolled 34091 Candidate Party Votes %

Callow AE Ind 186 0.6

Kerby ETJ Nat 11443 39.3

McGrath DC ALP 15058 51.8

Troup J FP 2413 8.3

Formal 29100 99.3

Informal 214 0.7

Turnout 29314 86.0

28. Kalgoorlie (WA) 18.12.20 Enrolled 20789 Candidate Party Votes %

Foley GJ Nat 8382 51.4

Mahon H ALP 7939 48.6

Formal 16321 99.3

Informal 113 0.7

Turnout 16434 79.1

29. Maranoa (Qld) 30.07.21 Enrolled 30047 Candidate Party Votes %

Dunstan WJ ALP 10329 46.8

Hunter JAJ CP 11751 53.2

Formal 22080 99.6

Informal 89 0.6

Turnout 22169 73.8

30. West Sydney (NSW) 03.09.21 Enrolled 31620 Candidate Party Votes %

Henry AS Nat 5237 38.2

Lambert WH ALP 7857 57.3

McCristal TW ILab 430 3.1

Powell JK TA 186 1.4

Formal 13710 95.8

Informal 606 4.2

Turnout 14316 45.3

31. Parramatta (NSW) 10.12.21 Enrolled 63114 Candidate Party Votes %

Addison B CP 2268 7.2

Hutchison WH ALP 5625 17.9

Piddington AB Ind 2787 8.9

Pratten HE Nat 20768 66.0

Formal 31448 97.3

Informal 859 2.7

Turnout 32307 51.2

32. Yarra (Vic) 18.02.22 Enrolled 39098

Candidate Party Votes %

Davidson AM Nat 3473 21.5

Scullin JH ALP 12553 77.7

Smyth FA Ind 129 0.8

Formal 16155 96.5

Informal 590 3.5

Turnout 16745 42.8

33. Eden-Monaro (NSW) 06.03.26 Enrolled 40760 Candidate Party Votes %

Morgan CAA ALP 13729 40.0

Perkins JA Nat 20573 60.0

Formal 34302 97.5

Informal 887 2.5

Turnout 35189 86.3

34. Dalley (NSW) 26.02.27 Enrolled 40729 Candidate Party Votes %

Gee WS Nat 12667 37.4

Theodore EG ALP 21186 62.6

Formal 33853 93.1

Informal 2517 6.9

Turnout 36370 89.3

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 23

35. Warringah (NSW) 21.05.27Enrolled 46870 Candidate Party Votes %

Conway TP ALP 3159 7.8

Fell WS INat 7477 18.5

O'Gorman AAL ALP 4285 10.6

Parkhill RA Nat 22583 55.8

Roberts TV Const 2990 7.4

Formal 40494 97.8

Informal 928 2.2

Turnout 41422 88.4

36. Martin (NSW) 16.06.28 Enrolled 59535 Candidate Party Votes %

Hannett PG ALP 18922 39.1

Pratten FG Nat 29482 60.9

Formal 48404 93.0

Informal 3635 7.0

Turnout 52039 87.4

37. Wide Bay (Qld) 03.09.28 Enrolled n.a. Candidate Party

Corser BH CP Unopposed

38. Balaclava (Vic) 03.08.29 Enrolled 55121 Candidate Party Votes %

Francis FH INat 16048 35.9

White TW Nat 28655 64.1

Formal 44703 94.9

Informal 2404 5.1

Turnout 47107 85.5

39. Franklin (Tas) 14.12.29 Enrolled 24473 Candidate Party Votes %

First preference votes Blacklow AC Nat 5003 23.2

Foster FO INat 820 3.8

Frost CW ALP 9615 44.5

Murdoch P Ind 1476 6.8

Seabrook AC Nat 4675 21.7

Two-party preferred votes Blacklow AC Nat 10385 48.1

Frost CW ALP 11204 51.9

Formal 21589 95.9

Informal 931 4.1

Turnout 22520 92.0

40. Parkes (NSW) 31.01.31Enrolled 63552 Candidate Party Votes %

Blake RC EcRef 986 1.8

Marr CWC Nat 31227 56.8

Martin JM ALP 22394 40.7

Tripp EC Com 382 0.7

Formal 54989 97.5

Informal 1431 2.5

Turnout 56420 88.8

41. East Sydney (NSW) 07.03.31 Enrolled 46700 Candidate Party Votes %

Courtenay LT Nat 16333 44.2

Mountjoy WA Com 611 1.7

Ward EJ ALP 19975 54.1

Formal 36919 97.2

Informal 1068 2.8

Turnout 37987 81.3

42. East Sydney (NSW) 06.02.32 Enrolled 44630 Candidate Party Votes %

First preference votes Cunningham LL FLP 2817 7.6

McCall WV UAP 16304 43.9

Miles JB Com 597 1.6

Ward EJ LLab 17461 47.0

Two-party preferred votes McCall WV UAP 18503 49.8

Ward EJ LLab 18676 50.2

Formal 37179 97.3

Informal 1018 2.7

Turnout 38197 85.6

43. Flinders (Vic) 11.11.33 Enrolled 71825 Candidate Party Votes %

Fairbairn JV UAP 36773 59.0

Gibson RS Com 3124 5.0

Haywood AR FLP 22454 36.0

Formal 62351 97.3

Informal 1747 2.7

Turnout 64098 89.2

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 24

44. Newcastle (NSW) 01.06.35 Enrolled 56282 Candidate Party Votes %

First preference votes Smith JE LLab 22135 42.7

Sykes HS SC 4302 8.3

Watkins DO FLP 25374 49.0

Two-party preferred votes Smith JE LLab 23944 46.2

Watkins DO FLP 27867 53.8

Formal 51811 98.3

Informal 908 1.7

Turnout 52719 93.7

45. Fawkner (Vic) 17.08.35 Enrolled 48030 Candidate Party Votes %

Cameron D FLP 16433 40.1

Holt HE UAP 24594 60.0

Formal 41027 97.8

Informal 946 2.3

Turnout 41973 87.4

46. Kennedy (Qld) 12.12.36 Enrolled 51351 Candidate Party Votes %

First preference votes Boyd JT ILab 13223 32.8

Killoran J SC 3565 8.8

Riordan WJF ALP 19111 47.4

Slater J Com 4459 11.1

Two-party preferred votes Boyd JT ILab 17170 42.5

Riordan WJF ALP 23188 57.5

Formal 40358 96.2

Informal 1581 3.8

Turnout 41939 81.7

47. Darling Downs (Qld) 19.12.36 Enrolled 51519 Candidate Party Votes %

First preference votes Annand JD UAP 8725 19.0

Boyce LAG Cons 5809 12.6

Buchanan JT ALP 13321 29.0

Fadden AW CP 15235 33.1

Hannay DV SC 2929 6.4

Two-party preferred votes Buchanan JT ALP 19639 42.7

Fadden AW CP 26380 57.3

Formal 46019 96.9

Informal 1472 3.1

Turnout 47491 92.2

48. Gwydir (NSW) 08.05.37 Enrolled 54791 Candidate Party Votes %

Batchelor EG CP 13168 27.0

Milling OL CP 8155 16.7

Moore GS CP 1963 4.0

Scully WJ ALP 25551 52.3

Formal 48837 98.7

Informal 639 1.3

Turnout 49476 90.3

49. Wakefield (SA) 10.12.38 Enrolled 54388 Candidate Party Votes %

First preference votes Butler RL UAP 19591 39.3

McHugh S ALP 18870 37.9

Quirke PH Ind 11343 22.8

Two-party preferred votes Butler RL UAP 21549 43.3

McHugh S ALP 28255 56.7

Formal 49804 97.8

Informal 1114 2.2

Turnout 50918 93.6

50. Griffith (Qld) 20.05.39 Enrolled 61804 Candidate Party Votes %

First preference votes Conelan WP ALP 22967 41.3

Graham EH ProtLab 15437 27.8

McCowan P UAP 17168 30.9

Two-party preferred votes Conelan WP ALP 27790 50.0

McCowan P UAP 27782 50.0

Formal 55572 98.2

Informal 1025 1.8

Turnout 56597 91.6

51. Wilmot (Tas) 27.05.39 Enrolled 25275 Candidate Party Votes %

First preference votes Cameron DK UAP 2657 11.8

Guy JA UAP 6673 29.7

Parsons CF UAP 1823 8.1

Spurr LT ALP 6568 29.3

Watson, JH Ind 799 3.6

Weston MD ALP 3925 17.5

Two-party preferred votes Guy JA UAP 11188 49.9

Spurr LT ALP 11257 50.2

Formal 22445 96.1

Informal 915 3.9

Turnout 23360 92.4

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 25

52. Corio (Vic) 02.03.40 Enrolled 54942

Candidate Party Votes %

Dedman JJ ALP 26122 51.8

O'Day GP Com 1466 2.9

Smith JTV UAP 22878 45.3

Formal 50466 98.5

Informal 786 1.5

Turnout 51252 93.3

53. Kalgoorlie (WA) 16.11.40 Enrolled 43962 Candidate Party Votes %

Ferguson C UAP 1140 3.2

Finlay B Ind 1721 4.9

Johnson HV ALP 18228 51.4

Lee FR UAP 14385 40.6

Formal 35474 98.4

Informal 567 1.6

Turnout 36041 82.0

54. Swan (WA) 21.12.40 Enrolled 53685

Candidate Party Votes %

First preference votes Barker CO Ind 4980 11.1

Dinan J ALP 16729 37.4

Ferguson PD CP 10628 23.8

Marwick TW CP 12354 27.6

Two-party preferred votes Dinan J ALP 21154 47.3

Marwick TW CP 23537 52.7

Formal 44691 98.5

Informal 701 1.5

Turnout 45392 84.6

55. Boothby (SA) 24.05.41 Enrolled 72882 Candidate Party Votes %

Lawton TE ALP 28041 43.4

Price AG UAP 36624 56.6

Formal 64665 97.9

Informal 1378 2.1

Turnout 66043 90.6

56. Fremantle (WA) 18.08.45 Enrolled 72421 Candidate Party Votes %

Beazley KE ALP 34009 57.3

Cleland DM UAP 19880 33.5

Ferguson C SLib 1273 2.2

Hughes TJ Ind 2210 3.7

Phillips L Atok 143 0.2

Troy PL Com 1807 3.1

Formal 59322 97.1

Informal 1769 2.9

Turnout 61091 84.4

57. Wimmera (Vic) 09.02.46 Enrolled 44831 Candidate Party Votes %

First preference votes Arlington-Burke F ILab 1824 5.1

Eberle AW Ind 2042 5.8

Everett AC CP 6724 19.0

Phillips L Ind 312 0.9

Smith, JS ILab 2923 8.2

Stoddart JH ICP 6361 17.9

Turnbull WG CP 15284 43.1

Two-party preferred votes Everett AC CP 14546 41.0

Turnbull WG CP 20924 59.0

Formal 35470 95.5

Informal 1692 4.6

Turnout 37162 82.9

58. Henty (Vic) 30.03.46 Enrolled 80883

Candidate Party Votes %

Doube VJ ALP 32556 45.7

Gullett HB Lib 38718 54.3

Formal 71274 98.5

Informal 1086 1.5

Turnout 72360 89.5

59. Balaclava (Vic) 28.07.51 Enrolled 42823 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Joske PE LP 20337 57.0 -6.3

Lewis A ALP 13279 37.3 +0.6

Stratton GM Ind 2035 5.7 +5.7

Two-party preferred votes Joske PE LP 21355 59.9 -3.4

Lewis A ALP 14296 40.1 +3.4

Formal 35651 99.2 +0.5

Informal 274 0.8 -0.5

Turnout 35925 83.9 -12.2

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 26

60. Macquarie (NSW) 28.07.51 Enrolled 39271 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Blanchard WH ILab 3853 10.9 +10.9

Hannam WH LP 12356 35.1 -3.7

Luchetti AS ALP 18426 52.3 -5.4

Moffit VB Com 575 1.6 -1.9

Two-party preferred votes Hannam WH LP 13983 39.7 +0.4

Luchetti AS ALP 21227 60.3 -0.4

Formal 35210 99.1 +0.3

Informal 325 0.9 -0.3

Turnout 35535 90.5 -7.1

61. Lyne (NSW) 22.03.52 Enrolled 40160 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Cordner TN Ind 421 1.2 -3.4

Hayes EJ ALP 13588 37.3 +7.4

Lancaster DJAL CP 10631 29.2 +29.2

Lucock PE CP 10994 30.2 -35.3

Spensley EH Ind 775 2.1 +2.1

Two-party preferred votes Hayes EJ ALP 14925 41.0 +8.8

Lucock PE CP 21484 59.0 -8.8

Formal 36409 98.5 +0.1

Informal 565 1.5 -0.1

Turnout 36974 92.1 -4.9

62. Flinders (Vic) 18.10.52 Enrolled 46748 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Ewert KWW ALP 22674 53.8 +10.8

Hipwell RA Ind 453 1.1 -1.0

Rossiter JF LP 18384 43.7 -11.1

Stratton GM Ind 602 1.4 +1.4

Two-party preferred votes Ewert KWW ALP 23202 55.1 +11.0

Rossiter JF LP 18911 44.9 -11.0

Formal 42113 98.8 +0.4

Informal 493 1.2 -0.4

Turnout 42606 91.1 -5.1

63. Werriwa (NSW) 29.11.52 Enrolled 55486 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Griffith IR LP 15706 32.5 -12.4

Whitlam EG ALP 32561 67.5 +12.4

Two-party preferred votes Griffith IR LP 15706 32.5 -12.4

Whitlam EG ALP 32561 67.5 +12.4

Formal 48267 98.3 +0.6

Informal 826 1.7 -0.6

Turnout 49093 88.5 -7.1

64. Bradfield (NSW) 20.12.52 Enrolled 45442 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

Hardie MF Ind 15336 38.2 +38.2

Potts CE Ind 569 1.4 +1.4

Simons S Ind 84 0.2 +0.2

Smith JS ILab 1070 2.7 +2.7

Turner HB LP 22912 57.0 -21.7

Wright E Ind 225 0.6 +0.6

Formal 40196 98.1 -0.1

Informal 784 1.9 +0.1

Turnout 40980 90.2 -5.6

65. Dalley (NSW) 09.05.53 Enrolled 37737 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

Cole WL Ind 8285 24.5 +24.5

Greenup AE ALP 23812 70.5 +3.4

Sheean J Com 1667 4.9 +4.9

Formal 33764 95.4 -2.3

Informal 1618 4.6 +2.3

Turnout 35382 93.8 -2.2

66. Corangamite (Vic) 29.08.53 Enrolled 40559 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Mackinnon ED LP 19449 52.2 -6.5

McLean AC ALP 17782 47.8 +6.5

Two-party preferred votes Mackinnon ED LP 19449 52.2 -6.5

McLean AC ALP 17782 47.8 +6.5

Formal 37231 99.5 +0.4

Informal 196 0.5 -0.4

Turnout 37427 92.3 -4.7

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 27

67. Lang (NSW) 29.08.53 Enrolled 44912 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Boyd RD Com 1082 2.7 -2.0

Brosnan TJ Ind 276 0.7 +0.7

Stewart FE ALP 21699 53.9 +3.9

Thorncraft HR LP 17218 42.8 -2.5

Two-party preferred votes Stewart FE ALP 22756 56.5 +2.5

Thorncraft HR LP 17518 43.5 -2.5

Formal 40274 98.6 +0.3

Informal 584 1.4 -0.3

Turnout 40858 91.0 -6.4

68. Gwydir (NSW) 19.12.53 Enrolled 39618 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Allan AI CP 9823 28.2 -25.0

Howard AM LP 3584 10.3 +10.3

Kirkby TF CP 5649 16.2 +16.2

Quinn MTL ALP 15784 45.3 -1.5

Two-party preferred votes Allan AI CP 18409 52.8 -0.4

Quinn MTL ALP 16431 47.2 +0.4

Formal 34840 98.6 -0.3

Informal 480 1.4 +0.3

Turnout 35320 89.2 -6.3

69. Cook (NSW) 21.05.55 Enrolled 33521 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

Cope JF ALP 21411 86.8 +3.4

Smith JS Ind 3248 13.2 +13.2

Formal 24659 96.8 -0.6

Informal 814 3.2 +0.6

Turnout 25473 76.0 -18.9

70. Cunningham (NSW) 11.04.56 Enrolled 44070 Candidate Party

Kearney VD ALP Unopposed

71. Barker (SA) 13.10.56 Enrolled 41810 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Crowe BR DLP 2207 5.8 +5.8

Dettman RA ALP 14454 38.1 +5.8

Forbes AJ LP 18471 48.7 -19.0

McAnaney WP ILCL 2819 7.4 +7.4

Two-party preferred votes Dettman RA ALP 16016 42.2 +9.9

Forbes AJ LP 21935 57.8 -9.9

Formal 37951 98.0 +1.1

Informal 771 2.0 -1.1

Turnout 38722 92.6 -3.7

72. Wentworth (NSW) 08.12.56 Enrolled 42909 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Bartley RJ ILib 4109 12.2 +12.2

Bury LHE LP 13956 41.3 -30.7

Laing AW ILib 1414 4.2 +4.2

Robson RG ILib 6414 19.0 +19.0

Sindel CAO Ind 1470 4.4 +4.4

Starr TJK ALP 6455 19.1 +19.1

Two-party preferred votes Bury LHE LP 22764 67.3 -4.7

Starr TJK ALP 11054 32.7 +4.7

Formal 33818 96.7 -0.1

Informal 1167 3.3 +0.1

Turnout 34985 81.5 -10.8

73. Richmond (NSW) 14.09.57 Enrolled 41425 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Anthony JD CP 18819 49.8 ..

Gordon RR CP 4678 12.4 ..

Jackson OJ CP 1696 4.5 ..

O'Neill RL CP 1241 3.3 ..

Smith WH ALP 10276 27.2 ..

Wilson C Ind 1057 2.8 ..

Two-candidate preferred votes Anthony JD CP 25820 68.4 ..

Smith WH ALP 11947 31.6 ..

Formal 37767 98.7 ..

Informal 487 1.3 ..

Turnout 38254 92.3 ..

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 28

74. Parramatta (NSW) 08.03.58 Enrolled 48649 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Barwick GEJ LP 22826 54.8 -7.5

Fenwick AV Ind 920 2.2 +2.2

Mahoney DJ ALP 17931 43.0 +5.3

Two-party preferred votes Barwick GEJ LP 23286 55.9 -6.4

Mahoney DJ ALP 18391 44.1 +6.4

Formal 41677 98.6 +1.3

Informal 610 1.4 -1.3

Turnout 42287 86.9 -8.9

75. Hunter (NSW) 09.04.60 Enrolled 46060 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

Brown R Ind 11876 30.8 +30.8

Dumbrell CO Com 3895 10.1 +10.1

James AW ALP 21978 57.0 -17.4

Murnane K Ind 826 2.1 +2.1

Formal 38575 97.6 -0.2

Informal 965 2.4 +0.2

Turnout 39540 85.8 -10.4

76. La Trobe (Vic) 09.04.60 Enrolled 59644 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Jess JD LP 22880 42.8 -10.9

Martyr JR DLP 6834 12.8 +3.5

Murray J AR 406 0.8 +0.8

Pritchard D ALP 23387 43.7 +6.8

Two-party preferred votes Jess JD LP 28999 54.2 -7.5

Pritchard D ALP 24508 45.8 +7.5

Formal 53507 98.4 +0.3

Informal 872 1.6 -0.3

Turnout 54379 91.2 -4.7

77. Balaclava (Vic) 16.07.60 Enrolled 42256 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Murray J AR 865 2.6 +2.6

Ryan JT DLP 4672 14.2 +2.2

Smith GL ALP 9519 28.9 +3.6

Whittorn RH LP 17859 54.3 -6.8

Two-party preferred votes Smith GL ALP 10652 32.4 +4.6

Whittorn RH LP 22263 67.6 -4.6

Formal 32915 97.9 +0.2

Informal 694 2.1 -0.2

Turnout 33609 79.5 -16.3

78. Bendigo (Vic) 16.07.60 Enrolled 45286 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Beaton NL ALP 20290 48.0 -0.5

Drechsler WF DLP 6200 14.7 +1.6

Snell HW LP 15773 37.3 -1.1

Two-party preferred votes Beaton NL ALP 21198 50.2 -0.1

Snell HW LP 21065 49.8 +0.1

Formal 42263 99.2 +0.5

Informal 345 0.8 -0.5

Turnout 42608 94.1 -2.6

79. Calare (NSW) 05.11.60 Enrolled 41434 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes England JA CP 12039 32.6 +32.6

Meares WA LP 8039 21.8 -36.3

Phillips J AR 113 0.3 +0.3

Proust RJ DLP 2540 6.9 +6.9

Serisier LD ALP 14175 38.4 -3.5

Two-party preferred votes England JA CP 21824 59.1 +1.0

Serisier LD ALP 15082 40.9 -1.0

Formal 36906 98.8 +0.6

Informal 445 1.2 -0.6

Turnout 37351 90.1 -5.5

80. Higinbotham (Vic) 10.12.60 Enrolled 56541 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Chipp DL LP 19661 39.1 -10.4

Fowler HG ALP 23541 46.8 +7.6

McBride E AP 325 0.6 +0.6

Nugent J DLP 6756 13.4 +2.1

Two-party preferred votes Chipp DL LP 25443 50.6 -9.2

Fowler HG ALP 24840 49.4 +9.2

Formal 50283 98.1 +0.1

Informal 993 1.9 -0.1

Turnout 51276 90.7 -5.5

81. Batman (Vic) 01.09.62 Enrolled 43683 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

Benson SJ ALP 21776 60.1 +5.2

Davis SE Ind 302 0.8 +0.8

Little JA DLP 6811 18.8 +4.4

McLeod DW LibF 7026 19.4 +19.4

Phillips J AR 304 0.8 +0.8

Formal 36219 97.5 -0.3

Informal 939 2.5 +0.3

Turnout 37158 85.1 -10.5

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 29

82. Grey (SA) 01.06.63 Enrolled 46386

Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Clark DM ILab 705 1.7 +1.7

Dyason VH LP 17494 41.8 +3.6

Kent LF Ind 1265 3.0 +3.0

Mills RJ DLP 935 2.2 -1.4

Mortimer J ALP 21463 51.3 -6.9

Two-party preferred votes Dyason VH LP 19203 45.9 +4.9

Mortimer J ALP 22659 54.1 -4.9

Formal 41862 98.3 +0.9

Informal 718 1.7 -0.9

Turnout 42580 91.8 -4.2

83. East Sydney (NSW) 28.09.63 Enrolled 35736 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

Bond LSJ Ind 1224 5.0 +5.0

Cook HK PORP 699 2.9 +2.9

Devine LT ALP 19704 80.7 +12.9

Luckman VA ILib 2233 9.1 +9.1

Phillips J AR 546 2.2 +2.2

Formal 24406 94.9 -1.4

Informal 1305 5.1 +1.4

Turnout 25711 71.9 -20.0

84. Denison (Tas) 15.02.64 Enrolled 36825 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Finlay DM ALP 14367 43.3 +4.1

Gibson A LP 16953 51.1 -0.2

Senior HP DLP 1563 4.7 -1.7

Symmons BH Ind 277 0.8 +0.8

Two-party preferred votes Finlay DM ALP 14740 44.5 +1.9

Gibson A LP 18420 55.5 -1.9

Formal 33160 98.5 +0.5

Informal 491 1.5 -0.5

Turnout 33651 91.4 -3.4

85. Angas (SA) 20.06.64 Enrolled 43356

Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Giles GO LP 23468 60.3 -1.6

Nielsen R ALP 15452 39.7 +4.2

Two-party preferred votes Giles GO LP 23468 60.3 -2.1

Nielsen R ALP 15452 39.7 +2.1

Formal 38920 98.4 0.0

Informal 623 1.6 0.0

Turnout 39543 91.2 -6.2

86. Parramatta (NSW) 20.06.64 Enrolled 59154 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Beck EJ DLP 2701 5.3 -0.2

Bowen NH LP 26506 52.1 -3.9

Fenwick AV Ind 248 0.5 +0.5

Phillips J Ind 152 0.3 +0.3

Wilde BC ALP 21227 41.8 +3.3

Two-party preferred votes Bowen NH LP 29002 57.1 -3.0

Wilde BC ALP 21832 42.9 +3.0

Formal 50834 98.1 -0.8

Informal 975 1.9 +0.8

Turnout 51809 87.6 -8.1

87. Robertson (NSW) 05.12.64 Enrolled 59047 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Bridges-Maxwell CW LP 27220 50.1 -0.4

Mollett A ALP 25432 46.8 +2.3

Taylor VA ILib 648 1.2 +1.2

Woodbury CMR DLP 1068 2.0 -3.0

Two-party preferred votes Bridges-Maxwell CW LP 28517 52.5 -1.4

Mollett A ALP 25851 47.5 +1.4

Formal 54368 97.0 -2.0

Informal 1701 3.0 +2.0

Turnout 56069 95.0 -0.5

88. Riverina (NSW) 27.02.65 Enrolled 43870 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Armstrong AA CP 21371 56.3 +4.6

Ward JTA ALP 16561 43.7 +2.1

Two-party preferred votes Armstrong AA CP 21371 56.3 -0.9

Ward JTA ALP 16561 43.7 +0.9

Formal 37932 98.8 0.0

Informal 455 1.2 0.0

Turnout 38387 87.5 -7.2

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 30

89. Dawson (Qld) 26.02.66 Enrolled 41055 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Fordyce J CP 16572 44.9 -6.9

Patterson RA ALP 20372 55.1 +13.7

Two-party preferred votes Fordyce J CP 16572 44.9 -11.9

Patterson RA ALP 20372 55.1 +11.9

Formal 36944 98.8 +1.0

Informal 433 1.2 -1.0

Turnout 37377 91.0 -5.2

90. Kooyong (Vic) 02.04.66 Enrolled 49954 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Brereton PA Ind 781 1.8 +1.8

Cock CB AR 220 0.5 +0.5

Cooper WD ALP 12181 27.7 +3.3

Gaynor BW DLP 5854 13.3 +3.1

Peacock AS LP 25012 56.8 -7.1

Two-party preferred votes Cooper WD ALP 13560 30.8 +3.8

Peacock AS LP 30488 69.2 -3.8

Formal 44048 98.0 -0.9

Informal 900 2.0 +0.9

Turnout 44948 90.0 -5.9

91. Corio (Vic) 22.07.67 Enrolled 55809

Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Bourke PJ DLP 5418 10.6 -0.2

Cardinal MJ Ind 486 1.0 +1.0

Hay RJB LP 18583 36.4 -8.9

Jones G LRG 923 1.8 -0.3

Scholes GGD ALP 25679 50.3 +11.1

Two-party preferred votes Hay RJB LP 23893 46.8 -11.1

Scholes GGD ALP 27196 53.2 +11.1

Formal 51089 98.0 +1.8

Informal 1038 2.0 -1.8

Turnout 52127 93.4 -2.5

92. Capricornia (Qld) 30.09.67 Enrolled 41078 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Boyle PH DLP 2628 6.9 -2.4

Everingham DN ALP 20215 53.0 +0.8

Rudd FB LP 12048 31.6 -6.9

Sheil WG CP 3279 8.6 +8.6

Two-party preferred votes Everingham DN ALP 20937 54.9 -1.5

Rudd FB LP 17233 45.1 +1.5

Formal 38170 99.2 +0.4

Informal 316 0.8 -0.4

Turnout 38486 93.7 -2.7

93. Higgins (Vic) 24.02.68 Enrolled 41425 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Bennett DM ALP 9601 27.7 +2.5

Courtis FA Ind 347 1.0 +1.0

Gorton JG LP 24067 69.4 +6.1

Weber LC ARM 662 1.9 +1.9

Two-party preferred votes Bennett DM ALP 10105 29.1 +0.3

Gorton JG LP 24572 70.9 -0.3

Formal 34677 98.6 +1.4

Informal 481 1.4 -1.4

Turnout 35158 84.9 -9.4

94. Curtin (WA) 19.04.69 Enrolled 44829 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Garland RV LP 17983 50.5 -9.4

Jones HG ALP 11047 31.0 +0.7

Scoggins RC Ind 6586 18.5 +18.5

Two-party preferred votes Garland RV LP 21276 59.7 -7.1

Jones HG ALP 14340 40.3 +7.1

Formal 35616 98.3 +2.1

Informal 608 1.7 -2.1

Turnout 36224 80.8 -13.8

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 31

95. Bendigo (Vic) 07.06.69 Enrolled 47943 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Brennan PG DLP 5710 12.9 +0.3

Cambridge RW LP 15106 34.2 -1.6

Candler C Ind 595 1.3 +1.3

Hutchinson LJ Ind 2750 6.2 +6.2

Kennedy AD ALP 20011 45.3 -6.3

Two-party preferred votes Cambridge RW LP 21751 49.2 +2.1

Kennedy AD ALP 22421 50.8 -2.1

Formal 44172 98.5 0.0

Informal 693 1.5 0.0

Turnout 44865 93.6 -2.6

96. Gwydir (NSW) 07.06.69 Enrolled 45104 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Hunt RJD CP 21113 53.6 -7.7

Nott RB ALP 18293 46.4 +7.7

Two-party preferred votes Hunt RJD CP 21113 53.6 -7.7

Nott RB ALP 18293 46.4 +7.7

Formal 39406 99.0 +0.8

Informal 394 1.0 -0.8

Turnout 39800 88.2 -6.5

97. Australian Capital Territory (ACT) 30.05.70 Enrolled 64482

Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Bellchambers EC Ind 438 0.8 +0.8

Cawthron RE NSP 173 0.3 +0.3

Christie TJ DLP 1857 3.3 +3.3

Enderby KE ALP 20132 35.6 -32.1

Fitzgerald AJ AP 9914 17.5 +12.9

Hermes CL LP 15900 28.1 +1.3

Pead JH Ind 8151 14.4 +14.4

Two-party preferred votes Enderby KE ALP 32690 57.8 -13.8

Hermes CL LP 23875 42.2 +13.8

Formal 56565 96.9 -1.3

Informal 1813 3.1 +1.3

Turnout 58378 90.5 -2.4

98. Chisholm (Vic) 19.09.70 Enrolled 56737 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Costigan FX ALP 15335 33.5 -0.6

Morrow AE AP 1501 3.3 -0.6

Nilsen RN DOGS 4138 9.0 +9.0

Staley AA LP 24767 54.2 +1.3

Two-party preferred votes Costigan FX ALP 18568 40.6 +2.8

Staley AA LP 27173 59.4 -2.8

Formal 45741 98.4 +0.5

Informal 756 1.6 -0.5

Turnout 46497 82.0 -12.8

99. Murray (Vic) 20.03.71 Enrolled 49856 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Flynn MT Ind 535 1.2 +1.2

Hunter WB LP 9622 21.0 +21.0

Lacey BV DLP 4316 9.4 -0.2

Lloyd EB CP 19710 43.0 -10.2

Riordan JA ALP 11670 25.4 +2.2

Two-party preferred votes Lloyd EB CP 32306 70.5 -0.4

Riorden JA ALP 13547 29.5 +0.4

Formal 45853 97.6 +0.6

Informal 1116 2.4 -0.6

Turnout 46969 94.2 -2.7

100. Parramatta (NSW) 22.09.73 Enrolled 73679 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Aussie-Stone MD Ind 363 0.6 +0.6

Bellchambers EC Ind 53 0.1 +0.1

Butterworth JH AP 3522 5.5 +2.0

Hourihan ME DOGS 528 0.8 -1.0

Kiernan LJ Ind 30 0.0 +0.0

Lister GD Ind 65 0.1 +0.1

May R NSP 37 0.1 +0.1

McGarrity S Ind 325 0.5 +0.5

Meares KJ Ind 25 0.0 +0.0

Pye MN Ind 575 0.9 +0.9

Ruddock PM LP 33506 52.6 +6.6

Whelan MJ ALP 24623 38.7 -7.3

Two-party preferred votes Ruddock PM LP 36228 56.9 +6.6

Whelan MT ALP 27424 43.1 -6.6

Formal 63652 97.7 -0.1

Informal 1493 2.3 +0.1

Turnout 65145 88.4 -7.3

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 32

101. Bass (Tas) 28.06.75 Enrolled 46744

Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Aussie-Stone MD Ind 243 0.6 +0.6

Kent P Ind 904 2.1 +2.1

Macrostie JT ALP 15609 36.5 -17.5

Negus SA Ind 124 0.3 +0.3

Newman KE LP 24638 57.6 +11.6

Petrosky VK UTG 1272 3.0 +3.0

Two-party preferred votes Macrostie JT ALP 16880 39.4 -14.6

Newman KE LP 25910 60.6 +14.6

Formal 42790 98.2 +0.2

Informal 773 1.8 -0.2

Turnout 43563 93.2 -2.9

102. Cunningham (NSW) 15.10.77 Enrolled 76620 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Dezelin R Ind 1136 1.8 +1.8

Griffin TJ LP 20748 32.1 -4.3

Nixon MF Com 1236 1.9 +1.9

Sampson RW Dem 5011 7.8 +7.8

West SJ ALP 36425 56.4 -5.3

Two-party preferred votes Griffin TJ LP 24007 37.2 -0.3

West SJ ALP 40549 62.8 +0.3

Formal 64556 97.2 -0.8

Informal 1888 2.8 +0.8

Turnout 66444 86.7 -9.3

103. Werriwa (NSW) 23.09.78 Enrolled 74655 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Garcia JA SWP 1081 1.8 +1.8

Kerin JC ALP 40272 67.2 +11.7

Olson KN Dem 3774 6.3 -2.7

Penninger HR NAP 214 0.4 +0.4

Sadler WP LP 14556 24.3 -9.6

Two-party preferred votes Kerin JC ALP 43185 72.1 +11.3

Sadler WP LP 16712 27.9 -11.3

Formal 59897 98.2 +1.4

Informal 1093 1.8 -1.4

Turnout 60990 81.7 -13.4

104. Grayndler (NSW) 23.06.79 Enrolled 67726 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Bellchambers EC Ind 1051 2.1 +2.1

Duncan SJE VOTE 1845 3.7 +3.7

Keig JE SWP 591 1.2 +1.2

Kirkman SR Dem 1848 3.7 -3.5

McLeay LB ALP 30764 61.8 +4.1

Salter FK NA 863 1.7 +1.7

Vasseleou V LP 12161 24.4 -9.0

Vouros F SP 665 1.3 -0.4

Two-party preferred votes McLeay LB ALP 34635 69.6 +6.9

Vasseleou V LP 15153 30.4 -6.9

Formal 49788 94.7 -2.0

Informal 2806 5.3 +2.0

Turnout 52594 77.7 -14.3

105. Boothby (SA) 21.02.81 Enrolled 80404 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Arkins D UWU 544 0.8 +0.8

Gard A Ind 555 0.9 +0.9

Hall RS LP 36406 56.7 +0.5

Hercus RW Dem 9188 14.3 +1.2

Herreen JD PCP 398 0.6 -0.4

Whyatt JB ALP 17108 26.6 -3.1

Two-party preferred votes Hall RS LP 40830 63.6 -1.2

Whyatt JB ALP 23369 36.4 +1.2

Formal 64199 97.7 -0.4

Informal 1480 2.3 +0.4

Turnout 65679 81.7 -12.7

106. Curtin (WA) 21.02.81 Enrolled 64512 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Busell AD Ind 1843 3.8 +3.8

Crouch J ALP 15644 32.1 -0.7

de la Hunty SB Dem 8356 17.1 +8.8

Rocher AC LP 22951 47.0 -11.9

Two-party preferred votes Crough J ALP 21732 44.5 +7.5

Rocher AC LP 27062 55.5 -7.5

Formal 48794 96.7 -1.1

Informal 1664 3.3 +1.1

Turnout 50458 78.2 -14.8

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 33

107. McPherson (Qld) 21.02.81 Enrolled 86139 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Aabraham-Steer W Ind 512 0.7 -1.1

Chaffey KD PP 537 0.8 +0.8

Courtney P Ind 290 0.4 +0.4

Giesberts H Ind 469 0.7 +0.7

McKenna RP ALP 18278 25.7 -5.1

Sheil G NP 21189 29.8 +29.8

White PND LP 29776 41.9 -1.4

Two-party preferred votes McKenna RP ALP 21445 30.2 -16.2

White PND LP 49606 69.8 +16.2

Formal 71051 97.8 +0.1

Informal 1575 2.2 -0.1

Turnout 72626 84.3 -8.3

108. Wentworth (NSW) 11.04.81 Enrolled 69972 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Bussell AD Ind 534 1.1 +1.1

Coleman WP LP 22736 48.1 -12.4

Kersey JS Dem 2186 4.6 -1.6

More WL Ind 176 0.4 +0.4

Roach WE Ind 92 0.2 +0.2

Tickner RE ALP 16637 35.2 +1.9

Wentworth KW ILib 4923 10.4 +10.4

Two-party preferred votes Coleman WP LP 27136 57.4 -6.2

Tickner RE ALP 20148 42.6 +6.2

Formal 47284 97.2 -0.3

Informal 1349 2.8 +0.3

Turnout 48633 69.5 -19.0

109. Lowe (NSW) 13.03.82 Enrolled 71140 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Bellchambers EC Ind 460 0.8 +0.8

Cameron RJ Ind 116 0.2 +0.2

Consandine PW CRep 405 0.7 +0.7

Gustin M Ind 729 1.2 +1.2

Kirkham SR Dem 2495 4.1 +1.1

Lee M Ind 144 0.2 +0.2

Maher MJ ALP 32717 53.4 +7.0

Martin FE Ind 49 0.1 +0.1

Penninger J Ind 56 0.1 +0.1

Taylor PJ LP 23637 38.6 -10.2

Webeck RJ Ind 27 0.0 +0.0

Wentworth KW Ind 462 0.8 +0.8

Two-party preferred votes Maher MJ ALP 35188 57.4 +8.5

Taylor PJ LP 26109 42.6 -8.5

Formal 61297 97.7 -0.4

Informal 2091 3.3 +0.4

Turnout 63388 89.1 -4.9

110. Flinders (Vic) 04.12.82 Enrolled 84782 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Consandine PW CRep 607 0.8 +0.8

Crossley PM DSP 1211 1.6 +1.6

Farrell G AP 389 0.5 +0.5

Ferwerda PA DLP 1271 1.7 +1.7

Fraser HA Dem 6785 8.9 -1.6

Reith PK LP 34756 45.7 -4.6

Ward RJ ALP 31052 40.8 +1.6

Two-party preferred votes Reith PK LP 39804 52.3 -3.3

Ward RJ ALP 36276 47.7 +3.3

Formal 76080 97.4 -0.7

Informal 1991 2.6 +0.7

Turnout 78071 92.1 -3.0

111. Wannon (Vic) 07.05.83 Enrolled 69466 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Genardini NM ALP 23069 36.1 -1.1

Hallam RM NP 14290 22.3 +22.3

Hawker DPM LP 26631 41.6 -16.0

Two-party preferred votes Genardini NM ALP 25060 39.2 -1.5

Hawker DPM LP 38930 60.8 +1.5

Formal 63990 99.2 +0.5

Informal 527 0.8 -0.5

Turnout 64517 92.9 -4.1

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 34

112. Bruce (Vic) 28.05.83 Enrolled 81668 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Aldred KJ LP 35849 48.5 +0.6

Fogarty PA PP 105 0.1 +0.1

Johnson MR Dem 4769 6.5 -1.3

Kapphan W Ind 111 0.2 +0.2

Mulholland JV DLP 1621 2.2 +2.2

O'Connor HW ALP 31354 42.4 -1.9

Thiele B AC 94 0.1 +0.1

Two-party preferred votes Aldred KJ LP 40259 54.5 +3.8

O'Connor WH ALP 33644 45.5 -3.8

Formal 73903 98.3 0.0

Informal 1266 1.7 0.0

Turnout 75169 92.0 -5.2

113. Moreton (Qld) 05.11.83 Enrolled 67335 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Cameron DM LP 31440 52.1 +5.4

Eather NL APPG 508 0.8 +0.8

Platen MJ NHP 252 0.4 +0.4

Robson BL ALP 28130 46.6 +1.1

Two-party preferred votes Cameron DM LP 31882 52.8 +1.2

Robson BL ALP 28448 47.2 -1.2

Formal 60330 98.9 +0.4

Informal 655 1.1 -0.4

Turnout 60985 90.6 -2.0

114. Corangamite (Vic) 18.02.84 Enrolled 75571 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Lam JK DLP 1336 1.9 +1.9

McArthur FS LP 32083 46.7 -11.3

O'Connor GM ALP 25517 37.1 -4.9

Seymour DCG NP 9794 14.3 +14.3

Two-party preferred votes McArthur FS LP 40837 59.3 +1.3

O'Connor GM ALP 27893 40.7 -1.3

Formal 68730 98.4 +0.1

Informal 1096 1.6 -0.1

Turnout 69826 92.4 -4.7

115. Hughes (NSW) 18.02.84 Enrolled 83072 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Hellyer RK Dem 4065 5.8 -3.3

Johnson L Ind 1393 2.0 +2.0

Mason CB LP 22962 32.7 +4.3

Saleam J ANAG 970 1.4 +1.4

Tickner RE ALP 40728 58.1 -3.5

Two-party preferred votes Mason CB LP 25956 37.0 +5.0

Tickner RE ALP 44162 63.0 -5.0

Formal 70118 97.9 -0.3

Informal 1486 2.1 +0.3

Turnout 71604 86.2 -9.9

116. Richmond (NSW) 18.02.84 Enrolled 90494 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Blunt CW NP 26972 33.8 -19.2

Bucks F Ind 3657 4.6 +4.6

Carmont PW ALP 28914 36.2 -3.5

Clough SD Dem 2587 3.2 -4.1

Griffin DA Ind 469 0.6 +0.6

Pezzutti BPV LP 16948 21.2 +21.2

Ponnuswamy M UM 290 0.4 +0.4

Two-candidate preferred votes Blunt CW NP 44528 55.8 -0.5

Carmont PW ALP 35309 44.2 +0.5

Formal 79837 98.3 -0.4

Informal 1383 1.7 +0.4

Turnout 81220 89.8 -5.6

117. Scullin (Vic) 08.02.86 Enrolled 62448 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Cichello D LP 11741 22.9 +4.4

Privitelli J Dem 3727 7.3 +0.6

Mulholland JV DLP 924 1.8 +1.8

Jenkins HA ALP 34021 66.3 -5.2

Sibelle M SWP 930 1.8 +1.8

Two-party preferred votes Cichello D LP 13770 26.8 +4.4

Jenkins HA ALP 37562 73.2 -4.4

Exhausted 11

Formal 51343 93.9 +0.8

Informal 3318 6.1 -8.0

Turnout 54661 87.5 -7.7

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 35

118. Adelaide (SA) 06.02.88 Enrolled 73750 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Mewett BR Ind 1408 2.3 +2.3

Consandine P Ind 104 0.2 +0.2

Brander M Ind 409 0.7 +0.7

Litten JD Ind 367 0.6 +0.6

McLiesh I Dem 7097 11.8 +2.7

McGregor-Dey D Unite 218 0.4 -0.2

Stokes B NP 1000 1.7 -3.4

Farrell D ALP 22897 38.0 -10.9

Pratt M LP 26777 44.4 +8.9

Two-party preferred votes Farrell D ALP 28967 48.1 -8.4

Pratt M LP 31195 51.9 +8.4

Exhausted 115

Formal 60277 96.1 +3.7

Informal 2431 3.9 -3.7

Turnout 62708 85.0 -7.6

119. Port Adelaide (SA) 26.03.88 Enrolled 72571 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Chaplin T Ind 2385 3.8 +3.8

Brander M Ind 438 0.7 +0.7

Fuller J LP 23818 37.7 +9.1

Sawford R ALP 29773 47.1 -14.2

Deering B Ind 412 0.7 +0.7

Lees M Dem 4506 7.1 +1.0

Hammond R Ind 1142 1.8 +1.8

Auer J Ind 743 1.2 +1.2

Two-party preferred votes Fuller J LP 28276 44.8 +11.1

Sawford R ALP 34885 55.2 -11.1

Exhausted 56

Formal 63217 95.7 +4.9

Informal 2865 4.3 -4.9

Turnout 66082 91.1 -2.6

120. Groom (Qld) 09.04.88 Enrolled 71402 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Carew MJ Dem 3474 5.6 +0.2

Dwyer LA ALP 14973 24.2 -8.2

Taylor B LP 20651 33.3 +20.0

Russell DG NP 17814 28.8 -20.1

Consandine P Ind 369 0.6 +0.6

Burke VJ Ind 4661 7.5 +7.5

Two-candidate preferred votes Taylor B LP 38651 62.4 ..

Russell DG NP 23271 37.6 ..

Exhausted 20

Two-party preferred votes Dwyer LA ALP 19797 32.0 -5.2

Taylor B LP 42129 68.0 +5.2

Exhausted 16

Formal 61942 98.6 +1.5

Informal 889 1.4 -1.5

Turnout 62831 88.0 -5.4

121. Oxley (Qld) 08.10.88 Enrolled 67125 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Darby M Ind 3345 5.8 +5.8

Kuhne OE Ind 353 0.6 +0.6

Hoffenstz B NP 9876 17.1 -3.1

Cooke D LP 15853 27.4 +12.6

Scott L ALP 28427 49.1 -10.8

Two-party preferred votes Cooke D LP 27134 46.9 +11.8

Scott L ALP 30705 53.1 -11.8

Exhausted 15

Formal 57854 97.4 +0.6

Informal 1563 2.6 -0.6

Turnout 59417 88.5 -3.5

122. Gwydir (NSW) 15.04.89 Enrolled 69709 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

Anderson J NP 31209 56.0 -1.2

O'Regan B Ind 9881 17.7 +17.7

Uebergang J Ind 14660 26.3 +26.3

Formal 55750 95.3 -1.2

Informal 2768 4.7 +1.2

Turnout 58518 83.9 -10.9

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 36

123. Menzies (Vic) 11.05.91 Enrolled 72518 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Andrews KJ LP 40164 67.7 +9.3

McCormack D AFI 4055 6.8 +6.8

Barnard J Ind 2035 3.4 +3.4

Peak K Dem 13070 20.0 +8.4

Two-candidate preferred votes Andrews KJ LP 42719 72.0 ..

Peak K Dem 16578 28.0 ..

Exhausted 17

Formal 59314 95.0 -1.9

Informal 3103 5.0 +1.9

Turnout 62417 86.1 -10.5

124. Wills (Vic) 11.04.92 Enrolled 76217

Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Savage K Ind 1660 2.6 +2.6

Kardimitsis B ALP 18784 29.4 -19.3

Kuhn OE Ind 35 0.1 +0.1

Phillips R Ind 136 0.2 +0.2

Kapphan W Ind 34 0.1 +0.1

Rawson G Ind 453 0.7 +0.7

Delacretaz J LP 17582 27.6 -6.9

Poulos P Ind 61 0.1 +0.1

Droulers JP Ind 68 0.1 +0.1

French B Ind 90 0.1 +0.1

Potter FC Ind 30 0.1 +0.1

Murray J Ind 54 0.1 +0.1

Vassis C Ind 43 0.1 +0.1

Cleary P Ind 21391 33.5 +33.5

Ferraro S Ind 221 0.3 +0.3

Germaine S FPA 280 0.4 +0.4

Walker A AFI 577 0.9 +0.9

Markay D Dem 1383 2.2 -7.4

Lewis B Ind 216 0.3 +0.3

Sykes IG Ind 364 0.6 -0.9

Kyrou K Ind 81 0.1 +0.1

Murgatroyd Ind 258 0.4 -0.1

Two-candidate preferred votes Kardimitsis B ALP 21772 34.3 ..

Cleary P Ind 41708 65.7 ..

Exhausted 321

Two-party preferred votes Kardimitsis B ALP 40416 63.8 +5.9

Delacretaz J LP 22942 36.2 -5.9

Exhausted 443

Formal 63801 93.6 0.0

Informal 4348 6.4 0.0

Turnout 68149 89.4 -4.9

125. Werriwa (NSW) 29.01.94 Enrolled 74512 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes MacAllister GM Ind 1111 1.8 +1.8

Latham M ALP 30337 50.1 -11.3

Kammoun A Ind 378 0.6 +0.6

Lynn C LP 20466 33.8 +3.3

Spencer RM AFI 4384 7.2 +7.2

Moon J Ind 3199 5.3 +5.3

Keegel EL Ind 188 0.3 +0.3

Corbett MR Ind 458 0.8 +0.8

Two-party preferred votes Latham M ALP 35972 59.5 -6.3

Lynne C LP 24500 40.5 +6.3

Exhausted 49

Formal 60521 94.8 -1.2

Informal 3318 5.2 +1.2

Turnout 63839 85.7 -9.6

126. Fremantle (WA) 12.03.94 Enrolled 74721 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Conder RN Ind 1506 2.4 +2.4

Hourn G LP 23047 36.9 -1.8

Walker S GWA 5215 8.3 +1.5

Lawrence C ALP 32707 52.4 +2.2

Two-party preferred votes

Hourn G LP 25715 41.2 -1.0

Lawrence C ALP 36745 58.8 +1.0

Exhausted 15

Formal 62475 97.4 +0.4

Informal 1669 2.6 -0.4

Turnout 64144 85.8 -10.3

127. Bonython (SA) 19.03.94 Enrolled 77469 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes McCormack D AFI 4323 6.8 +6.8

Bell G Gry 4659 7.4 +7.4

Evans M ALP 29097 45.9 -9.7

Markwell A LP 20398 32.2 +3.5

Webb J Ind 923 1.5 +1.5

Newey P Dem 3960 6.2 -3.2

Two-party preferred votes Evans M ALP 36013 56.9 -7.8

Markwell A LP 27284 43.1 +7.8

Exhausted 63

Formal 63360 94.5 -0.2

Informal 3722 5.5 +0.2

Turnout 67082 86.6 -8.0

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 37

128. Mackellar (NSW) 26.03.94 Enrolled 78932 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

McLeod FE Grn 3940 5.9 +5.9

Consandine P RPA 586 0.9 +0.9

Wells SR Ind 2063 3.1 +3.1

Ellis B Ind 15501 23.1 +23.1

Phillips J AFI 5464 8.2 +8.2

Bigot G 582 0.9 +0.9

Johnson B Dem 3851 5.7 -1.4

Bishop B LP 34999 52.2 -4.4

Two-candidate preferred votes Ellis B Ind 26587 39.7 ..

Bishop B LP 40328 60.3 ..

Exhausted 71

Formal 66986 96.8 -0.2

Informal 2181 3.2 +0.2

Turnout 69167 87.6 -8.2

129. Warringah (NSW) 26.03.94 Enrolled 78174 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Spencer RM AFI 8446 13.5 +13.5

Abbott T LP 34440 55.2 -0.9

Halnan J Ind 9564 15.3 +15.3

Anderson T Dem 9932 15.9 +11.6

Two-candidate preferred votes Abbott T LP 39581 63.5 ..

Halnan J Ind 22788 36.5 ..

Exhausted 13

Formal 62382 96.4 -1.2

Informal 2339 3.6 +1.2

Turnout 64721 82.8 -12.7

130. Kooyong (Vic) 19.11.94 Enrolled 72441 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Cotton Y Ind 2004 3.5 +3.5

Tobias PF Ind 518 0.9 +0.9

Boffa G Ind 955 1.7 +1.7

Greagg DLJ 686 1.2 -0.2

Georgiou P LP 32872 56.9 -4.2

Walker A AFI 4573 7.9 +7.9

Singer P Grn 16202 28.0 +28.0

Two-candidate preferred votes Georgiou P LP 36964 64.0 ..

Singer P Grn 20766 36.0 ..

Exhausted 80

Formal 57810 96.4 -1.1

Informal 2166 3.6 +1.1

Turnout 59976 82.8 -1.3

131. Canberra (ACT) 25.03.95 Enrolled 99295 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Clarke J Ind 2274 2.7 +2.7

Robinson S ALP 25689 30.5 -21.8

Cotta J RPA 1003 1.2 +1.2

Spencer R AFI 3515 4.2 +4.2

Warden J Grn 10835 12.9 +12.9

Smyth B LP 39021 46.3 +10.1

Gray-Grzeszkiewicz J Ind 1956 2.3 +2.3

Two-party preferred votes Robinson S ALP 36577 43.4 -16.1

Smyth B LP 47672 56.6 +16.1

Exhausted 44

Formal 84293 96.5 -0.7

Informal 3095 3.5 +0.7

Turnout 87388 88.0 -9.0

132. Wentworth (NSW) 08.04.95 Enrolled 78880 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Matson A Grn 15120 26.0 +26.0

Hooper J 1317 2.3 +2.3

Thomson A LP 30677 52.8 +0.1

Wentworth WC Ind 10945 18.9 +18.9

Two-candidate preferred votes Matson M Grn 19793 34.1 ..

Thomson A LP 38252 65.9 ..

Exhausted 14

Formal 58059 96.0 -1.1

Informal 2392 4.0 +1.1

Turnout 60451 76.6 -17.9

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 38

133. Blaxland (NSW) 15.06.96 Enrolled 79714 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Hutchinson J RARI 5771 9.0 +9.0

Baird NDL Ind 1499 2.3 +2.3

Spencer A 499 0.8 +0.8

Pahme M CTA 2782 4.3 +3.0

Reid B Ind 750 1.2 +1.2

Kennedy M 388 0.6 +0.6

Kearney V Grn 3148 4.9 +4.9

Aussie-Stone M Ind 298 0.5 +0.1

Cogger L NLP 224 0.3 +0.1

Sayegh P Ind 2334 3.6 +2.6

Hatton M ALP 37804 58.8 +0.1

Krumins PJ AFI 8759 13.6 +10.9

Two-candidate preferred votes Hutchinson J RARI 19800 30.9 ..

Hatton M ALP 44188 69.1 ..

Exhausted 268

Formal 64256 92.7 -0.7

Informal 5092 7.3 +0.7

Turnout 69348 87.0 -9.1

134. Lindsay (NSW) 19.10.96 Enrolled 81659 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Grigg B CTA 1254 1.8 -0.4

Kelly J LP 34840 49.2 +6.7

Franich R ASP 2042 2.9 +2.9

Free R ALP 23758 33.6 -6.8

Townsend V Ind 4224 6.0 +3.2

Grim-Reaper S Ind 270 0.4 +0.4

Peacey RF Ind 156 0.2 +0.2

Vella KA Ind 933 1.3 +1.3

Archibald D FLR 150 0.2 +0.2

Aird V Ind 488 0.7 +0.7

Lear S Dem 1182 1.7 -4.9

Edwards L Grn 1502 2.1 -1.3

Two-party preferred votes Kelly J LP 39941 56.6 +5.0

Free R ALP 30684 43.4 -5.0

Exhausted 174

Formal 70799 96.4 -0.1

Informal 2678 3.6 +0.1

Turnout 73477 90.0 -6.1

135. Fraser (ACT) 01.02.97 Enrolled 65687 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Chu A Ind 4135 7.8 +7.8

von Behrens D Grn 5584 10.6 +0.7

Walker A AFI 1870 3.5 +3.5

Dargavel S ALP 25867 49.1 -1.4

Hill C Ind 9642 18.3 +18.3

Bernard JJ Ind 189 0.4 +0.4

Miller JR CTA 1766 3.4 +3.4

Hutchinson J RARI 1228 2.3 +2.3

Connor K AAP 490 0.9 +0.9

Clarke J Ind 455 0.9 +0.9

Thompson DS Ind 1456 2.8 +2.8

Two-candidate preferred votes Dargavel S ALP 34279 65.2 ..

Hill C Ind 18261 34.8 ..

Exhausted 142

Formal 52682 94.1 -2.7

Informal 3313 5.9 +2.7

Turnout 55995 85.2 -11.6

136. Holt (Vic) 06.11.99 Enrolled 84725

Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Mulholland J DLP 5404 7.3 +7.3

Scoullar D Grn 4701 6.4 +6.4

Dickson L CTA 4399 6.0 +4.2

Morgan P Dem 10896 14.7 +8.7

Byrne A ALP 48499 65.6 +5.8

Two-candidate preferred votes Morgan Dem 20650 27.9 ..

Byrne A ALP 53249 72.1 ..

Formal 73899 92.8 -2.7

Informal 5727 7.2 +2.7

Turnout 79626 94.0 -1.2

137. Isaacs (Vic) 12.08.00 Enrolled 81329 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Brook P FST 3270 5.4 +4.9

Fletcher H Dem 10540 17.3 +11.4

Hutchison M Grn 5539 9.1 +7.0

King G DLP 1832 3.0 +3.0

Wesley C Ind 5329 8.7 +8.7

Corcoran A ALP 34483 56.5 +8.1

Two-candidate preferred votes Fletcher H Dem 20715 34.0 ..

Corcoran A ALP 40278 66.0 ..

Formal 60993 91.8 -4.6

Informal 5420 8.2 +4.6

Turnout 66413 81.7 -14.5

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 39

138. Ryan (Qld) 17.03.01 Enrolled 87634 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Short L ALP 29173 38.7 +8.3

Stagg W Ind 440 0.6 +0.6

Hyland T Ind 822 1.1 +1.1

Moore J Ind 1351 1.8 +1.8

Hassall AR CTA 955 1.3 +1.3

Stasse M Grn 4608 6.1 +2.3

Tucker B LP 32571 43.2 -7.2

Freemarijuana ND HMP 1685 2.2 +2.2

Dengate L Dem 3808 5.0 -2.9

Two-party preferred votes

Short L ALP 37834 50.2 +9.7

Tucker B LP 37579 49.8 -9.7

Formal 75413 97.0 -0.7

Informal 2304 3.0 +0.7

Turnout 77717 88.7 -5.7

139. Aston (Vic) 14.07.01 Enrolled 89159 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

O'Loughlin P Ind 1160 1.5 +1.5

Pearce C LP 31640 40.7 -7.8

Ward M Ind 126 0.2 +0.2

Sloan M NGST 618 0.8 +0.8

Kir M Grn 1877 2.4 +2.4

Raskovy S Ind 227 0.3 +0.3

Mitchell D CEC 334 0.4 +0.4

Chamberlain LJ LFF 680 0.9 +0.9

Harcourt P Dem 6271 8.1 +0.5

Scott J HAN 1369 1.8 -1.1

Scates G Ind 3401 4.4 +4.4

Cox J Ind 328 0.4 +0.4

Petherbridge T HPA 232 0.3 +0.3

Dunstan G HMP 711 0.9 +0.9

Boland K ALP 28716 37.0 -1.5

Two-party preferred votes

Pearce C LP 39299 50.6 -3.7

Boland K ALP 38391 49.4 +3.7

Formal 77690 94.2 -3.0

Informal 4819 5.8 +3.0

Turnout 82509 92.5 -4.1

140. Cunningham (NSW) 19.10.02 Enrolled 81521 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Nanelli O CDP 2566 3.8 +1.3

Wilson P Ind 7107 10.6 +10.6

Johnson HA CEC 120 0.2 +0.2

Organ M Grn 15505 23.0 +16.4

Bird S ALP 25671 38.1 -6.1

Flanagan J NCPP 556 0.8 +0.8

Crocker G HAN 2696 4.0 -0.6

Hughes D AFI 889 1.3 +1.3

Keene J Ind 483 0.7 +0.7

Sampson M Ind 671 1.0 +1.0

Moulds D Ind 9147 13.6 +13.6

Chapman L Dem 1514 2.2 -4.9

Williams C SA 399 0.6 +0.6

Two-candidate preferred votes Organ M Grn 35160 52.2 ..

Bird S ALP 32164 47.8 ..

Formal 67324 92.3 -2.9

Informal 5647 7.7 +2.9

Turnout 72971 89.5 -5.9

141. Werriwa (NSW) 19.03.05 Enrolled 90726 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Woodger J AFI 3243 4.8 +4.8

Raue B Grn 3726 5.6 +2.4

Young J Ind 5237 7.8 +7.8

Lees M Ind 1393 2.1 +2.1

Hayes C ALP 37286 55.5 +2.9

Vogler R Ind 316 0.5 +0.5

Tan G CDP 2537 3.8 +3.8

Bryant J Ind 2696 4.0 +4.0

Doggett C ONNSW 2400 3.6 +1.2

Head M 458 0.7 +0.7

Sykes M FFP 2890 4.3 +4.3

Bargshoon S Ind 753 1.1 -3.8

McGookin MP PLP 629 0.9 +0.9

Locke D 2101 3.1 +3.1

Aussie-Stone M Ind 388 0.6 +0.6

Mannoun N 1076 1.6 +1.6

Two-candidate preferred votes Young J Ind 20106 30.0 ..

Hayes C ALP 47023 70.0 ..

Formal 67129 86.9 -5.2

Informal 10162 13.2 +5.2

Turnout 77291 85.2 -8.7

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 40

142. Gippsland (Vic) 28.06.08 Enrolled 95580 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

McKelvie M Grn 5862 7.0 +1.5

Fitzgerald R LP 17249 20.7 +20.7

Buckley B LDP 3518 4.2 +4.2

McCubbin D ALP 23652 28.4 -8.1

Chester D NP 32971 39.6 -8.8

Two-candidate preferred votes McCubbin D ALP 31641 38.0 -6.1

Cheter D NP 51611 62.0 +6.1

Formal 83252 97.1 +0.1

Informal 2465 2.9 -0.1

Turnout 85717 89.7 -6.0

143. Lyne (NSW) 06.09.08 Enrolled 87854 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Smith B FishP 2566 3.5 +3.5

Muldoon G CEC 270 0.4 +0.1

Scott-Irving S Ind 400 0.5 +0.1

O’Donohue MP DLP 853 1.2 +1.2

Oakeshott R Ind 47306 63.8 +63.8

Russell S Grn 5206 7.0 -0.1

Drew R NP 16964 22.9 -29.4

Wright B Ind 582 0.8 -0.5

Two-candidate preferred votes

Oakeshott R Ind 54770 73.9 ..

Drew R NP 19377 26.1 ..

Formal 74147 96.6 +1.6

Informal 2646 3.5 -1.6

Turnout 76793 87.4 -8.5

144. Mayo (SA) 06.09.08 Enrolled 97550 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Vonow L Grn 15851 21.3 +10.4

Barons R CCE 725 1.0 -0.3

Spragg B Ind 1545 2.1 +2.1

Keizer M ON 503 0.7 +0.7

Brewerton M Ind 1868 2.5 +2.5

Castrique A Dem 923 1.3 -0.3

Briggs J LP 30651 41.3 -9.8

King MR Ind 219 0.3 +0.3

Day B FFP 8468 11.4 +7.4

McCabe D DLP 1426 1.9 +1.9

Bell D Ind 12081 16.3 +16.3

Two-candidate preferred votes

Vonow L Grn 34879 47.0 ..

Briggs J LP 39381 53.0 ..

Formal 74260 95.0 -2.2

Informal 3900 5.0 +2.2

Turnout 78160 80.1 -15.8

145. Bradfield (NSW) 05.12.09 Enrolled 95083 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes Whitehall J CDP 1054 1.5 -0.3

Luke J CDP 170 0.2 +0.2

Hanrahan PW Ind 443 0.6 +0.6

Koutalianos B Ind 1191 1.7 +1.7

Mccaffrey S DLP 1533 2.2 +2.2

Peebles R CDP 162 0.2 +0.2

Gemmell S Grn 17799 25.2 +14.0

Allen D CDP 147 0.2 +0.2

Thew L CDP 187 0.3 +0.3

Leishman M ASxP 2229 3.2 +3.2

Dowling P Ind 555 0.8 +0.8

Kelly SM Ind 1359 1.9 +1.9

Waterson V ON 449 0.6 +0.6

Gabb L LDP 589 0.8 +0.8

Buckley B Ind 618 0.9 +0.9

Fletcher PW LP 39815 56.4 -2.6

Hestelow A CDP 285 0.4 +0.4

Heng E CDP 362 0.5 +0.5

Pender JF CDP 57 0.1 +0.1

Pix D CDP 100 0.1 +0.1

Burt D CCC 686 1.0 +1.0

Price G EFN 758 1.1 +1.1

Two-candidate preferred votes Gemmell S Grn 24831 35.2 ..

Fletcher PW LP 45717 64.8 ..

Formal 70548 91.0 -5.0

Informal 6976 9.0 +5.0

Turnout 77524 81.5 -12.5

146. Higgins (Vic) 05.12.09 Enrolled 88130 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Murphy S Ind 1145 1.7 +1.7

Patten F ASxP 2144 3.2 +3.2

O'Dwyer K LP 36421 54.6 +1.0

Roberts I LDP 336 0.5 +0.5

Hamilton C Grn 21628 32.4 +21.7

Collyer D Dem 1531 2.3 +1.1

Toscano J Ind 523 0.8 +0.8

Raskovy S ON 211 0.3 +0.3

Brohier P Ind 236 0.4 +0.4

Mulholland J DLP 2572 3.9 +3.9

Two-candidate preferred votes O'Dwyer K LP 40203 60.2 ..

Hamilton C Grn 26544 39.8 ..

Formal 66747 95.9 -1.6

Informal 2890 4.2 +1.6

Turnout 69637 79.0 -14.8

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 41

147. Griffith (Qld) 08.02.14 Enrolled 97804 Candidate Party Votes % Swing

First preference votes

Lawrence T SPP 666 0.9 +0.7

Ebbs G Grn 7 635 9.8 -0.4

Williams CD FFP 729 0.9 +0.2

Boele K Ind 504 0.7 +0.7

Ackroyd A BTA 602 0.8 +0.8

Reid A SPA 424 0.6 +0.0

Butler, T ALP 30023 38.6 -1.7

Thomas MR PPA 1 172 1.5 +1.5

Windsor TJ Ind 656 0.8 +0.0

Sawyer R KAP 821 1.1 +0.4

Glasson B LNP 34491 44.4 +2.2

Two-party preferred votes

Butler T ALP 40229 51.8 -1.3

Glasson B LNP 37494 48.2 +1.3

Formal 77723 96.8 +1.6

Informal 2552 3.2 -1.6

Turnout 80275 82.1 -11.1

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 42

Appendix 3: Notes on Commonwealth by-elections, 1901-2014 1. Darling Downs 1901—The first by-election, which followed the death of William Henry Groom, was won by his son, Littleton Ernest Groom.

2. Tasmania 1902—This was caused by the death of Frederick Piesse. This has been the only by-election held at-large, due to the first Tasmanian members being elected from the state as a whole rather than from individual electorates.

3. East Sydney 1903—The sitting member, Sir George Reid, resigned in protest against the proposals for the redistribution of New South Wales divisions, forcing the by-election. Reid won the resulting by-election.

4. Wilmot 1904—Former Tasmanian Premier and Constitution-writer, Sir Edward Braddon, remains the oldest person elected to the House of Representatives. He was 71 when first elected and 74 when he died, forcing this by-election.

5. Melbourne 1904—By-election caused by the voiding of the general election result on the grounds of irregularities by electoral officials.

6. Riverina 1904—By-election caused by the voiding of the general election result on the grounds of irregularities by electoral officials.

7. Echuca 1907—By-election caused by the voiding of the general election result on the grounds of irregularities by electoral officials. The Opposition did not contest the seat.

8. Adelaide 1908—Death of former Premier and Constitution-writer, Charles Cameron Kingston.

9. Wakefield 1909—Death of former Premier and Constitution-writer, Sir Frederick Holder.

10. Kooyong 1910—The winner of this by-election, Sir Robert Best, had been a Senator during the first decade until his defeat in 1910.

11. Batman 1911—Well-known lawyer, Frank Brennan, won this seat for the Labor Party.

12. North Sydney 1911—Major-General Sir Granville Ryrie, who had seen military service in South Africa, at Gallipoli and in Egypt, won this seat for the Liberal Party.

13. Boothby 1911—The Fisher Labor Government lost this seat to the Liberal Party, but regained it at the 1913 general election.

14. Werriwa 1912—David Robert Hall resigned to take up an appointment to the New South Wales Legislative Council.

15. Kalgoorlie 1913—The first by-election for which there was just a single nomination.

16. Adelaide 1914—The winner of this by-election, George Yates, soon left Australia to serve in the World War, though he retained his seat while he did so.

17. Bendigo 1915—This by-election was caused by the death of the Minister for External Affairs, John Arthur.

18. Grampians 1915—Sir Charles Salmon, second Speaker of the House of Representatives (1909-10) returned to the Parliament at this by-election.

19. Dalley 1915—The death of Robert Howe, first secretary of the Labor Federation of Australia caused this by-election. Not contested by the Opposition, and only one candidate nominated.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 43

20. Wide Bay 1915—Former Prime Minister, Andrew Fisher, resigned to take up an appointment as Australian High Commissioner to Great Britain. The Labor Party lost the seat, which it did not win back until 1961.

21. Darwin 1917—Former Tasmanian MHA, Charles Howroyd, died five days after winning the seat at the 1917 general election.

22. Grampians 1917—Sir Charles Salmon's death caused this by-election. He was replaced by Edmund Jowett, later elected first deputy leader of the Country Party.

23. Flinders 1918—Upon the appointment of Sir William Irvine as Chief Justice of the Victorian Supreme Court, the by-election for his seat saw the victory of future Prime Minister Stanley Bruce.

24. Swan 1918—By-election caused by the death of former Premier and Constitution-writer, Sir John Forrest. The Nationalist Party failed to hold the seat, though it won it back at the 1919 general election.

25. Corangamite 1918—This by-election saw the first use of preferential voting for a House election of any type. The Victorian Farmers' Union won the seat from the Nationalists. The defeated Labor candidate was future Prime Minister, James Scullin.

26. Echuca 1919—This seat was also won by the Victorian Farmers' Union from the Nationalists. Not contested by the Opposition.

27. Ballaarat 1920—In the 1919 general election, Edwin Kerby had defeated sitting member David McGrath by a single vote. Upon challenge, a Court of Disputed Returns declared void the general election result on the ground of irregularities by electoral officials. McGrath won the resulting by-election.

28. Kalgoorlie 1920—Labor's Hugh Mahon remains the only member or senator to be expelled. The Labor Party failed to hold the seat in this by-election, though it won it back at the 1922 general election.

29. Maranoa 1921—The Country Party won its first by-election taking the seat from the Labor Party.

30. West Sydney 1921—Former Queensland Premier, Thomas Ryan, had been invited by the ALP Conference to contest this New South Wales division at the 1919 general election. Less than two years later he died causing this by-election.

31. Parramatta 1921—Former Prime Minister, Sir Joseph Cook, caused the by-election by accepting appointment as Australian High Commissioner to Great Britain.

32. Yarra 1922—By-election caused by the death of the Labor Leader of the Opposition, Frank Tudor. The by-election was won by future Prime Minister, James Scullin.

33. Eden-Monaro 1926—This by-election was caused by the death of Sir Austin Chapman, former Minister for Defence, Postmaster-General and Minister for Trade and Customs.

34. Dalley 1927—By-election won by former Queensland Premier, Edward Theodore.

35. Warringah 1927—By-election caused by the resignation of Sir Granville Ryrie to accept the position of Australian High Commissioner to Great Britain.

36. Martin 1928—Frederick Pratten replaced his uncle, the late Herbert Pratten, in this by-election.

37. Wide Bay 1928—By-election in which Bernard Corser (CP) replaced his father Edward Corser (Nat). Not contested by the Opposition, and only one candidate nominated.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 44

38. Balaclava 1929—By-election to replace William Watt, former Victorian Premier, Commonwealth Treasurer and Speaker. His replacement was (Sir) Thomas White, son-in-law of Alfred Deakin and later a Menzies Government minister. Not contested by the Opposition.

39. Franklin 1929—By-election caused by death of the independent William McWilliams, previously the first parliamentary leader of the Country Party. His replacement, Charles Frost, was later a minister under both Prime Ministers Curtin and Chifley.

40. Parkes 1931—By-election caused by the appointment of Edward McTiernan to the High Court.

41. East Sydney 1931—By-election won by Edward Ward for the ALP. Ward lost the seat to John Clasby (UAP) at the 1932 general election.

42. East Sydney 1932—Sitting member John Clasby (UAP) died before taking his seat and former member Edward Ward won the by-election, now as a Lang Labor candidate. Ward is the only person to win two by-elections.

43. Flinders 1933—Former Prime Minister, Stanley Bruce, caused the by-election when he was appointed Resident Minister in England.

44. Newcastle 1935—By-election at which David Oliver Watkins replaced his father, David Watkins.

45. Fawkner 1935—By-election won by future Prime Minister, Harold Holt, for the UAP.

46. Kennedy 1936—By-election at which David Riordan replaced his uncle, William Riordan.

47. Darling Downs 1936—By-election won by future Prime Minister and Country Party leader, Arthur Fadden, for the Country Party.

48. Gwydir 1937—By-election following the appointment of Charles Abbott to the position of Administrator of the Northern Territory. Three Country Party candidates nominated.

49. Wakefield 1938—By-election at which the ALP won the seat from the UAP, following the death of Charles Hawker in a plane crash. The UAP retained the seat at the 1940 general election.

50. Griffith 1939—By-election following death of Francis Baker.

51. Wilmot 1939—By-election caused by the death of Prime Minister, Joseph Lyons. The field included three UAP and two ALP candidates. The ALP won the seat from the UAP, but lost it in the 1940 general election.

52. Corio 1940—John Dedman (ALP) won this seat from the UAP after Richard Casey was appointed Australian Ambassador to the United States of America.

53. Kalgoorlie 1940—By-election caused by the death of former Minister for Defence, Albert Green.

54. Swan 1940—By-election won by former Senator Thomas Marwick.

55. Boothby 1941—By-election won by (Sir) Archie Price, Master of St Mark's College, University of Adelaide, and noted Australian geographer.

56. Fremantle 1945—By-election caused by the death of Prime Minister, John Curtin. The by-election was won by Kim Beazley senior.

57. Wimmera 1946—After a battle between seven contenders, including two from the Country Party and one described as 'Independent Country Party', (Sir) Winton Turnbull narrowly won this by-election.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 45

58. Henty 1946—By-election to replace Arther Coles, former managing director of GJ Coles & Co., Lord Mayor of Melbourne and independent, who had shared the balance of power after the 1941 election with Alex Wilson. This was the first by-election won by the re-formed Liberal Party. It was won by Henry Gullett, son of Sir Henry who had held the seat between 1925 and 1940.

59. Balaclava 1951—Percy Joske retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the appointment of Thomas White as High Commissioner in London.

60. Macquarie 1951—By-election held following the death of the former Prime Minister, Ben Chifley. The ALP retained the seat despite a small (0.4 per cent) swing to the LP/CP Coalition Government.

61. Lyne 1952—The Country Party, which stood two candidates in this by-election, retained the seat (Phil Lucock successful candidate) despite a large swing to the ALP (8.8 per cent).

62. Flinders 1952—The Liberal Party lost the seat to the ALP as the result of a large (11.0 per cent) swing against the LP/CP Coalition Government. The successful candidate, Keith Ewert, lost the seat at the next general election.

63. Werriwa 1952—The ALP achieved its largest by-election swing in the post-war period (12.4 per cent) at this by-election. The successful ALP candidate was future Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam.

64. Bradfield 1952—No ALP candidate contested this safe Liberal seat, previously held by former Prime Minister and longest serving member of the House of Representatives, William ‘Billy’ Hughes.

65. Dalley 1953—The Liberal Party did not contest this safe ALP seat, retained for the ALP by Arthur Greenup.

66. Corangamite 1953—Ewen Mackinnon retained this seat for the Liberal Party despite a 6.5 per cent swing against the Coalition Government.

67. Lang 1953—Frederick Stewart retained this seat for the ALP following the death of Daniel Mulcahy.

68. Gwydir 1953—Two Country Party candidates contested this by-election together with candidates from the ALP and Liberal Party. The seat was won by the Country Party's Archibald Allan.

69. Cook 1955—The Liberal Party did not contest this safe ALP seat, retained for Labor by Jim Cope. Typically of inner-city electorates there was a low voter turnout (76.0 per cent) at this by-election.

70. Cunningham 1956—Victor Kearney retained this safe seat for the ALP, in the only uncontested by-election since the Second World War.

71. Barker 1956—Following the death of long-term member and Speaker of the House of Representatives, Archie Cameron, the Liberal Party retained this seat despite a 9.9 per cent swing against the government.

72. Wentworth 1956—Leslie Bury retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the appointment of Eric Harrison as High Commissioner in London.

73. Richmond 1957—Four Country Party candidates contested this by-election, including the eventual winner, Doug Anthony, the son of the former member, Hubert Lawrence Anthony.

74. Parramatta 1958—Garfield Barwick retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the appointment of former member Oliver Beale as Ambassador to the United States of America.

75. Hunter 1960—The Liberal Party did not stand a candidate for this safe ALP seat, formerly held by Herbert Evatt.

76. La Trobe 1960—Seat retained for the Liberal Party by John Jess following the resignation of the Minister for External Affairs, Richard Casey.

77. Balaclava 1960—PE Joske resigned to become a judge of the ACT Supreme Court. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Raymond Whittorn.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 46

78. Bendigo 1960—This marginal seat was retained for the ALP by Noel Beaton following the death of sitting member, Percy Clarey.

79. Calare 1960—Seat won by John England for the Country Party from the Liberal Party. This has been the only occasion when the Country Party has won a seat from the Liberal Party at a by-election.

80. Higinbotham 1960—Don Chipp just retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the death of TF Timson.

81. Batman 1962—Captain Sam Benson retained this safe seat for the Labor Party following the death of sitting member, Alan Bird. Benson subsequently retained Batman as an independent at the 1966 general election.

82. Grey 1963—Retained for the ALP by Jack Mortimer following the death of Edgar Russell.

83. East Sydney 1963—This by-election resulted in the second lowest voter turnout (71.9 per cent) since the introduction of compulsory voting. The ALP retained the seat. The Liberal Party did not stand a candidate.

84. Denison 1964—Athol Townley was re-elected at the 1963 general election but died before the opening of the Parliament. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Adrian Gibson.

85. Angas 1964—Alexander Downer senior resigned to become High Commissioner in London. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Geoffrey Giles.

86. Parramatta 1964—Garfield Barwick resigned to become Chief Justice of the High Court. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Nigel Bowen.

87. Robertson 1964—Roger Dean resigned to become Administrator of the Northern Territory. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Crawford Bridges-Maxwell.

88. Riverina 1965—Hugh Roberton resigned to become Ambassador to Ireland. The seat was retained for the Country Party by Adam Armstrong.

89. Dawson 1966—The ALP candidate, Rex Patterson, achieved a large swing (11.9 per cent) against the LP/CP Coalition Government to win the seat from the Country Party.

90. Kooyong 1966—The Liberal Party candidate, Andrew Peacock, retained this safe Liberal seat in the by-election following the resignation of Prime Minister, Robert Menzies.

91. Corio 1967—A large swing against the LP/CP Coalition Government (11.1 per cent) resulted in the ALP candidate, Gordon Scholes, winning the seat from the Liberal Party, following the retirement of popular sporting personality, Hubert Opperman.

92. Capricornia 1967—Following the death of sitting member George Shaw, this seat was retained by the ALP by Doug Everingham.

93. Higgins 1968—This by-election was held following the presumed death of Prime Minister Harold Holt. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by new Prime Minister (and ex-Senator) John Gorton.

94. Curtin 1969—The sitting member, Minister for External Affairs, Paul Hasluck, resigned to become Governor-General. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Ransley Garland, despite a 7.1 per cent swing against the Coalition Government.

95. Bendigo 1969—Noel Beaton resigned because of ill health. The seat was retained for the ALP by David Kennedy.

96. Gwydir 1969—Allan Armstrong resigned to become Secretary-General of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. The seat was retained for the Country Party by Ralph Hunt, despite a 7.7 per cent swing against the Coalition Government.

97. Australian Capital Territory 1970—Despite a large swing against it, the ALP retained this seat held for 18 years by popular member, Jim Fraser. The Australia Party candidate, Alan Fitzgerald, received 17.5 per cent of the first preference votes.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 47

98. Chisholm 1970—Tony Staley retained this seat for the Liberal Party. The ALP candidate was Francis ‘Frank’ Costigan, later Royal Commissioner investigating the activities of the Federated Ship Painters' and Dockers' Union, and tax evasion matters.

99. Murray 1971—Bruce Lloyd retained this seat for the Country Party following the resignation of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Trade and Industry, John McEwen.

100. Parramatta 1973—Nigel Bowen resigned to become a judge of the NSW Court of Appeal. Philip Ruddock retained the seat for the Liberal Party. Twelve candidates contested the by-election, a record to that time.

101. Bass 1975—The second largest swing recorded against any government to that time (14.6 per cent) occurred at this by-election held following the appointment of former Deputy Prime Minister, Lance Barnard, to be Ambassador to Norway, Finland and Sweden. The Liberal Party candidate, Kevin Newman, won the seat from the ALP.

102. Cunningham 1977—Following the death of sitting member, Reginald ‘Rex’ Connor, this seat was retained by the ALP by Stewart West.

103. Werriwa 1978—The ALP candidate, John Kerin, achieved a large swing (11.3 per cent) against the LP/NP Coalition Government in this by-election, held following the resignation of former Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam.

104. Grayndler 1979—Retained for the ALP by Leo McLeay following the death of Frank Stewart.

105. Boothby 1981—Retained for the Liberal Party by Steele Hall, former Premier of South Australia and Senator, following the resignation of John McLeay, who became Consul-General in Los Angeles.

106. Curtin 1981—Ransley Garland resigned to become High Commissioner in London. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Allan Rocher.

107. McPherson 1981—The Liberal Party candidate, Peter White, achieved a swing to the LP/NP Coalition Government of 16.2 per cent, the largest swing to any government since 1949. The National Party candidate (future Senator Glen Sheil) outpolled the ALP candidate.

108. Wentworth 1981—The former leader of the New South Wales Liberal Party, Peter Coleman, comfortably retained the seat despite a 6.2 per cent swing to the ALP candidate, Robert Tickner. The voter turnout (69.5 per cent) was the lowest since the introduction of compulsory voting in 1924.

109. Lowe 1982—This marginal Liberal Party seat became vacant following the resignation of former Prime Minister, Sir William McMahon. The ALP candidate, Michael Maher, won the seat from the Liberal Party with an 8.5 per cent swing.

110. Flinders 1982—The Liberal Party retained this marginal seat despite a 3.3 per cent swing against the LP/NP Coalition Government. However, new member, Peter Reith, was unable to take up his seat in the House of Representatives as the Parliament was dissolved before he could be sworn in and he was defeated at the subsequent general election.

111. Wannon 1983—The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by David Hawker, following the resignation of sitting member, former Prime Minister, Malcolm Fraser.

112. Bruce 1983—The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Kenneth Aldred, following the resignation of sitting member, former Opposition Leader and Speaker Billy Snedden.

113. Moreton 1983The Liberal Party retained this marginal Liberal seat with a small swing in its favour. The successful candidate, Don Cameron, had lost the neighbouring seat of Fadden at the previous general election.

114. Corangamite 1984—The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Fergus Stewart McArthur. Labor candidate Gavan O'Connor subsequently became Member for Corio.

115. Hughes 1984—The seat was retained for ALP by Robert Tickner, following the resignation of Leslie Johnson, who became High Commissioner to New Zealand.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 48

116. Richmond 1984—The seat was retained for the National Party by Charles Blunt, following the resignation of former Deputy Prime Minister, Doug Anthony.

117. Scullin 1986—The seat was retained for ALP by Henry Alfred Jenkins who succeeded his father Dr Henry Alfred Jenkins.

118. Adelaide 1988—The ALP lost this seat with a swing of 8.4 per cent against the ALP Government. The successful Liberal Party candidate, Michael Pratt, lost the seat at the next general election.

119. Port Adelaide 1988—An 11.1 per cent swing against the ALP Government was insufficient for the Liberal Party to win the seat. The ALP's Rod Sawford was the winning candidate.

120. Groom 1988—The Liberal Party candidate, Bill Taylor, won the seat previously held by the National Party.

121. Oxley 1988—The prospective appointment of Bill Hayden as Governor-General caused the vacancy in this safe ALP seat. The ALP candidate, Les Scott, was successful despite an 11.8 per cent swing against the ALP Government.

122. Gwydir 1989—John Anderson retained this seat for the National Party following the resignation of sitting member Ralph Hunt. Anderson defeated two independent candidates to win the seat.

123. Menzies 1991—Kevin Andrews retained this seat for the Liberal Party following the resignation of sitting member Neil Brown.

124. Wills 1992—An equal record number of 22 candidates contested this ALP seat vacated by the former Prime Minister, Bob Hawke. Prominent local identity, Phil Cleary, won the seat to become the only independent candidate to win a Commonwealth by-election. The by-election result was voided by a Court of Disputed Returns. A subsequent by-election was not held because of the impending general election.

125. Werriwa 1994—The ALP retained this safe seat despite a swing against the ALP Government of 6.3 per cent. The successful candidate was Mark Latham.

126. Fremantle 1994—Former Western Australian Premier, Carmen Lawrence, retained this seat for the ALP with a swing of 1.0 per cent to the government.

127. Bonython 1994—Despite a swing of 7.8 per cent against the ALP, Martyn Evans retained this seat for the government.

128. Mackellar 1994—Liberal candidate, ex-Senator Bronwyn Bishop, easily retained this safe Liberal Party seat. Prominent writer, Bob Ellis (Ind), received 23.1 per cent of the first preference vote in the absence of a Labor Party candidate.

129. Warringah 1994This seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Tony Abbott.

130. Kooyong 1994—The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Petro Georgiou, following the resignation of sitting member and former Leader of the Opposition, Andrew Peacock. In the absence of an ALP candidate the Greens candidate, Peter Singer, received 28.0 per cent of the vote.

131. Canberra 1995—After initially considering not to contest this fairly safe ALP seat, the LP ultimately decided to enter the race and won the seat from the government with a record swing of 16.1 per cent. The successful candidate, Brendan Smyth, lost the seat at the following general election.

132. Wentworth 1995—Despite being classified as a marginal Liberal seat the ALP did not contest this by-election caused by former Leader of the Opposition, John Hewson. The winning Liberal candidate was Andrew Thomson.

133. Blaxland 1996—The seat was retained for the ALP by Michael Hatton, following the resignation of former Prime Minister, Paul Keating.

134. Lindsay 1996—The 1996 general election result for Lindsay was voided by a Court of Disputed Returns. At the by-election the successful Liberal candidate at the general election, Jackie Kelly, won with a swing of 5.0 per cent to the government.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 49

135. Fraser 1997—The seat was retained for the ALP by Steve Dargavel, following the resignation of sitting member, John Langmore. At the subsequent general election, the ACT's representation in the House of Representatives was reduced to two seats. Dargavel did not contest ALP pre-selection so that Bob McMullan, Member for Canberra, could contest Fraser.

136. Holt 1999—The seat was retained for the ALP by Anthony Byrne, following the resignation of sitting member, Gareth Evans.

137. Isaacs 2000—This was the first by-election since McPherson 1981 which was caused by the suicide of the sitting member. The LP did not contest this fairly safe Labor seat. Retained for the ALP by Ann Corcoran.

138. Ryan 2001—The ALP candidate, Leonie Short, won this fairly safe Liberal seat following the retirement of John Moore. The swing of 9.7 per cent against the government was just sufficient for Short to succeed. She lost the seat in the following general election.

139. Aston 2001—A field of fifteen candidates contested the by-election in this marginal government seat. It was retained for the Liberal Party by Chris Pearce, following the death of sitting member, Peter Nugent.

140. Cunningham 2002—Greens candidate, Michael Organ, won this safe Labor seat following the resignation of sitting member, Stephen Martin. For the first time since Maranoa in 1921 an Opposition-held seat was lost in a by-election. The winning candidate received 23.0 per cent of the vote, the lowest winning vote first preference of any Commonwealth by-election. This was the first by-election victory by a minor party candidate since Echuca in 1919.

141. Werriwa 2005—Mark Latham had won Werriwa for the ALP in a by-election in 1994. It was his resignation from the seat soon after his resignation as Leader of the Opposition that caused this by-election. Sixteen candidates contested the by-election, the third-highest total since 1901, with the seat being retained by the ALP.

142. Gippsland 2008—Peter McGauran (NP) had held Gippsland for 25 years, the longest term of the Federation electorate’s eight members to that time. The by-election was contested by National, Liberal, Labor and Green candidates, but Darren Chester continued the Country/National Party hold of the seat that dated back to 1922.

143. Lyne 2008—First contested in 1949, Lyne had been held by four Country/National MPs, including Mark Vaile, the party leader between 2005 and 2007. Former National, and later independent MLA, Rob Oakeshott, (1996-2008), was elected as an independent with a first preference vote of 63.8 per cent. The Labor Party did not contest the by-election.

144. Mayo 2008—Former Liberal Party leader and later Minister for Foreign Affairs, Alexander Downer, had been the first and only Member for Mayo when he retired after serving 23 years. Labor did not contest the by-election which was won for the Liberal Party by Jamie Briggs.

145. Bradfield 2009—Former Howard government minister and Liberal Party leader, Brendan Nelson, retired to take up Ambassadorships to the European Communities, Belgium and Luxembourg and posts as Representative to NATO and Special Representative to WHO. Labor did not stand a candidate in the by-election which was contested by an equal record number of 22 candidates. The blue ribbon Liberal seat was easily retained by Paul Fletcher.

146. Higgins 2009—The resignation of former Howard government Treasurer, Peter Costello, triggered only the second by-election to be held in this fairly safe Liberal Party seat (the first being in 1968 after Prime Minister Harold Holt was presumed dead). Labor did not contest this by-election which was won by Costello’s former advisor, Kelly O’Dwyer.

147. Griffith 2014—Former Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd, resigned after leading the ALP government to a loss at the 2013 election in his second stint as Prime Minister. Terri Butler retained the marginal seat for the ALP despite a two-party preferred swing against the ALP of 1.3 per cent.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 50

Appendix 4: By-election timing, 1901-2014

Division

Previous

Election

Date

Vacated

By-election

date

Next

Election

Elapsed Time (days)

Reason

Vacated to

by-election

After

previous

election

Before next

election

Darling Downs (Qld) 30.03.01 08.08.01 14.09.01 16.12.03 37 168 823 Died

Tasmania 29.03.01 06.02.02 26.03.02 16.12.03 48 362 630 Died

East Sydney (NSW) 29.03.01 18.08.03 04.09.03 16.12.03 17 889 103 Resigned

Wilmot (Tas) 16.12.03 02.02.04 26.02.04 12.12.06 24 72 1020 Died

Melbourne (Vic) 16.12.03 10.03.04 30.03.04 12.12.06 20 105 987 Election voided

Riverina (NSW) 16.12.03 13.04.04 18.05.04 12.12.06 35 154 938 Election voided

Echuca (Vic) 12.12.06 10.06.07 10.07.07 13.04.10 30 210 1008 Election voided

Adelaide (SA) 12.12.06 11.05.08 13.06.08 13.04.10 33 549 669 Died

Wakefield (SA) 12.12.06 23.07.09 28.08.09 13.04.10 36 990 228 Died

Kooyong (Vic) 13.04.10 26.07.10 24.08.10 31.05.13 29 133 1011 Resigned

Batman (Vic) 13.04.10 18.12.10 08.02.11 31.05.13 52 301 843 Died

North Sydney (NSW) 13.04.10 04.02.11 11.03.11 31.05.13 35 332 812 Died

Boothby (SA) 13.04.10 08.10.11 11.11.11 31.05.13 34 577 567 Died

Werriwa (NSW) 13.04.10 01.04.12 01.06.12 31.05.13 61 780 364 Resigned

Kalgoorlie (WA) 31.05.13 25.11.13 22.12.13 05.09.14 27 205 257 Died

Adelaide (SA) 31.05.13 02.12.13 10.01.14 05.09.14 39 224 238 Died

Bendigo (Vic) 05.09.14 09.12.14 06.02.15 05.05.17 59 154 819 Died

Grampians (Vic) 05.09.14 01.01.15 20.02.15 05.05.17 50 168 805 Died

Dalley (NSW) 05.09.14 02.04.15 06.05.15 05.05.17 33 243 880 Died

Wide Bay (Qld) 05.09.14 26.10.15 11.12.15 05.05.17 46 462 511 Resigned

Darwin (Tas) 05.05.17 10.05.17 30.06.17 13.12.19 51 56 896 Died

Grampians (Vic) 05.05.17 15.09.17 27.10.17 13.12.19 42 175 777 Died

Flinders (Vic) 05.05.17 05.04.18 11.05.18 13.12.19 36 371 581 Resigned

Swan (WA) 05.05.17 02.09.18 26.10.18 13.12.19 54 539 413 Died

Corangamite (Vic) 05.05.17 23.10.18 14.12.18 13.12.19 52 588 364 Died

Echuca (Vic) 05.05.17 14.08.19 20.09.19 13.12.19 37 868 84 Died

Ballaarat (Vic) 13.12.19 02.06.20 10.07.20 16.12.22 38 210 889 Election voided

Kalgoorlie (WA) 13.12.19 12.11.20 18.12.20 16.12.22 36 371 728 Expelled

Maranoa (Qld) 13.12.19 03.06.21 30.07.21 16.12.22 57 595 504 Died

West Sydney (NSW) 13.12.19 01.08.21 03.09.21 16.12.22 33 630 469 Died

Parramatta (NSW) 13.12.19 11.11.21 10.12.21 16.12.22 29 728 371 Resigned

Yarra (Vic) 13.12.19 10.01.22 18.02.22 16.12.22 39 798 301 Died

Eden-Monaro (NSW) 14.11.25 12.01.26 06.03.26 17.11.28 53 113 987 Died

Dalley (NSW) 14.11.25 18.01.27 26.02.27 17.11.28 39 469 630 Resigned

Warringah (NSW) 14.11.25 13.04.27 21.05.27 17.11.28 38 553 546 Resigned

Martin (NSW) 14.11.25 07.05.28 16.06.28 17.11.28 40 945 154 Died

Wide Bay (Qld) 14.11.25 31.07.28 03.09.28 17.11.28 34 1024 75 Died

Balaclava (Vic) 17.11.28 05.07.29 03.08.29 12.10.29 29 259 70 Resigned

Franklin (Tas) 12.10.29 22.10.29 14.12.29 19.12.31 53 63 735 Died

Parkes (NSW) 12.10.29 19.12.30 31.01.31 19.12.31 43 476 322 Resigned

East Sydney (NSW) 12.10.29 05.02.31 07.03.31 19.12.31 30 511 287 Died

East Sydney (NSW) 19.12.31 15.01.32 06.02.32 15.09.34 22 49 952 Died

Flinders (Vic) 19.12.31 06.10.33 11.11.33 15.09.34 36 693 308 Resigned

Newcastle (NSW) 15.09.34 08.04.35 01.06.35 23.10.37 54 259 875 Died

Fawkner (Vic) 15.09.34 25.06.35 17.08.35 23.10.37 53 336 798 Died

Kennedy (Qld) 15.09.34 15.10.36 12.12.36 23.10.37 58 819 315 Died

Darling Downs (Qld) 15.09.34 06.11.36 19.12.36 23.10.37 43 826 308 Died

Gwydir (NSW) 15.09.34 28.03.37 08.05.37 23.10.37 41 966 168 Resigned

Wakefield (SA) 23.10.37 25.10.38 10.12.38 21.09.40 46 413 651 Died

Griffith (Qld) 23.10.37 28.03.39 20.05.39 21.09.40 53 574 490 Died

Wilmot (Tas) 23.10.37 07.04.39 27.05.39 21.09.40 50 581 483 Died

Corio (Vic) 23.10.37 30.01.40 02.03.40 21.09.40 32 861 203 Resigned

Kalgoorlie (WA) 21.09.40 02.10.40 16.11.40 21.08.43 45 56 1008 Died

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 51

Division

Previous

Election

Date

Vacated

By-election

date

Next

Election

Elapsed Time (days)

Reason

Vacated to

by-election

After

previous

election

Before next

election

Swan (WA) 21.09.40 15.11.40 21.12.40 21.08.43 36 91 973 Died

Boothby (SA) 21.09.40 23.04.41 24.05.41 21.08.43 31 245 819 Died

Fremantle (WA) 21.08.43 5.07.45 18.08.45 28.09.46 44 728 406 Died

Wimmera (Vic) 21.08.43 31.12.45 09.02.46 28.09.46 40 903 231 Resigned

Henty (Vic) 21.08.43 11.02.46 30.03.46 28.09.46 47 952 182 Resigned

Balaclava (Vic) 28.04.51 20.06.51 28.07.51 29.05.54 38 53 1036 Resigned

Macquarie (NSW) 28.04.51 13.06.51 28.07.51 29.05.54 45 46 1036 Died

Lyne (NSW) 28.04.51 28.01.52 22.03.52 29.05.54 54 275 798 Died

Flinders (Vic) 28.04.51 26.08.52 18.10.52 29.05.54 53 486 588 Died

Werriwa (NSW) 28.04.51 01.10.52 29.11.52 29.05.54 59 522 546 Died

Bradfield (NSW) 28.04.51 28.10.52 20.12.52 29.05.54 53 549 525 Died

Dalley (NSW) 28.04.51 21.03.53 09.05.53 29.05.54 49 693 385 Died

Corangamite (Vic) 28.04.51 10.06.53 29.08.53 29.05.54 80 774 273 Died

Lang (NSW) 28.04.51 13.07.53 29.08.53 29.05.54 47 807 273 Died

Gwydir (NSW) 28.04.51 15.11.53 19.12.53 29.05.54 34 932 161 Died

Cook (NSW) 29.05.54 26.03.55 21.05.55 10.12.55 56 301 203 Died

Cunningham (NSW) 10.12.55 17.02.56 11.04.56 22.11.58 54 69 955 Died

Barker (SA) 10.12.55 09.08.56 13.10.56 22.11.58 65 243 770 Died

Wentworth (NSW) 10.12.55 17.10.56 08.12.56 22.11.58 52 312 714 Resigned

Richmond (NSW) 10.12.55 12.07.57 14.09.57 22.11.58 64 580 434 Died

Parramatta (NSW) 10.12.55 10.02.58 08.03.58 22.11.58 26 793 259 Resigned

Hunter (NSW) 22.11.58 10.02.60 09.04.60 09.12.61 59 445 609 Resigned

La Trobe (Vic) 22.11.58 10.02.60 09.04.60 09.12.61 59 445 609 Resigned

Balaclava (Vic) 22.11.58 02.06.60 16.07.60 09.12.61 44 558 511 Resigned

Bendigo (Vic) 22.11.58 01.05.60 16.07.60 09.12.61 76 526 511 Died

Calare (NSW) 22.11.58 28.09.60 05.11.60 09.12.61 38 676 399 Resigned

Higinbotham (Vic) 22.11.58 16.10.60 10.12.60 09.12.61 55 694 364 Died

Batman (Vic) 09.12.61 21.07.62 01.09.62 30.11.63 42 224 455 Died

Grey (SA) 09.12.61 31.03.63 01.06.63 30.11.63 62 477 182 Died

East Sydney (NSW) 09.12.61 31.07.63 28.09.63 30.11.63 59 599 63 Died

Denison (Tas) 30.11.63 24.12.63 15.02.64 26.11.66 53 24 1015 Died

Angas (SA) 30.11.63 23.04.64 20.06.64 26.11.66 58 145 889 Resigned

Parramatta (NSW) 30.11.63 24.04.64 20.06.64 26.11.66 57 146 889 Resigned

Robertson (NSW) 30.11.63 30.09.64 05.12.64 26.11.66 66 305 721 Resigned

Riverina (NSW) 30.11.63 21.01.65 27.02.65 26.11.66 37 418 637 Resigned

Dawson (Qld) 30.11.63 09.01.66 26.02.66 26.11.66 48 771 273 Died

Kooyong (Vic) 30.11.63 17.02.66 02.04.66 26.11.66 44 810 238 Resigned

Corio (Vic) 26.11.66 10.06.67 22.07.67 25.10.69 42 196 826 Resigned

Capricornia (Qld) 26.11.66 02.08.67 30.09.67 25.10.69 59 249 756 Died

Higgins (Vic) 26.11.66 19.12.67 24.02.68 25.10.69 67 388 609 Presumed dead

Curtin (WA) 26.11.66 10.02.69 19.04.69 25.10.69 68 807 189 Resigned

Bendigo (Vic) 26.11.66 09.04.69 07.06.69 25.10.69 59 865 140 Resigned

Gwydir (NSW) 26.11.66 30.04.69 07.06.69 25.10.69 38 886 140 Resigned

Aust Cap Territory (ACT) 25.10.69 01.04.70 30.05.70 02.12.72 59 158 917 Died

Chisholm (Vic) 25.10.69 31.07.70 19.09.70 02.12.72 50 279 805 Died

Murray (Vic) 25.10.69 01.02.71 20.03.71 02.12.72 47 464 623 Resigned

Parramatta (NSW) 02.12.72 11.07.73 22.09.73 18.05.74 73 221 238 Resigned

Bass (Tas) 18.05.74 02.06.75 28.06.75 13.12.75 26 380 168 Resigned

Cunningham (NSW) 13.12.75 22.08.77 15.10.77 10.12.77 54 618 56 Died

Werriwa (NSW) 10.12.77 31.07.78 23.09.78 18.10.80 54 233 756 Resigned

Grayndler (NSW) 10.12.77 16.04.79 23.06.79 18.10.80 68 492 483 Died

Boothby (SA) 18.10.80 22.01.81 21.02.81 05.03.83 30 96 742 Resigned

Curtin (WA) 18.10.80 22.01.81 21.02.81 05.03.83 30 96 742 Resigned

McPherson (Qld) 18.10.80 07.01.81 21.02.81 05.03.83 45 81 742 Died

Wentworth (NSW) 18.10.80 17.02.81 11.04.81 05.03.83 53 122 693 Resigned

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 52

Division

Previous

Election

Date

Vacated

By-election

date

Next

Election

Elapsed Time (days)

Reason

Vacated to

by-election

After

previous

election

Before next

election

Lowe (NSW) 18.10.80 04.01.82 13.03.82 05.03.83 68 443 357 Resigned

Flinders (Vic) 18.10.80 22.10.82 04.12.82 05.03.83 43 734 91 Resigned

Wannon (Vic) 05.03.83 31.03.83 07.05.83 01.12.84 37 26 574 Resigned

Bruce (Vic) 05.03.83 21.04.83 28.05.83 01.12.84 37 47 553 Resigned

Moreton (Qld) 05.03.83 15.08.83 05.11.83 01.12.84 82 163 392 Resigned

Corangamite (Vic) 05.03.83 18.01.84 18.02.84 01.12.84 31 319 287 Resigned

Hughes (NSW) 05.03.83 19.12.83 18.02.84 01.12.84 61 289 287 Resigned

Richmond (NSW) 05.03.83 18.01.84 18.02.84 01.12.84 31 319 287 Resigned

Scullin (Vic) 01.12.84 20.12.85 08.02.86 11.07.87 50 384 518 Resigned

Adelaide (SA) 11.07.87 31.12.87 06.02.88 24.03.90 37 173 777 Resigned

Port Adelaide (SA) 11.07.87 08.02.88 26.03.88 24.03.90 47 212 728 Resigned

Groom (Qld) 11.07.87 29.02.88 09.04.88 24.03.90 40 233 714 Resigned

Oxley (Qld) 11.07.87 17.08.88 08.10.88 24.03.90 52 403 532 Resigned

Gwydir (NSW) 11.07.87 24.02.89 15.04.89 24.03.90 50 594 343 Resigned

Menzies (Vic) 24.03.90 25.02.91 11.05.91 13.03.93 75 338 672 Resigned

Wills (Vic) 24.03.90 20.02.92 11.04.92 13.03.93 51 698 336 Resigned

Werriwa (NSW) 13.03.93 22.12.93 29.01.94 02.03.96 38 284 763 Resigned

Fremantle (WA) 13.03.93 04.02.94 12.03.94 02.03.96 36 328 721 Resigned

Bonython (SA) 13.03.93 11.02.94 19.03.94 02.03.96 36 335 714 Resigned

Mackellar (NSW) 13.03.93 14.01.94 26.03.94 02.03.96 71 307 707 Resigned

Warringah (NSW) 13.03.93 18.02.94 26.03.94 02.03.96 36 342 707 Resigned

Kooyong (Vic) 13.03.93 17.09.94 19.11.94 02.03.96 63 553 469 Resigned

Canberra (ACT) 13.03.93 30.01.95 25.03.95 02.03.96 54 688 343 Resigned

Wentworth (NSW) 13.03.93 28.02.95 08.04.95 02.03.96 39 717 329 Resigned

Blaxland (NSW) 02.03.96 23.04.96 15.06.96 03.10.98 53 52 840 Resigned

Lindsay (NSW) 02.03.96 11.09.96 19.10.96 03.10.98 38 193 714 Election voided

Fraser (ACT) 02.03.96 06.12.96 01.02.97 03.10.98 57 279 609 Resigned

Holt (Vic) 03.10.98 30.09.99 06.11.99 10.11.01 37 362 735 Resigned

Isaacs (Vic) 03.10.98 14.06.00 12.08.00 10.11.01 59 620 455 Died

Ryan (Qld) 03.10.98 05.02.01 17.03.01 10.11.01 40 856 238 Resigned

Aston (Vic) 03.10.98 24.04.01 14.07.01 10.11.01 81 1015 119 Died

Cunningham (NSW) 10.11.01 16.08.02 19.10.02 09.10.04 64 279 721 Resigned

Werriwa (NSW) 09.10.04 21.01.05 19.03.05 24.11.07 57 161 980 Resigned

Gippsland (Vic) 24.11.07 09.04.08 28.06.08 21.08.10 80 217 784 Resigned

Lyne (NSW) 24.11.07 30.07.08 06.09.08 21.08.10 38 287 714 Resigned

Mayo (SA) 24.11.07 14.07.08 06.09.08 21.08.10 54 287 714 Resigned

Bradfield (NSW) 24.11.07 19.10.09 05.12.09 21.08.10 47 695 259 Resigned

Higgins (Vic) 24.11.07 19.10.09 05.12.09 21.08.10 47 695 259 Resigned

Griffith (Qld) 07.09.13 22.11.13 08.02.14 .. 78 154 .. Resigned

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 53

Appendix 5: Sources on by-elections in Australia General studies Australian Electoral Office, Commonwealth by-elections 1901-82, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1983.

Bennett S, Winning and losing: Australian national elections, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1996, pp. 67-70.

Economou N, ‘A new constituency or a glitch in the system? A note on recent AAFI federal by-election results’, People and Place, 2(2), 1994, pp. 30-35.

Economou N, ‘The trouble-maker’s ballot box? A note on the evolving role of the Australian federal by-election’, Australian Journal of Political Science, 34(2), July 1999, pp. 239-247.

Feigert F and Norris P, ‘Do by-elections constitute referenda? A four-country comparison,’ Legislative Studies Quarterly, 15(2), May 1990, pp. 183-200.

Feigert F and Norris P, ‘Government and third-party performance in mid-term by-elections: the Canadian, British and Australian experience’, Electoral Studies, 8(2), August 1989, pp. 117-130.

Goot M, Swings and roundabouts: New South Wales by-elections 1941 to 1986, Background paper 1987/1, New South Wales Parliamentary Library, Sydney, 1987.

Hull C, ‘By-elections: maybe it’s time to get by without’, The Canberra Times, 17 January 2002.

Mackerras M, ‘Shifting sands of by-elections’, The Canberra Times, 25 April 2001.

Steketee M, ‘Viable remedies for voter fatigue’, The Australian, 22 March 2001.

Case studies Commonwealth

Bennett S, The Cunningham by-election 2002, Research note, 18, 2002-03, Department of the Parliamentary Library, Canberra, 12 November 2002.

Burns C, Parties and people: a survey based on the La Trobe electorate, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1961.

Cahill D, ‘The rise and fall of the Australian Greens: the 2002 Cunningham by-election and its implications’, Australian Journal of Political Science, 43(2), June 2008, pp. 259-275.

Gratton M, ‘The Kooyong by-election, 1966’, Supplement to Politics, 1(2), November 1966.

Hughes CA, ‘The Capricornia by-election, 1967,’ Australian Quarterly, December 1967, pp. 7-20.

Hughes CA, ‘The Dawson by-election, 1966,’ Australian Journal of Politics and History, April 1966, pp. 12-23.

Kelly P, ‘Chapter 15: The battle for Bass’, The unmaking of Gough, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1994, pp. 193-202.

Mayer H and Rydon J, The Gwydir by-election 1953: a study in political conflict, Australian National University Social Science Monographs, Canberra, 1954.

State

Aitkin D, ‘The Liverpool Plains by-election’, APSA News, 6(3), August 1961.

May RJ, ‘ALP versus Communist: the Paddington-Waverley by-election’, APSA News, 6(2), May 1961.

House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 54

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House of Representatives by-elections 1901-2014 55